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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 


DEG EU ZINE: 


JAIN) WUILIIS ARETE IO) MUN INSU EN? 


DIMOR2 JOIN’ Esavis 


ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
ASW: GREELY: W J McGEE HENRY GANNETT 
C. HART MERRIAM ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE 


WOlL, IDS SOW AES NOEs 


WASHINGTON 
THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 
1898 


. 


“WASHINGTON, D.C. 
JUDD & DETWEILER PRINTERS 
1898 . 


CONTENTS 


Page 
Three Weeks in Hubbard Bay, West Greenland; by Roperr Srein. 1 
The Samoan Cocoanut; [A. W. GREELY]..................------e- 12 
The Modern Mississippi Problem; by W J McGrr................. 24 
Oinoneronabnade:-) [PEER vii GeANINHDT) (see) alee eiste ale aides ees ee ater 2 
The Presidency of the National Geographic Society. .............. 28 
Geographic Literature (Eleventh Annual Report of the Interstate 
CommenceyCommnulssion) ese ae ae eee see be esl eee 29 
Proceedings of the National Geographic Society................... 31 
VIR Sell ne cate eects merase! och pled Mev sea bata cclaiN ise sth es fee eal eka noua Sicuemark 32 
Gardiner Greene Hubbard; by Rev. Trunts S. Hamuin, D. D...... 33 
Gardiner Greene Hubbard, Memorial Meeting....... a eee ot 39 
Proceedings of the National Geographic Society .................. 70 


Geographic Literature (Stanford’s Compendium of Geography and 
Travel. North America, Vol. I, Canada and Newfoundland, 


DAWSON) siete ra eh bare state sil cts eaten MeN An Cuan eegan SOUS PIES Mena oe ly i 
Geoora CHIN OF ES Ay sepsis SNS ALN Wists eek nanan suiearers bey a drtct ates 72 
Dwellings of the Saga-time in Iceland, ‘Gueenlendl, eal anelanal by 

CorNeL_IA Horsrorp.......... GU es asain eee Bea crs eo ha eae ats is 
Completion ofithedta Boca ockt: iy seem Wy coe ee ner eee 84 
Two Hundred Miles up the Kuskokwim ; by CHartEs Haunock.... 86 
The Mt St Elias Expedition of Prince Luigi Amadeo of Savoy ; [Enrza 

IEVUEVANEAHE: S CED MORE [Bats chest ytiecs vos Gualn el owe slogs aislicren fishes 3 
The Origin of the French Canadians......... .......5.......0.05- 96 
The Height of Mt Rainier; by RicHArp U. Goopu................ 97 
Geographic Work by the Bureau of American Ethnology; [W J 

IM IGKE ToT oH heraideatee trates ira ak aceastn tar PMN hie ety a td Lr er i ee Te Aes RN a 98 
A Relic of the Lewis and Clarke Expedition; by Cyrus C. Bass... 100 
An Interesting Rumor Concerning Andrée; [JoHN Hypr]..-...... 102 
Geographic Names in West Greenland; by Raupn S. Tarr........ 108 
Proceedings of the National Geographic Society.................... 104 
The Northwest Passes to the Yukon; by Exriza RuHAMAH ScipMorE. 105 
Overland Routes to the Klondike; by Hamuin GARLAND.... ...... 1s 
The Future of the Yukon Gold Fields; by Wintiam H. Datu...... 117 
Notes on the Wild Fowl and (Saumne Animals of Alaska; by E. W. 

DINGHIES ON Pees cr evens Pet etnare tonsire ls a meh geben ee atia! shay eu eU te uel uel aes REMY aes onal 121 
Climatic Conditions of Alaska; by A. W. GREELY................. 132 
A Yukon Pioneer, Mike Lebarge; by Wiurram H. DALt........... 137 
Alaska and its Mineral Resources; by SamurL FRANKLIN EmmMons.. 139 
The Civil Government of Alaska; by Grorar C. PERKINS.......... 172 
Some of the Conditions and Possibilities of Agriculture in Alaska; 

DWAR AAT Elie HU NGAGNS \252 royss opeyshetepianetevatevarcZahulicnes caves als « Gievalelars aaa weyaens 178 
The Metlakatla Mission in Danger; by WinuiAm H. Datun..... .... 187 
Agriculture in the Yukon Valley ; [SHELDON JACKSON]. ........... 189 


iv CONTENTS 
Page 
On Eskimo Geographic Names Ending in miut; by Jonn Murpocnr. 190 
Geographic Literature (Geographical and Statistical Notes on Mexico, 
Romero; Report to Congress on Agriculture in Alaska, including 
reports of Evans, Killin and Jackson; Rand, McNally & Co.’s 
Maps of Alaska; Golden Alaska, Ingersoll; The Golden North, 


DULUTH DE) icestnts Daca eer aenS Eater Mehatee een aiae Peete hs tak Saks SMe 191 
@ubaraby SRoBeRT Eo Mime io) keel e dene SE eee ea Eee 193 
MhesPloridar Coastline Canals sa5 4:6 ssc ae entantey (Oa 
The Origin of West India Bird Life; by MANE M. CHAPMAN. a2) 243 
Trade of the United States with Cuba Vorrowlehvpmicackscasoocdne 2M 
Captain Charles D. Sigsbee, U. 8. N.; [HEnry Gasman] BAAN rc eres oe 250 
Reception to Captain C. D. Sigsbee, U. SON (orem Etsvan Blister 251 


Geographic Literature (Rand-McNally War Atlas; Bulletin of De- 
partment of Labor, No. 16; Statistical Abstract of the United 
States, 1897; Ninth Annual Report on the Statistics of Railways 


in the United States, 1895-1896)...... Ne Be anh ee een rece nae 203 
Geocraphics Serials vv. us: 0 aes pene ys eae ees be eae ge een erage ae 256 
The Philippine Islands; by F. F. uma REE a ya GR ES eee ke le ab ee sepa ata 257 
Notes on Some Pramas Philippine Tribes; by Drax C. WorcrstER. 284 
Commerce of the Philippine Islands; [Jonn Hypr]............... 301 
The Disposition of the Philippines; [CHarues E. Howe]........... 304 
American Geographic Education; by W J McGue........ ......... 305 
Origin of the Physical Features of the United States; by G. K. 

GUIBERT S35 Sec oskc oan ats ghana jc gee TOR IE PRC aan Soca nt npr e mee 308 


Geographic Development of the District of Columbia; by W J McGrmn. 317 
The Historical Development of the National Capital; by Marcus 


D BY 5012 ee ae Ste ae A es Peat ETA eer en el Ur nce bay Pacman occas oe 323 
Geographic Work opine General Government; by Henry GANNErT. 329 
The Geologic Atlas of the United States ; rw Jp McGnnilanerie-care 339 
The Topographic Atlas of the United States; [W J McGur]........ 343 
Paparoueriass: DyaW. IuMICGEE aa.) janie eee ee see eae Ce 345 
Gomez and the New York Gulf; [L. D. Scisco].................. . o@1 
Wellman Polar Expedition [Jonn -ElymEl|-ssoeae eee eee eee 3738 
Proceedings of the National Geographic Society .................. 379 
The Growth of the United States; by W J McGuen................. 378 
Bitter Root Forest Reserve; by Ricnarp U. GoopE............ 500 BOM 
Atlantic Estuarine Tides; by Mark S. W. JuFFERSON............... 400 
The Forest Conditions and Standing Timber of the State of Wash- 

mMeton by LENRY (GANNETT) 1... eae nen eat meee erate ete 410 
American Association for the Advancement of Science [Joun Hype]. 412 
Proceedings of the National Geographic Society. ..........++..+++- 414 
ATMenadments toy Bylaws oenc coe 4 beeen: aCe eene ee So viciot Gales 
Water Clrelani’ by eblENiuva GuANINI TT eco rs eso aie eine eee eet 417 
Bredericawe kutnan JOHN EiaD 0] pee senor econ eee noreoe 429 
MesaiVerde by be Ei Nie wititie s1.% sien ciacathearic tae eRe ree 431 
TheiGeospheres, by Wi Ji McoGum). oak sons: eee Ck a eee 435 
Proposed Collection of Forestry Statistics. 5 2.) 52.8.4. uel 448 


NGISCel areas eae te a etshe TLE edt bag SERN ELE ea ee ae ...- 448 


CONTENTS Vv 


Page 
Sumatra’s West Coast; by Davip G. FArRcHILD............ ....--- 449 
What is the Tide of the Open Atlantic? by Mark 8. W. JEFFErson.. 465 
MUR Cale one liba mle accra chur even Rls ye bsyiele ow acl Susie came STalare cima ore 476 
Geographic Aspects of the Monroe Doctrine....................... 476 
Geographic Literature (The Louisiana Purchase and our Title West 
of the Rocky Mountains, Hermann; The State, Wilson)... ... 477 
Min SGellam enemas sox satires eine Cad cesta srevans sistema Nos uo ve/ Aiaval 480 
The Five Civilized Tribes and the Survey of Indian Territory ; by : 
Oy DEUS TRIGUONE i ol slayer UNI Statens Nahar) ANE aed Meer UOC eas Nari meee UR 481 
Cloud Scenery of the High Plains; by Wiruarp D. JoHNson..... . 493 
Atlantic Coast Tides; by Mark S. W. JEFFERSON.................. 497 
President Alexander Graham Bell on Japan [JOHN Rape) Shay siea sue 509 


Geographic Literature (Cuba and Porto Rico with the Other Islands 
of the West Indies, R. T. Hill; Railway Economics, Newcomb ; 
The Philippine Islands and Their People, Worcester; Volcanoes 
Or INOmiIn Amnerai@n, IRDSSA)) oo scocucseocuaadeodnesonsooooneaue 512 
Proceedings of the National Geographic Society.................04- 519 


ILLUSTRATIONS 


Page 
View from Hoyt island looking across Hunton strait to Holm island 


(OLE et esr eS eS SURREAL eR PONE eGR CU NE I Side 1 
Vegetation on south slope of Telos island, August 15, 1897 (pl. 1).. i 
Plan of Arctic exploration from a base near Jones sound or at Gare 

SOUOUING Beiter tart ins renee eet cammanahe ls arcane cern oeaMoaat tian aNeean LR il a ae 2 
Hubbard bay and Alison bay, west Greenland..... .... .......... 3 
Grestawithsbowlders) Eloy aslamdeip-e recuse eee eet rens tr oo rele eneterie by) 
Cairn built by Lieut. Ryder in 1887 on Inugsulik “clara ay Sraeanene eRe 6 
Soil crack behind ancient Eskimo igloo, Richardson island, Hubbard 

GEMNGs co Poe sH OU -CAOGO TS OOO OMA OSC MESS CU OOOO pO (Oe aald ooo 8 
HiskimogtammilhyaatgW imam a keey es ei) eres easier ste ere ere etree Bastiat Snir @) 
Gardiner Greener bards(pla2)eemaes arias ciciaa tetera se leaie 33 
mMlexanden Graham belle (jolss)\re casera Sey Seka hares eas renee a) 
SU MOSeCl lida ees Or? ILebe MAM RsOMN.soagsoeocdsouusdeoadcHooooaase oS 
Wenriicalisectioniofgantapartinent mmm cn ser ie ccie ep et irae n ceric 75 
RUIN Olpeaganece mpl ena tell yelp server y iene cheat jens ey tote cee ase 76 
Plan of the house of Erik the Red in Haukadale.................. Ue 
INMIO-OF Seyangstexchie mn labore, Gos scold do cas ess se godond 405% 77 
Wallsitotea Norse ruiniin: Greenlandic werent rae) cr chee oegatrter: 79 
ARVO? QING AS ion thn Creeeynlennelsagoacscs6 os 6 Gaokecccsuncds 79 
Supposed site of the house of Erik the Red in Greenieiad cence ene 80 
Supposed Norse ruin in Massachusetts.............-..-- are is eaten 81 
SupposedeNorse nina Mascachusettsse een nner ence eee reer 82 
Kuskokwim river from Kolmakovsky............- ser Vitae ates fale 5 SD 
Bramestorednyinevtishie cru panaccs se ee rae erin rari) oko ee oh 
Bidarkas (skin canoes) on the lower Kuskokwim........... Tareas 88 
Mumitrekhlagamute..:5.-.-5.---.- 3- aA eyed anCN BI ice eee me aed ee A 89 
Kel akOwvs keycors eas ae trseatecien see epee se estate mete) Sided caatade rata cemeyea semaine 90 
JAS NO GMCS So cocooduboccocdseooovose coco sabodDoDeGaO. 92 
he cold andicoalstreldsioteAlaskal: (oly) Pema ise el ical 105 
Chilkoot pass—Yukoners approaching summit............ ..-..--- 106 
Skagway cafion—Yukoners en route....... ....4 «2.0. sees eee. 109 
View from Dalton trail, between Dalton’s post and Hootchi ‘lke. Poe Ila 
Wiley iiroun rose IDENTSOM GIR. ogc55cb00020c6n0000000 songabQ00b00 114 
Harlequin duck, king eider, spectacled eider, and Steller’s eider.... 122 
IDM NSO oo sao sooaseunomaesndooooedsopeL  obvaeed 50.090 123 
REVI oes laos seabodsocoe burn Aeon Goes ouundodd cposomoaacgaas 124 
[BERGHEI PROIDINGL CAVAN NO . cocssccasunsedecuoacdcoroon osacangpnaDenan 125 
Valls mountainisheepaeece cette es ere eet tiara toler e ratte 128 
Joi Enel oerhee eA Ue Bencooddnods se acapocatobdosmascben dud Mo msadans 129 
Mike Lebarge::e ees creer emer coy irene mr ae rs tot er une gal 138 
View of Eldorado erga a branch of the Klondike............. ... 144 
SSihespenpimcose \MNuies Oey otacdatesnnabo0do00d Hoaoduranncuen OO e0% 148 
pane Of Chilkoob passin wise eee ey te eee eee Charlee eked sto keto eaete 151 

D. Sigsbee, Captain U.S. Navy (pl. 5)............22.-+.+-+0 sve, 193 


(vi) 


ILLUSTRATIONS vil 


Page 
Entrance to Habana harbor, looking outward....................-. 195 
Camitiauinann@in Ors Ome te Gris sere Gon oor Herc Laten hin erie canna . 197 
Elevated north coast of Cuba between Habana and Matanzas....... 198 
Coast topography east of Santiago de Cuba................. ames 200 
Geologic section by V. Pellitero across east end of Cuba............ 201 
Mountains rising out of central plain, south of Matanzas........... 203 _ 
Geologic section across the central liniestone plains from Habana to 
J BYERS OR MST Ola a =i5 4 Ss ek eRe UE Se Ca eee Ue a eee Sant ee aT 205 
SCCHOMPALMIDALACO Amr yee ater mie pclae ae teinie tae pietaishalel Mug A) waayarer sco Kuselan 206 
CGeolocicmmapotthenslandkot Cubamas.pegos- aod ne wee. sin AUC 
Mouth of the Yumuri of the east, near Baracoa.................... 208 
Nation ot © ually ars (OURO) iy seer, ei cene) vets cstalieroncrarstrawstah apepeeeiavanelcns woeld iardyp\ondaleraeet 209 
Avenue of palms on sugar estate, Matanzas........................ 210 
My MICA a plain eecentrale@ water ey cissiea yeep eile = aiayatetcye ys taiaircicre ee valet 213 
Geolocvoh Mataibaysractyplcal, hanboreane reach oi yasteeii ire) s es cae 216 
Vira AMZ ASR OA ctnsteats sparen Mites Snr sharscceate a sua apenaseis ver ayeiers oevseia seeps eetaxe vile ZY) 
WinimiZns loeny Erno! NGan IA, We hae Oe Seo cca s gu amacon Otic pea aen ere 
Baracoa, Cuba, the oldest American city.... ...................... 223 
Old fortification at entrance of Santiago de Cuba................... 225 
Yumuri cafion, back of Matanzas city. ...................0.00.00- 228 
Village between Habana and Matanzas...-..................- «... 231 
Spanish strongholds, Cuba Libre, devastated Cuba, and Cuban out- 
JOCKS coulgo) /suralaiold clo nny cluldjag aco oe scion ater cerois core morte eee 234 
rep yumuninvaliiey.enean Matanzas sneer silacic seeeinecn ners ae 237 
Cape Mayci, eastern point of Cuba.............. Han eRe e MMC SNL 242 
Ortskeonpsvot aml ay (ole rayon ciscrsae cease re lese rehanstelerieassereausutciere aear 7: 
EO OL WE lelonllijay gene) WIENER eodn ner boot Goons uobonbodubdas tad 258 
New cathedral at Manila, with ruined tower of old structure....... 260 
Dryins suear at atactory—lsland of Muzony- 452.22). 2.4-1.- 2 .. 266 
(Civals nga Geen ows pa obodabocsoosd soon loeb senses tae SL aeons 268 
Native agriculture of Philippine islands......... A en esi aie PON ee 269 
Chariot Manilawbay. cae oes teicls ets: at eee, Ae Re Saas bye) 
Nal tiivienvalilncerotwAll Davis sre spacial cea siet dies sicond ec Wot raya iets aM ne allan aun Neale 276 
SPAMisheonnincanonsmedrs Mamie. +2 Merrie cre tej ie nan meena ee 277 
The Escolta—main business street of Manila. ..................... 279 
Wernvambests irae seca mul ey aye uss) uarOnesn online ola a peduia tenets ate or ic(eanatea erispas 279 
IS GAVAMIOS » aid Bate Helos a eae ic er Ane els AA oR ALAS. Marans ey 7c SA rt Me em anh 281 
Church, convento, and watch tower—Dumaguete, Negros island.... 285 
PEACALCOMMOUSE: WIN OO sere hice «ssie rn ciate ole, rephoce icine «tolevs wicteretse sprain tree 286 
Mangyan group, with house—Mt Halcon, Mimdoro................ 287 
Married Mangyan woman, showing typical costume... ............. 289 
Unmarried Mangyan girls, showing typical costume................ 290 
Native sail-boat, mangrove swamp in background..........., ..... 291 
MEA ONS tOREMOUSE TOR OPATM es yy rectal Wut Waist, unos einjeletereks tears aie 293 
ADO eA INNL ARIA] CMe aetsnc ep Ce esr: ts paraiitas Ai uate coe tetiars, wlan aye carte enable anal econ 296 
RAC MAM MN VOUM samo ClHULGIeM = noite eugene sees ecise eeacic' eislie eine wets 297 
iSayAMeM Aablvyey am GalvOUSEHe ajo ersarssicretsve sisvel ceig eve slsvoue tis hvelcicimyomtaues 299 
Oldkfontnvathechunrehwimsid ed cis << ce sea velels clisvelelaie sie eevee sine re evaey: 301 


Miememinedustates im Kelet (Wl. 8) iso <Ststsin se. tae aieleieseins ee oleae ey > oles 310 


viil ILLUSTRATIONS 


The southern part of the prehistoric Canadian ice-sheet (pl. 9) .... 314 
View from ‘* Hole in the Mountain,’’ near Tempe, Arizona (pl. 10).. 345 


Cienega: Mexican-Indian village of Papagueria...:...........-- . 346 
Baboquirera peak, seen from Fresnal........ ........+eceeeeeeee- . 348 
Rio Seco: A typical sandwash of Papagueria..............-.-.---.« Bo 
Coyote mBapaco,vallacet ease connie eee Se eras 5 0 399 
Therchiefsshouse;,Bresnallnags.c toc oon Soe eRe Eee 309 
Dy picall Papago House 5.5 0-75 tenets freee oe Ao cera eee cee eee - 362 
iRosomVierderPapacomvlllacesees heme ane So MOOR ES OO-O CC 366 
Rotheryemalkers) atawoukeinetiyo1calul Owen el eisci eerie een er eet 369 
Crest ofeBittersRootymoumbains) (poles) aepee seis akc ae 377 
Diagram illustrating growth of the United States.................. 380 
Viel Owain = GrOves ee gt heres oles AEE CTS Ce 390 
Wedaraforest on Mooseicreékis.c) ys oa eee eee boo oS 
Map ot thevBitter Root forest reserve) (plil2) ery. ae locate . 394 
IB UPN G SLORES U4 Seaver cry a aonsaeiatae 52 da ierehatan a et eeu eee trp etre tiey a eee 397 
Subalpine fir thicket and meadow on Mussel Shell creek........ Foo ce Os) 
Mire Delaware: wiv eM ek. es esaiisja de wavs Sie epee cae mew ee ates Gee) axe ANC SU oem eR 401 
iidalshours mathe Chesapeake: “Aegean cece ec eee 408 
Diacramiot rances ot Chesapeakentidest p> sea asec eee ene ee 404 
IE eWeeBuaitme ne Gplsl'3)) Pein ureto xd wpevstey che teatcece ai ices en stone eters eee 417 
Map of Lake Chelan and vicinity, State of Washington...... ..... 418 
Bake: ChelanvatithemNarrowss ses ee oe eee en Gee 420 
Wiestisidevof Eorseshoesbasinun sas -acese ee sae oa Cece ee 421 
Cascade;passianduan|piithea tent e aries ee eee eee Pees te 429 
(Crormeann iN os coc Seucnosun as ee ON tne RT IN gc OAE. 0.010 5 423 
Stehekin valley, at the mouth of Company creek...... ......... . 425 
Mountains bordering on Lake Chelan................ PSs nares 427 
Ly pical view trom a) boat on Wake! Chelan se. sete i eee ee 428 
OnitheiwestcoastofeSumatra.. er oer cee toe er Eee note 450 
Court-house near Padang Pandjang, Sumatra... ................-. 452 
Hotel aijkadansseandjane, Sumatran eect re reece eee 454 
Sumatran dwelling-house, showing bamboo wicker-work. .... .... 465 
Sumatran brideiand sroom . 2.- .1. Ss eoee en eee eee emeane 
Row of Sumatran houses near Fort de Kock. ..................-.. 458 
Sumatran messigit, or temple, near Pajo Kombo..................- 460 
Sumatran messigit, or temple, with priest in foreground ........... 461 
Diasramslinstratmoercopidalaliness asesneeee ee nec eee 468-471 
Diacram\of Indian: Territory). 224: <2 oe eee ee hee eee 482 
Avstreet in South’ McAlester, Indian’ Mexpitony~ ee ee 484 
Indian light-horsemen on scout duty for horse thieves............. 486 
Choctawacabins indian Memitony) cece eee eee oe eeee 489 
Campofa U.S. G.S. surveying party near Ardmore, Indian Territory. 491 
Normalyappearancelofathe hichyplainss esl eee ener recite eee 492 
Gloudiscenery, ofthe hich plains(pliia\e es eens ee eee eer 495 
Cloud scenery of the high plains (pl. 15). 2.5. 1. + eee eee 496 
Diacram illustrating Atlantic coast tides.s) -.3e ac 0e see eee 498 
Cotidalsiixom St wJonns, Newtoundlande... 4. eee een nee eee 502 


Tidal hours from No Mans Land in Long Island sound..........+.. 506 


Magazine 


AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY 


Editor: JOHN HYDE 


' Associate Editors 


A. Ww. GREELY | W J McGEE ~— HENRY GANNETT 
: c. HART MERRIAM ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE 


| CONTENTS: 


ae WEEKS IN HUBBARD BAY, Rh ata eierope ate soonest 
- oe maps and illustrations. — : ROBERT STEIN 


; WasHnGndN 
Z PUBLISHED BY THE ase eae GEOGRAPHIC, SOCIETY 


M4 * 
} >, 


THE 


National Geographic BOCLeuy 


ORGANIZED, JANUARY, 1888 


PRESIDENT 


ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL 


V 1cE- PRESIDENTS 


MARCUS BAKER . A. W. GREELY 

WILLIAM H. DALL C. HART MERRIAM 

G. K. GILBERT - HERBERT G. OGDEN: 
TREASURER 


HENRY GANNETT 


RECORDING SECRETARY CORRESPONDING SECRETARY 


F. H. NEWELL ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE. ==- 
_ Manacnrs 
CHARLES J. BELL EVERETT HAYDEN 
H. F. BLOUNT JOHN HYDE 
EP YY. COVILLE W J McGEE 


DAVID T. DAY W. B. POWELL 


SECRETARY’S OFFICE 
Room 55, Ohio Bank Building, Twelfth and G Sts. N.W., Washington — 


The National Geographic Society, the object of which is the increase and diffusion 
of geographic knowledge, has a paying membership of 1,500. Its membership is not 
restricted to practical geographers, but is open to any person in good standing who may 
be sufficiently interested in its work to seek admission. The annual subscription is: for 
active members, $5.00 per annum ; for corresponding members, $2.00 per annum, Active 
members pay also an entrance fee of $2.00 on election. Tas Natrona GrogrRapHic 
Maeazine is sent regularly to all members, both active and corresponding. 


Donations for the founding of Prize Medals and Scholarships are 
respectfully solicited. 


NAT. GEOG. MAG. VOL. IX, 1898, PL. 1 


5 


a 6 Cc 
VIEW FROM HOYT ISLAND, LOOKING ACROSS HUNTON STRAIT TO HOLM ISLAND 


Mounts McGee (a), Langley (b), and Powell (c) 


VEGETATION ON SOUTH SLOPE OF HOYT ISLAND, AUGUST 15, 1897 


National Geographic Magazine 


Vou. 1X JANUARY, 1898 No. 1 


TAREE WEEKS IN HUBBARD BAY, WEST GREENLAND 


By Ropert STEIN, 


United States Geological Survey 


In 1893 I published a plan of Arctic exploration from a base 
near Jones sound, proposing first to trace the west coast of Elles- 
mere land and afterward to explore the triangle between Elles- 
mere and Grinnell lands on the east and the Parry islands on 
the south. That field was declared by General Greely to be the 
one in all the Arctic “that promises the largest results with the 
least amount of labor and danger.” Lieut. Julius von Payer de- 
clared that the spot selected for the base was “ the most suitable ” 
and the plan “thus far the best imaginable.”” Numerous weighty 
authorities concurred in this opinion, especially Lieut. Peary, who 
called the plan “ one of the safest, most promising, and cheapest, 
avoiding hurry, and permitting the utilization of experience.” 
As now planned, the expedition would cost $5,000. 

Failing to secure the requisite funds, I decided, by Lieut. 
Peary’s advice, to undertake a preliminary trip to Greenland in 
order to gain the experience in Arctic exploration which in his 
opinion would be of most essential service in securing financial 
support. . Through the kind assistance of the late Hon. Gardiner 
G. Hubbard, President of the National Geographic Society, as 
well as of Major J. W. Powell, Director of the Bureau of Amer- 
ican Hthnology; Prof. 8. P. Langley, Secretary of the Smithso- 
nian Institution, and Mr C. D. Walcott, Director of the U.S. 
Geological Survey and of the National Museum, I was enabled 
to take advantage of Lieut. Peary’s invitation to accompany him 


2 THREE WEEKS IN HUBBARD BAY 


on his seventh Greenland voyage, in the summer of 1897, to spend 
three weeks in exploration in an interesting field. 

Lieut. Ryder, of the Danish navy, explored in 1887 the bay 
north of Wilcox head (which I have called Hubbard bay), and 
there found numerous Eskimo remains. ‘The present Eskimos 
of Upernivik and Tasiusak never until the spring of 1897 ex- 


PLAN OF ARCTIC EXPLORATION FROM A BASE NEAR JONES SOUND OR Al’ CAPE SABINE ; 


tended their hunting trips beyond the great rookery of Cape 
Shackleton, while the Cape York tribe, according to Lieut. Peary, 
never go farther south than Melville Monument. ‘This leaves a 
gap of 140 miles. Inspector Ohlsen, at Upernivik (to whom I 
am much indebted for valuable assistance) told me that the 
Eskimos of that colony had a tradition that their ancestors used 
to go hunting near Wilcox head, but ceased to do so about 200 


THREE WEEKS IN HUBBARD BAY 


os 


HUBBARD BAY 
AND 
ALISON BAY 
WEST GREENLAND 


Nunataks South of 74°30 after C.H.Ryder 


North » » » » J.A.BjSrling 
Heights in feet 


et 


DeGeer Islands 


DRS 


AZ 
7S 
(e) 
YWa 


2 
Washington ls. al 


word Worse? 


v 


CapeMalm 


C.Newcomb 


Se 


HUBBARD 


BAY 


Winte Islands 


do0e, 


oe 


ge 
ese Is, 
rson 


years ago, so far as he can estimate. How much farther north 
they had gone he could not tell. Thus the remains found by 
Ryder were of unusual interest, as representing a stage when the 
race was unaffected by civilization, except, perhaps, that of the 


“ 


4 THREE WEEKS IN HUBBARD BAY 


early Norsemen. To collect such remains was my main object. 
As Lieut. Ryder sent a collection to the Ethnographic Museum 
at Copenhagen, I feared that nothing of note would be left at the 
sites he had touched, and therefore asked Mr Peary to land me 
at Cape Malm, the north end of Hubbard bay. 

With three Eskimos from Upernivik, I was landed on August 
10 on a headland supposed to be Cape Malm, the dense fog pre- 
venting accurate orientation.. From the top I perceived next 
morning that I was on the island next south (which I have called 
Hoyt island), separated from Cape Malm by a channel five miles 
wide, filled with icebergs. As soon as the fog had lifted I pre- 
pared to row over to Cape Malm, but when we reached the west 
end of Hoyt island and saw before us the wild chaos of rapidly 
moving icebergs, the Eskimos, thoroughly frightened, refused to 
row farther, even for triple pay. Lieut. Peary had urged me to 
listen to the Eskimos’ advice in regard to ice and wind, and I 
recognized that under no circumstances must I fail to keep my 
appointment to meet him on September 1, because such failure 
would subject him to the inconvenience of having to search for 
me in those unknown and ill-reputed waters of Melville bay. 
Accordingly, after ten minutes’ parley, finding that their appre- 
hensions were real, I turned back. 

I now decided to make a thorough exploration of Hoyt island 
as the type of a group. The island consists of four mountain 
masses, the highest about J,000 feet, separated by deep valleys. 
Except on the storm-beaten western peninsula, which seemed 
entirely bare, the southern slopes, where not too near the per- 
pendicular or too smoothly glaciated, are covered with the ordi- 
nary Arctic vegetation, blueberries, crowberries, grasses, heather, 
poppy, dwarf willow, dwarf birch, and an abundance of moss, 
forming carpets into which the foot sank up totheankle. Every- 
where the sod was sliding down in great, black, wavy avalanches, 
held together by the tough, peaty fiber, so that plants were often 
seen growing from vertical or even overhanging surfaces. The 
summits and the north flank, a succession of nearly vertical 
cliffs, are almost entirely bare of vegetation. In the shadow of 
many cliffs lay long snow banks (aput), hard as ice, offering con- 
siderable resistance to the knife, yet evidently not of many years’ 
growth, since a hollow space beneath them bore witness to active 
melting. The tinkle of little streams could be heard in many 
places, but only at one point was there a watercourse sufficiently 
definite to be called a brook. Thesummits and sides, where not 


THREE WEEKS IN HUBBARD BAY 5 


CREST WITH BOWLDERS, HOYT ISLAND 


too steep, were strewn with glacial bowlders, different from the 
bed-rock, though eruptive, with the exception of three conglom- 
erates. Glacial striee were seen on the northeast summit. The 
whole island is seamed by frost fissures. Many of the projecting 
pinnacles are weathered into fantastic forms and surrounded by 
a conical talus of glittering rhombic crystals. In many places 
the talus formation was so active as to overwhelm the vegetation. 
Nine freshwater lakes, the largest about 30 acres in extent, were 
seen, some in the valleys, others on the level summits. They 
were the favorite resort of the red-throated diver, always seen in 
pairs, but no other life was observed in them. ‘The life in the 
sea was exceedingly abundant. Seals were seen nearly every 
day ; eider ducks (mvttek) in long lines, each numbering perhaps 
five hundred, were paddling over the water with rhythmiccackle ; 
_each cove was alive with little auks (serpak), handsome in their 
coat of black, white, and red, their thin, piping voices seeming 
curiously out of proportion to the size of the bird. The air 
was alive with gulls and terns. Wherever the depth of water 
permitted, the bottom could be seen completely covered with 
vegetation. Long strings of kelp, when drawn out of the water, 
were found to harbor quite a fauna of crustaceans and mollusks. 
A piece of bone thrown into the water would be covered with 


6 THREE WEEKS IN HUBBARD BAY 


shrimps in a few moments. No reindeer were seen, but shed 
antlers testified to their occasional visits. The snow bunting 
and ptarmigan found abundant food in the blueberries and crow- 
berries. The blueberry bushes were fairly alive with little black 
spiders. Several specimens of a hairy caterpillar and of a large 
fly were secured. Bears had left records of their visits in numer- 
ous seal bones, but were not seen, having gone away with the 
floe-ice. 

The same description applies to most of the land in the vicin- 
ity. On Inugsulik, the island next east, I found the cairn mark- 
ing Ryder’s farthest north. Great volcanic fissures, 20 to 100 
feet wide, between vertical walls, traverse that island in all direc- 
tions. Being for the most part level-floored, they afford easy 
thoroughfares for travel. The level floor is evidently due to 
glacial action, being formed of débris, sometimes angular, some- 
times rolled so as to resemble a collection of cannon balls. Suc- 
cessive terminal moraines have converted several of these ave- 
nues into stairways. Though much higher than Hoyt island, 
Inugsulik’s summit also is bowlder-strewn. A brook dashes 
down its west side, large enough to be impassable near its 
mouth. 


CAIRN BUILT BY LIEU. RYDER IN 1887 TO MARK HIS FARTHEST NORTH ON INUGSULIK 
ISLAND. MOUNT OPERIIT IN THE DISTANCE ON THE RIGHT 


\,, aden 


THREE WEEKS IN HUBBARD BAY 7 


Both from Hoyt island and from Inugsulik I had a full view 
of the inland ice of Greenland, extending as a white band along 
the eastern sky and discharging through the magnificent Hearst 
glacier, with a front of 15 miles, casting off enormous icebergs, 
which completely blocked Henderson bay and came slowly 
trooping down in a stately procession to join the great muster of 
their fellows in Baffin bay. Far above the glacier, a nunatak, 
Mount Pepper, lifted its black head out of the inland ice. Long 
crevasses on each side showed that the peak was part of a pre- 
cipitous wall, over which the ice dropped in a cascade several 
miles long. 

On White island, in the center of Hubbard bay, I found at 
last the main object of my quest—Hskimo remains. There were 
two houses beside a little lake on a low rocky spur projecting 
westward, but the main: settlement was on the east side, in a 
most picturesque site, conspicuous afar by the vivid green of the 
abundant vegetation. Like the Carthaginians, these ancient 


-Innuits had an outer and an inner harbor, separated by a ledge 


of rocks, over which the tide flowed in and out. The inner 
harbor was elliptic in outline and about 50 acres in extent. A 
long knife-edge of rock protected the bays on the south, and so 
high were the ridges and so deep the bays that the water must 
remain unruffled in the fiercest storms, unless they come directly 
from the east. On a level space between the two bays was the 
settlement, a dozen houses, with graves scattered in among them 
and along the foot of the hills. Directly behind was a fresh- 
water lake, brown with decaying matter, but a second and larger 
lake, some 80 feet higher, was clear and pure. A few graves 
were also found on the south side. Stone fox-traps were scat- 
tered all over the island. The eyes of my Eskimos beamed with 
delight, for to them the snug harbor, the easy landing, the low, 
level plateau, the freshwater lake within a stone’s throw, in the 
midst of such abundance of animal life, must have seemed a 
paradise. Where the wave beat had exposed a section of the soil 
it was seen to consist of a black mass, thickly interlarded with 
bones of whale, walrus, narwhal, and seal. Evidently the gar- 
bage question had not begun to vex the minds of these ancients. 
So far as I could judge, the houses and graves had remained un- 
touched since their builders departed, though Ryder mentions 
remains on that island. The roofs had fallen in and the rich 
humus had given rise to a rank vegetation of grass and moss, 
which had deeply buried the houses,so that some of them could 


(oe) 


THREE WEEKS IN HUBBARD BAY 


SOIL CRACK BEHIND ANCIENT ESKIMO IGLOO, RICHARDSON ISLAND, HUBBARD BAY 


only be traced by the quadrangular swellings of the sod. To 
my disappointment, the bones in the graves were all confusedly 
jumbled together, so that it was impossible to make out a com- 
plete skeleton. As each grave contained several skulls, the dis- 
order was doubtless due to the fact that the bones of earlier 
skeletons had been moved aside to make room for new arrivals. 
While I was engaged in the task of spoliation the fog turned 
into rain, converting the mold into a slimy paste, in which frag-~ 
ments of decayed bones or other material could no longer be 
distinguished. Fearing to spoil the material of a future and 
better equipped expedition, which the locality richly deserves, 
I decided to content myself with the spoils of two graves. 

On Richardson island, one of the two low islands south of 
White island, the graves had been opened, probably by whalers, 
and the bones scattered about. Of two houses at the water’s 
edge, all but the back wall had been washed away. I was at 
first disposed to attribute this to subsidence, but wide and deep 
cracks in the soil showed that the whole mags of peat and muck 
was slowly sliding seaward. 

Similar remains were found on Porter island and (sadly plun- 
dered) at Wilcox head, and the Eskimos saw others on the 


THREE WEEKS IN HUBBARD BAY 9 


Winter islands. Ryder mentions remains at Cape Kasson and 
on the north side of Wilcox head, which I did not see. In a 
house a little farther south Ryder found “a large white glass 
bead.” This would seem to indicate early Norse influences and 
add to the interest of the region. 

My three live Eskimos were interesting “study specimens.” 
One of them was a blond of the purest type, in whom the admix- 
ture of aboriginal blood was so slight as to be imperceptible ; 
the others, though dark in hair and eye, were as white-skinned 
as Europeans. It is the same throughout Danish Greenland. 
The whole population is being rapidly Aryanized, and within a 
few generations we shall have the curious spectacle of a race 
practically Aryan in blood, and of the finest Aryan type at that, 
the Scandinavian, yet speaking one of the most primitive of 
“savage” languages, in which so simple a word as eight is ex- 
pressed by the polysyllable apennepingazhut. Some of the young 
women would pass for beauties anywhere, and one is somewhat 
shocked at seeing them amid their dingy, desolate surroundings. 
One peculiarity that struck me as soon as I reached Greenland 
was the exquisite modulations of the voices of both men and 
women, constantly reminding one of the French intonations, 


ESKIMO FAMILY AT UMANAK 


10 THREE WEEKS IN HUBBARD BAY 


such as you hear them from the lips of cultured Parisians—a 
soft, almost plaintive, undertone, with no abrupt changes, but 
merely gentle gliding mevertents within narrow limits of pitch 
and volume. Their peculiar “r,” grasseyé like the Parisian (the 
word Nursoak is often spelled } vee, completes the illusion. 

It affords me pleasure to acknowledge my indebtedness to 
Lieut. Peary for invaluable assistance and unvarying kindness, 
and to record my gratification at having been an eye-witness of 
his management—a model of foresight, readiness, energy, fair- 
ness, patience, and consideration. In these qualities one per- 
ceives the secret of his magnificent achievement and the guar- 
antee of his crowning success, the conquest of the Pole in 1900. 

In naming features which Ryder left unnamed, I have tried to 
serve a useful purpose by using the names of some of the fore- 
most advocates of a National University at Washington. This 
may aid in giving to the movement the publicity which, it would 
seem, is the only thing needed to insure its suecess. 


Washington, Jefferson, and Madison islands, for three Presidents of the 
United States. 

Andrews glacier, for President E. B. Andrews, Brown University. 

Carroll glacier, for ex-Governor John Lee Carroll, General President of 
the Society of Sons of the Revolution, Maryland. 

Chamberlin (Mt.), for Prof. T. C. Chamberlin, ex-President of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. 

Dabney bay, for Hon. Charles W. Dabney, ex- Assistant enw of Agri- 
culture, President of the University of Tennessee. 

Eaton peninsula, for Gen. John Eaton, ex-U. S. Commissioner of Edu- 
cation. 

Edmunds island, for Hon. George F. Edmunds, ex-U. S. Senator. : 

Frye (Mt.), for Hon. William P. Frye, U.S. Senator. 

Fuller (Mt.), for Hon. Melville W. Fuller, Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of the United States. 

Garland peninsula, for Hon. A. H. Garland, ex-Attorney General of the 
United States. 

Gilman peninsula, for President D. C. Gilman, Johns Hopkins University. 

Harper strait, for President William R. Harper, University of Chicago. 

Harris bay, for Hon. W. T. Harris, U. S. Commissioner of Education. 

Hawley strait, for Hon. Joseph R. Hawley, U. 8. Senator. 

Hearst glacier, for Mrs Phcebe A. Hearst. 

Henderson bay, for Hon. J. B. Henderson, ex-U. S. Senator. 

Hoyt island, for Hon. J. W. Hoyt, ex-Governor of Wyoming, Chairman 
of the Maida University Committee. 

Hubbard bay, for Hon. Gardiner G. Hubbard, first President of the Na- 
tional Geographic Society. 

Hunton strait, for Hon. Eppa Hunton, ex-U.S. Senator. 


- - 


THREE WEEKS IN HUBBARD BAY ali 


Jordan island, for President D. S. Jordan, Stanford University. 

Kasson (Cape), for Hon. John A. Kasson, ex-U. S. Minister to Austria 
and Germany. 

Kyle island, for Hon. James H. Kyle, U. S. Senator. 

Langley (Mt.), for Hon. 8. P. Langley, Secretary of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution. 

McGee (Mt.), for Prof. W J McGee, Ethnologist in Charge, Bureau of 
American Ethnology. 

Newcomb (Cape), for Hon.Simon Newcomb,ex-Director Nautical Almanac 

Pepper (Mt.), for Dr William E. Pepper, ex-Provost of the University of 
Pennsylvania; President of the Museum of Science and Arts, Phila- 
delphia; President of the Pan-American Medical Congress. 

Powell (Mt.), for Major J. W. Powell, Director of the Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology ; ex-Director of the U. 8. Geological Survey. 

Porter island, for Gen. Horace Porter, U. 8S. Ambassador to France. 

Proctor strait, for Hon. Redfield Proctor, U. S. Senator. 

Richardson island, for Mrs Ellen A. Richardson, President of the George 
Washington Memorial Association. 

Ridpath island, for Dr John Clark Ridpath, Editor of the Arena. 

Sherman strait, for Hon. John Sherman, Secretary of State; ex-U. S. 
Senator. 

Smith peninsula, for Col. Wilbur R. Smith, Kentucky University. 

Strauss glacier, for Hon. Oscar 8. Strauss, ex-U. 8. Minister to Turkey. 

Vilas (Mt.), for Hon. William F. Vilas, ex-Secretary of the Interior; ex- 
U. S. Senator. . 

Walcott peninsula, for Hon. C. D. Walcott, Director of the U. S. Geolog- 
ical Survey. | 

White island, for Hon. Andrew D. White, U. 8S. Ambassador to Germany ; 
ex-U. 8S. Minister to Russia. 

Wilson strait, for Hon. William L. Wilson, ex-Postmaster General ; 
President of Washington and Lee University. 

Wright (Lake), for Hon. Carroll D.Wright, U.S. Commissioner of Labor. 


Besides these, the following names were deemed appropriate: 


Mounts Bjorling and Kallstenius, for the two young Swedish explorers 
who were lost in an attempt to reach Ellesmere land in 1893. The 
two peaks were ascended by Bjorling in 1891. 

Mount Ryder, for Lieut. Ryder, of the Danish Navy, the first explorer of 
Hubbard bay. The peak is the highest that he sighted from his 
farthest north. 

Mount Operti, for Mr Albert Operti, the ‘‘Arctic artist,” who accompanied 
Lieut. Peary on two expeditions. A cairn erected on the peak by 
Prof. Gill in 1896 was named after Mr Operti. The peak was erro- 
neously called Devil’s Thumb by Ryder. The real Devil’s Thumb is 
in Alison bay. 

Gill bay, for Prof. Gill, of the Cornell party of 1896, who ascended Mount 
Operti, overlooking this bay. 

Tarr bay, for Prof. Tarr, the leader of the Cornell party. 


THE SAMOAN COCOANUT* 


Samoa, the Navigators islands of the old geographies, is a 
volcanic group, consisting of four principal islands, lying be- 
tween 138° and 15° §. latitude and 168° and 173° W. longitude. 
Samoa has an area of about 1,500 square miles, in size between 
Rhode Island and Delaware. Apia is the single port of entry. 
Savaii, the most westerly island, is much the largest, 45 miles 
in length by 25 in breadth. Upolu, 12 miles to the east, is 40 
miles in length by 15in breadth. Tutuila, 38 miles east of Upolu, 
is 17 miles in length by 5 miles in breadth. 

The entire export from Samoa for 1894, excluding bonded goods 
and other re-exports, was $254,630; of this total, copra (dried 
cocoanut meat) constituted $248,570. The single exportable 
staple for which Samoa is eminently adapted, and the one upon 
which all its business today rests and must for the future be 
predicated, is the cocoanut (Cocos nucifera). It is to Samoa what 
cotton and corn are to the United States; all that grain, meats, and 
wool are to the Australasian colonies. The export of the copra 
(the dried meat of the cocoanut) alone, save with trifling and in- 
appreciable exception, represents the entire agricultural product- 
ive capacity of Samoa, and through this source every dollar that 
trade and commerce bring into these islands finds its way. Were 
the cocoanut crop an absolute failure for a single year, the entire 
volume of export of this Kingdom for that year would not amount 
to more than $6,000. This illustration will adequately represent 
the prime importance of this single article to the country and its 
needs. 

Like other primitive peoples depending largely on a single re- 
source, the native Samoans have a tradition or myth concerning 
the origin of their most useful plant—the cocoanut palm ; and the 
myth is peculiarly interesting as an illustration of the inconse- 
quence of ideas in primitive tradition. This myth, with many 
others, was collected by Mr William Churchill, for some years 
consul-general to Samoa, who has recently returned to Washing- 
ton. To understand the myth it is necessary to remember that the 

* This article, compiled by Gen. A. W. Greely, is composed mainly of excerpts from the 


interesting and valuable report on Samoa made to the Department of State by Consul- 
General James H. Mulligan, and published in Consular Reports, vol. 51, pp. 656-748. 


12 


THE SAMOAN COCOANUT 18 


water vessels used by the Samoans consist of cocoanut shells in 
pairs, connected by cords in such manner as easily to be slung 
on a stick laid across the shoulders or conveniently carried in the 
hand, the shells being emptied of their original contents by the 
simple and effective method of knocking out the “ eyes,” drink- 
ing the milk, and then permitting ants to consume the meat. 
One of the apertures produced by removing the “eyes” serves 
as the mouth of this natural jug, which is remarkably light, 
strong, and durable, and has accordingly relieved the Samoans 
of the necessity of developing the art of pottery-making. Al- 
though so convenient in many ways, this type of water vessel is 
not easily filled, particularly from a shallow stream or spring; 
but the Samoans have invented a neat device, by which this 
difficulty is easily overcome. The maiden who goes to the 
Spring carries with her,a cup made from the stem end of a 
cocoanut shell, with one of the ‘‘ eyes ” removed, so as to trans- 
form it intoafunnel. Thisshe dips in the water with her finger 
over the aperture, then, holding it over the neck of the cocoanut 
jug, removes her finger and directs the stream into the carry- 
ing vessel. These utensils—the pair of cocoanut jugs and 
the cocoanut funnel-—have well-established names in the Sa- 
moan tongue, and these names apply to no other objects, while 
the utensils are never made of other material than cocoanut 
shell. Now, according to the tradition, a village virgin of the 
long ago went down to the spring for water. While dipping 
with her cocoanut funnel and directing the stream into the 
cocoanut vessel she perceived a slender, shadowy eel in the 
water, and was so entranced by its beauty that she decided 
to carry it home in the funnel cup and preserve it as a pet, 
and this she proceeded to do. As time passed the creature 
erew, and it became necessary to remove it to larger and 
larger receptacles, until finally it became a terrific monster, 
threatening to destroy the people. So the people gathered, and, 
under pretense of placating the monster, supplied it so freely 
with a Samoan beverage that it became intoxicated and slept. 
Then they cut off the monster’s head, and, to prevent reclama- 
tion of this useful organ when the creature should awaken, re- 
moved it to a distance and buried it deeply in the earth. Their 
virtue was duly rewarded when, some time later, the earth swelled 
and opened, and a strange plant pushed out, delicate in form and 
eraceful in movement as the eel in its infancy. And this mag- 
ical plant was the first cocoanut tree. 


14 THE SAMOAN COCOANUT 


It was the cocoanut and cotton—chiefly the former—which 
induced a large purchase of lands by a German firm and the 
planting of some extensive plantations. Twenty to thirty years 
ago, when the oil of the cocoanut began to be more largely em- 
ployed in the manufacture of soaps, copra commanded in Europe, 
where it found its only, and still finds its principal, market, very 
remunerative prices, which in these times of decreased values in 
everything are looked back toas phenomenal. These high prices 
stimulated the planting of these thousands of acres of tossing 
palms which reach on before the eye in unmatched beauty. But 
the same stimulus which induced this manifestation of enter- 
prise was felt on every tropic seashore. Millions of trees were 
planted on the measureless shores of tropic Africa, America, and 
Asia. ‘ All the shores of India, of the contiguous countries, of 
the unnumbered islands that form the archipelagoes of the vast 
western Paciftc, were transformed into stately groves in the keen 
search for large profits. 

These groves are but a few years past their early maturity. 
Every year, with favorable season, they yield an increasing crop. 
The usual reaction has followed. The same result in these latter 
times of increased output in everything has been reached, and 
overproduction is steadily bearing prices downward. In addition 
came the introduction of cotton-seed as an oil-producer. This 
tells upon Samoa in more than a direct way. No plantations 
are being laid out. What has been said before in regard to other 
productions and the great distances of the markets on either side 
is applicable to the situation of Samoa with reference to its single 
staple in redoubled force. Distance, to repeat, is synonymous 
with freight rates. Other copra-making countries are situated 
nearer tothe markets. A lower freight means a lower cost to the 
purchaser. Again, asmall and semi-civilized population, indulg- 
ing few artificial needs, offers a small market for imported goods ; 
consequently ships to larger countries can carry a cargo out, to 
return with a cargo of copra. Vessels cannot, save in exceptional, 
rare cases, find a charter to Samoa. As a result, the Samoan 
shipper of copra must pay the high rate of steamers regularly 
calling or pay such a price for transportation as will justify a 
sailing vessel to come, perhaps partially in ballast, to carry away 
a cargo of copra. 

In this respect the German firm enjoys an advantage, as it 
does in many other things, for, doing for the country a rather 
large business and supplying the German men-of-war with coal, 


THE SAMOAN COCOANUT 15 


it can so adjust its shipments as to offer a vessel a charter both 
ways, to the great reduction of freight charges. It follows that 
these advantages of the larger concern tend greatly to continue 
in a measure the monopoly it once conspicuously enjoyed, to 
the disadvantage of smaller shippers. 

Copra is simply the meat of the cocoanut, dried in the sun, 
generally by being spread on mats, until the greater part of the 
watery juice is evaporated. For this purpose the nut is left to 
thoroughly ripen—that is, until the white flesh, or kernel, which 
lines the inside of the shell to the thickness of three-fourths of 
an inch or more, reaches that degree of hardness found in cocoa- 
nuts sold at the fruit stands in the United States. At this state 
all the clear, palatable water which completely filled the interior 
in the green stage is absorbed. 

When a commercial demand for cocoanut oil first sprang up, 
and shipments were small, it was customary to ship the pure oil 
in casks, free of the wood or fibrous residuum. It was then bought 
by the traders direct as oil from the natives, who secured a sepa- 
ration of the oil by allowing the green copra to stand exposed 
to the sun in canoes—troughs, as it were—until the heat and 
decay set the oil free to collect at the bottom, to be afterwards 
strained. 

No oil has been so shipped for a great many years, and the 
one mill set up for extracting the oil mechanically was not a 
profitable venture. Cooperage could not be had here, and the 
importation of casks was found too expensive. ‘Then the leak- 
age in a long voyage in wooden packages was found to be very 
great. For many years the oil cake obtained from cocoanuts 
meta ready demand from dairymen and small farmers in Europe 
as a food for cattle, but latterly it has fallen into disfavor, the 
opinion obtaining that it is productive of derangement, if not of 
disease. The decline of this use has to some extent affected the 
price of copra. It was formerly estimated that the sale of the 
oil cake paid the cost of the freight on the bulk copra. 

Marseilles is the principal manufacturing point of cocoanut 
oil, but large quantities are shipped to Liverpool, to ports on 
the Baltic, and to San Francisco. The oil is used to some ex- 
tent by admixture as a lubricant, but its chief use is found in 
the manufacture of common and medium grade soaps. Its ten- 
dency to become rancid—an objection which has not been en- 
tirely overcome—is a serious hindrance to its employment in 
many things, and precludes its use in the manufacture of the 


16 THE SAMOAN COCOANUT 


better grades of soap, for, free of odor as it may be at first, its 
pungent rancidity is apt to become soon manifest. The odor of 
copra, especially when stored in bulk or on shipboard, is of the 
most disagreeable and nauseating character. 

The accepted method of latter years is to plant the cocoanuts 
in rows 40 feet apart, setting the trees 30 feet in the row. The 
early planters placed the trees 20 feet apart each way, and many 
years were required after they came into bearing to show that 
the planting had been -done too closely. The nuts were small 
and not so abundant as they were on trees scattered widely apart. 
Taught by this observation, the groves were thinned by cutting 
away a liberal percentage of the trees, to the considerable im- 
provement of the yield. The cocoanut, of all things, loves the 
sunshine and free circulation of the air. Indeed, to flourish in 
perfection it should stand on the outer verge of the shore, its 
roots striking into the sea water, its branches or palms ever 
whipped and tossing in the stiff breeze of the trades. It finds 
its habitat close to the sea, where the salt-impregnated air can 
reach it freely and in abundance. Like some other members of 
the vegetable kingdom—for instance, clover—it seems to take a 
part of the elements of its growth from the air, but that air must 
be at the high temperature of the tropics and saturated with the 
salt moisture of the sea. The cocoanut is so much the creature 
of the sunshine and the sea that it clearly manifests its removal 
inland in a reduced crop of smaller nuts. The lowlands of the 
beach on all these islands are more or less covered with the 
groves, while on the mountains and highlands no tree is found. 
The smaller size of the trees and the poorer yield are plainly to 
be noticed on lands at an elevation of from 400 to 600 feet, situ- 
ated at as short a distance as 2% and 3 miles from the shore. 
Standing immediately on the beach, the tree inclines outward 
over the water; growing inland, it points by its leaning ever in 
the most direct way to the sea. . 

The nuts ripen along throughout the year, hanging in pendent 
clusters close in and around the stems of the palm branches, 
which spread about on all sides and reach upward from the 
clustered head forming the top of the tree. The nuts hanging 
lowest ripen first, the young nuts continually appearing above 
with the growth of the tree, and so the lower branches wither 
and dry, falling away as the younger branches push out from 
above. The body of the tree from the ground to the crown at 
the top, a distance reaching up from 30 to most frequently 60 


‘ 
’ 
a 
: 
. 
; f 


THE SAMOAN COCOANUT 17 


and even 80 feet, is smooth and bare like a mere pole support- 
ing a head of nuts and sweeping branches. 

The trees come into bearing,in a small way, at the sixth year 
on suitable soil, and are believed to reach the full limit of pro- 
duction at from 15 to 20 years of age. Many groves known to 
be 30 and 40 years of age are now bearing in undiminished 
abundance, and they so continue to do to a great age. Persons 
who profess to beable to determine the age of trees by the marks 
left on the bark where the branches have successively fallen esti- 
mate in this way that many still vigorous trees are 70 and 80 
years of age. Natives who are peculiarly intelligent in so many 
ways, but who appear to be, for reasons not difficult to under- 
stand, peculiarly unable to keep account of time, say that the 
cocoanut tree will live on beyond a hundred years. In all prob- 
ability they live to a considerably greater age on the beach 
lands when the trunk has escaped serious injury. 

Springs, while frequently met with, are not abundant, and for 
fresh water for all purposes reliance is had on the small streams 
coming down from the mountains. With few exceptions, the 
natives are not practical or provident enough to provide tanks 
for the storage of rain water, as is universal among the whites ; 
indeed, the formation and material of the roofs of native houses 
would make it very difficult to catch rain water from such roofs. 
As villages are often at considerable distances from natural sup- 
plies of fresh water, and as these in the dry months of May, June, 
and July often become exhausted, recourse is had to a very 
barbarous method of supplementing the supply of fresh water. 
Cocoanut trees nearly always incline at an angle more or less 
oblique. On what may be termed the upper side of the tree, or 
that opposite to the direction in which it inclines, large cup- 
shaped notches, similar to those made in the long-leaved pine 
for turpentine purposes, are cut. With every shower the water 
trickles down the body of the tree ; being caught in these troughs 
or notches, it serves to fill the cocoanut drinking shells or bottles, 
the only vessels for holding water they employ ; for, except ina 
few instances, they are slow to adopt buckets or other containing 
vessels common in civilized life. 

The cocoanut tree is capable of surviving a great deal of in- 
jury ; in fact, it maintains its vigor despite such injuries as would 
be ruinous to most trees of the temperate climes. ‘Trees are 
often seen flourishing in undiminished vigor, although notched 
half through in the way described in two and even three places. 


2 


18 THE SAMOAN COCOANUT 


While these unpardonable injuries are sustained without ap- 
parent detriment for a long time, they bring about the certain 
result when the tree becomes old. The surface of the cut be- 
comes decayed, and this, once set in, progresses on into the 
tree until it can no longer sustain its weight or withstand the 
high winds of the stormy season. All trees are by no means so 
injured, but a sufficiently large proportion are thus mutilated in 
time as to bear manifestly on the total production. 

The habit of the cocoanut to reach out over the water seems 
to be a provision of nature for its propagation and distribution. 
The nuts, falling into the sea, will float for weeks in the bitterly 
brackish waters of these tropic seas without injury to the ger- 
minating quality. Once thrown upon the warm sands of a 
beach or tossed by a wave upon the reef above the surface, it 
soon puts forth its palm from the smaller end, while from the 
round and larger end the tender roots strike into the soil or 
decayed coral, as the case may be. Many lagoons which have 
risen within living memory and which for years remained with- 
out sign of vegetation are now covered with the cocoanut, 
although hundreds of miles from other islands. 

The value of the cocoanut is not confined to the single export 
product, copra. The tree and its products are devoted to many 
uses. The wood in the green state is very porous and spongy, 
having consequently a great degree of resistance to rifle shot. In 
the native wars in the past it was much employed in the build- 
ing of defensive works. When thoroughly seasoned, it lasts for 
a long time under ground and is valuable for all purposes for 
which posts are employed. The oil enters in many forms into 
the domestic uses of the natives. It forms the basis of all their 
liniments and emollients in their simple but very rational phar- 
macopeia. It is used for anointing the body, a practice univer- 
sally observed and in such a climate by no means so unreasonable 
as it might appear at the first glance. It has the effect of keep- 
ing the skin soft and fine, protecting it from sunburn, which in 
these latitudes of a vertical sun, without protection, becomes very 
severe. It serves as well to repel mosquitoes and other small 
flying insects. Highly perfumed with the odor of the Moso’oi, 
it is the general dressing for the hair, in the care of which these 
people are very particular and cleanly, as they are in nearly all 
matters. 

The nut is one of the standard articles of diet. Breadfruit, 
taro, bananas, and cocoanuts form the staple articles of food, 


THE SAMOAN COCOANUT ig) 


ranking in importance in the order mentioned. The nuts are 
eaten in the soft, but somewhat tough, gelatinous state, before 
they reach the woody condition in which they are familiar to the 
American people, when they are both palatable and exceedingly 
nutritious. From what has been said, they are, of course, to be 
had in this state of ripeness at all seasons. 

In this condition they enter into the preparation of many 
cooked dishes, the choicest of which is “ palusami,” a most de- 
licious preparation. The water of the half-ripened nut, at the 
state of ripeness mentioned, which so completely fills the cavity 
that it spurts out on the shell being penetrated at the ‘‘ eye,” 
forms a pleasant and wholesome drink, ample in quantity and 
curiously cool. The whole shells, from which all the meat is re- 
moved by being left first to decay and then by being shaken a 
long time half filled with coarse sand, forms the universal water 
bottle; cut in half, they are made into bowls and drinking cups. 
The fiber, as has been said, furnishes all the sennet or braided 
twine and rope for all uses. The leaves of the great branches, 
which dry rapidly, are used for kindling, for torches in fishing, 
and a small fire made in a bowl of burned clay set in the floor 
of every house as a fireplace, when regularly fed with these long 
and combustible leaves, furnishes the light to the household, of 
a cheery and attractive kind. Again, the small ends of the long 
branches are tied together in couples, and, the butts being flat 
and heavy, they are hung across the combs of the roofs of houses 
and serve admirably to hold the thatch in place against high 
winds. These branches by a trick, as it were, are stripped down 
either side and soon plaited into baskets; treated and plaited 
much in the same way, they are made into the curtains, or 
more properly sidings, by which all houses are inclosed and 
protected. 

Were the cocoanut tree by some destructive blight eliminated 
from Samoa ata stroke, all its export would be at an immediate 
end, and it would be difficult to see how its domestic life could 
adjust itself to meet the calamity. 

It is generally estimated that an acre of land should yield, 
when the trees have reached the period of full bearing, about 
half a ton of commercial copra. As in most other agricultural 
estimates, in which, it seems, resuit remains so stubbornly at va- 
riance with calculation, this one cannot be reconciled with the 
crop had from any particular plantation. Still, managers and 
owners adhere to the estimate and furnish a ready reason when 


20 THE SAMOAN COCOANUT 


the estimate fails of fulfillment. Green copra—fairly dried and 
lable to much shrinkage—is worth, and has been for some years 
past, in spite of a constantly declining foreign market, 11 cents 
a pound when bought from natives. If the estimated produc- 
tion held good, this ought to yield $15.75 per acre; but again 
the estimate usually places the yield at about $12 per acre, pos- 
sibly no great difference, as such things go. It will be observed 
this allows nothing for labor. 

Without attempting to reconcile the apparent differences, it is 
said that a tree is on the average “ worth a shillinga year ”— 
that is, yields a profit to that amount. Planting in the manner 
Ihave mentioned, an acre would carry about forty-eight trees, 
and if these yielded the estimated shilling each, or 48 shillings 
in all, the calculation of $12 per acre profit would be quite well 
sustained. However the estimates may conflict, however over- 
drawn they may be, if any—and I am of opinion that, like all 
similar calculations, they are more encouraging 1n theory than 
reliable in practice—they at best do not show a greater profit per 
acre than with ordinary prices—not those of the past year—may 
be reasonably anticipated in any of the eastern central States 
from corn or wheat. As a matter of fact, a very average crop of 
tobacco, in any of the States growing that staple, would prove 
more profitable than do the ideal cocoanut groves of the picture 
islands in the books of travel. True, the trees once planted are — 
producers far beyond the limit of the ordinary lifetime, while the 
farm crops mentioned are to be laboriously cultivated year after 
year. On the other hand, many profitless years elapse in wait- 
ing for the trees to reach maturity. Even then, in a country 
where wages are high, because everything else is as well, expense 
claims a liberal share of the product, for “ making copra” is at 
best a slow and laborious process, although there is but a single 
planting and no cultivation. Back of all this must be remem- 
bered the serious expense of clearing original bush. 

Copra is continuously made, as the nuts ripen, from about the 
middle of April till the middle of October or early part of No- 
vember—that is, during the dry season—but the making is more 
active in July, August, and September. Curing could be done, 
so far as the supply of nuts goes, through the remainder of the 
year, but the rains, varying from frequent to almost constant, do 
not permit of drying. 

A boy or man, generally the former, with a piece of sennet 
about 18 inches in length, looped on either foot, will climb the 


THE SAMOAN COCOANUT 21 


slender, swaying tree with as much ease and rapidity as if it were 
a ladder. The notched or corrugated surface of the bark, left 
where branches have in time grown, from the ground up, catches 
the bit of sennet between the feet, while the weight of the body 
pressing downward clamps, as it were, the hollow of the ample 
feet firmly on either side of the trunk. By this means the tree 
is ascended by a series of jumps, as it were. 

In some of the South Sea islands, where onerous taxes are levied 
in return for the supposed protection afforded by European na- 
tions which have annexed them, a boy is accounted as having 
become a man, liable to the payment of capitation tax, when he 
is able to climb a tree. 

The climber, with a large knife, cuts away the matured nuts 
which cluster close about the butts of the branches. As they fall 
they are gathered into piles about the base of the tree. On the 
plantations they are gathered into panniers slung on donkeys, 
or into baskets swung on poles borne by two men—after the 
style in which the tea boxes were carried with ease over the per- 
pendicular mountains by the two little Chinamen on the old 
blue china of our grandmothers—to be finally piled into great 
heaps near the copra shed. The nuts are not husked, the thick 
outer husk having become hard and brown like wood. They 
are dexterously split in two by an axe and the hard white flesh 
is more dexterously cut out witha large knife. Nothing remains 
but to spread it on mats or boards in the sun. When cured itis 
thrown into a heap in the shed, where it remains until sacked, 
to be laboriously carried, sack by sack, by wading out to the 
small boat, which in turn transfers it to the small schooner or 
cutter lying in deeper water, and from this in turn it is again 
taken to be stored elsewhere or transferred to the deep-sea vessel 
for its final voyage. 

Copra yields perhaps a greater percentage of oil than any other 
of the great oil-producing staples, under the modern process, 
whereby it is mixed with water, heated, and subjected to two 
pressings, giving as high as 62 and 64 per cent of pure oil. 

The cocoanut crop of last year (1894) was by far the largest 
ever known in the islands; for this, like all other crops, has its 
unaccountable years of great abundance and those of small pro- 
duction, as little understood. The yield of last year is all the 
more remarkable when it is borne in mind that the war of 18938, 
which ended in the deportation of Mataafa, worked a great and 
barbarous destruction of trees in the western district of this 


22 THE SAMOAN COCOANUT 


island, known as Aana. The extent of this increase, despite the 
unfortunate destruction referred to, is illustrated by the fact that 
while the export of copra in 1891 amounted to 4,842 tons, in 
1892 to 4,871 tons, and in 1898 to 4,602 tons, it rose last year to 
6,214 tons, an increase of 1,612 tons over the year before—an in- 
crease of about 35 per cent over the years 1891 and 1892; yet 
under the reduced price of late years the larger crops fail to 
bring into the country as much money as did the far smaller 
crops of former years. 

Copra is bought from the natives, who make and sell it in 
small quantities, selling as it is made almost entirely for trade— 
canned meats, biscuits, prints, boat lumber, and other articles 
suited to their few needs. Cash is rarely paid, but part cash is 
often paid, and sometimes the price is required in money. In 
the trading stations in other islands and in outlying districts 
enormous profits are made; but frequently, the business being 
small at best, the trader could not subsist or make a profit for 
his principal, as he is generally an agent, unless such an advance 
on cost price was made as would be regarded in a town in the 
United States as prohibitory. In Apia, with its competition of 
several stores and small dealers, prices are far more reasonable, 
although they are far from being such as to threaten the dealers 
with bankruptcy. From the political situation now existing; 
and which, with mere intervals, has endured for the greater part 
of three years, the natives of many of the most productive dis- 
tricts dare not come to do their trading in Apia, and hence are 

*thrown back in buying and selling upon the country trader. Of 
course, in the end all the goods sold and all the copra made comes 
from or finds its, way to Apia, so that from this cause its business 
is not diminished ; yet this condition is distressing for such busi- 
ness men as confine their transactions to Apia. With such houses 
as are sufficiently extensive to have stations in the hostile dis- 
tricts, which they keep suppled from central stores here, the 
prevailing situation of affairs is very satisfactory, and it is not 
unlikely that some of them are well satisfied with it and will not 
fail, in a quiet way, aided by many advantages, to contribute to 
its continuance. 

Copra buyers pay now, as they have done for a few years past, 
$1.25 to natives and $1.50 to white men, who sometimes make, 
but generally buy from natives. The traders insist that the 
natives bring the copra too green or conveniently overturn the 
boat that the weight may be greater. To protect themselves 


THE SAMOAN COCOANUT 23 


against such imposition, as they term it, they have their scales 
set to keep watchful guard over their interests or are provided 
with a set of false weights—generally the latter—for the natives 
watch the weighing with keen eyes, sharpened by sad experience. 
I have heard this practice warmly defended; but it should be 
said there are some honorable exceptions. 

Recently in a trial had in the supreme court between a firm 
of this place and one of their agents it was shown that the firm 
had furnished the agent, along with the scales, a set of correct 
and a set of false weights. This did not seem to excite surprise 
or unfavorable comment, while the revelation of the fact was 
regarded as amusing. 

The increase in the American consumption of copra is very 
gratifying. None was shipped to the United States in 1891 or 
1892. In 1893 the value of copra shipped to San Francisco 
amounted to $1,259; in 1894 to $30,400, and the declared value 
of that shipped to the same port for the year ended June 30, 
1895, was $45,486. Every steamer for the last-named port*now 
takes a shipment. Consignments by this steam transportation 
are made at a high freight rate. But one sailing vessel has 
cleared from this port for any American port in a year. By 
far the greater importations into these islands come from the 
Australasian colonies, many reasons combining to produce this 
result. Were there sufficient outward traffic from San Francisco 
to employ sailing craft, such vessels could afford to carry copra 
on the return voyage at such a rate as would largely increase the 
shipments of Samoa’s only export to America; for steam rates 
on so bulky an article over so long a distance approach the 
prohibitory. 

The latest advices (1895) from Liverpool quote copra at $52.50 
per ton. This is thought to be too low commercially, and a re- 
covery is expected to $58 or $60 per ton, and these latter figures 
are thought to fairly represent the present real value. The 
price has never before reached so low a figure. During 1870- 
71 the price was about $115; as late as 1880 it was from $75 
to $85; since which time, with occasional recoveries, it has con- 
tinued to decline until it reached the figures stated. 

The freight to England is about $12.642 per ton; to San Fran- 
cisco, to which shipments are beginning to be made, $10 by 
steam and from $6 to $8 by sail, when the few opportunities 
occur. From Ceylon and places similarly situated charters can 
be had for at least half these rates. In the era of high prices 


24 THE MODERN MISSISSIPPI PROBLEM 


$25 and $80 per ton carriage was freely paid, and the price paid 
by traders in Apia was 23 to 2% cents per pound in buying. 

But since 1878 seventeen years have elapsed. During all these 
years thousands of trees then not planted have come to maturity 
and are bearing, and thousands of those then in early bearing 
have greatly increased their yield. As has been said, the crop 
of last year (1894) was the largest in the history of the islands, 
amounting in all, as stated, to 6,214 tons, and yet an-official re- 
port made to the United States Government in 1878 gives the 
export for that year as 6.775 tons, when in fact it could have been 
not greatly in excess of half that quantity. The same report es- 
timates the cotton crop at 2,300 bales. Such is a sample of the 
unreliability of the statistics which have so misinformed the 
world as to this group; upon such unstable foundations i S{0) 
many of the roseate theories as to their future. 


THE MODERN MISSISSIPPI] PROBLEM 
By W J McGusr 


The great river of the continent has been the object of intelli- 
gent inquiry for a century, and of scientific investigation for half 
as long. The earlier inquiries related chiefly to the river as a 
medium for inland navigation, and the problem of interior water 
transportation in America has wrought itself out largely on this 
river with its principal tributaries. The history of the solution 
of the problem is significant in its bearings on future industry 
and commerce. 

The canoe of the Indian and the pirogue of the pioneer were 
followed by the scows or “ flatboats ”’? which marked the intro- 
duction of real commerce by means of the river ; and before the 
introduction of steam the custom grew up of building “ flatboats ” 
along the upper waters, lading them with coal, grain, and other 
produce, floating them with the current to New Orleans, and 
there abandoning them, while the shippers returned overland. 
About the end of 1811 the first practical steamboat on the waters 
embouching through the Mississippi suffered disaster during its 
first voyage in consequence of the New Madrid earthquake; but 
the utilization of steam power proceeded rapidly, and within a few 
years steam navigation was established and the river became a 
route for numberless craft carrying freight and passengers against 


pea, 


THE MODERN MISSISSIPPI PROBLEM 25 


the current nearly as rapidly as with it. Thus began the palmy 
period of the Mississippi as a line of commercial activity ; towns 
were planted on the upper river and along the Ohio, and especially 
below the confluence ; Columbus, Hickman, Vicksburg, Grand 
Gulf, Natchez, Bayou Sara, Port Hudson, and a dozen other 
towns whose names are half forgotten, sprang up along the river- 
side and promised to become metropoles, while the passenger 
packets became floating palaces, representing the acme of luxury 
in American travel. Knowing nothing better, merchants and 
shippers were content to endure the interruption of traffic by 
floods, and were too dazzled by glowing anticipations to note the 
building of bars between their warehouses and the main channel 
or the undermining of their town-sites by the ever-shifting stream. 
Then came the locomotive and railway, affording the means of 
swifter and surer transportation, and the river commerce began 
to wane, relatively if not absolutely ; a third of the river towns 
were deserted by the stream, a quarter were invaded by the cur- 
rent, and only a third or a quarter were reached by the railways 
and permitted to thrive under the new conditions. For a time 
the river held the balance of power between rival lines and modes 
of transportation, and thus controlled tariffs (Gndeed this is in 
some measure true today), but successively larger and larger 
shares of the traffic were diverted. Recent statistics show that 
there is still a considerable transportation of coal, grain, and 
other bulky and indestructible commodities by the river, though 
the ratio of river carriage to rail carriage is steadily decreasing ; 
today the flourishing river towns are also railway towns, and 
depend primarily on land transportation for their commercial 
supremacy ; today the old-time floating palace is but a memory, 
and today only two, or five, or possibly ten packets pass the point 
where twenty passed a quarter-century ago. 

Meantime the inquiries concerningthe great river have changed. 
Today the practical importance of the lower Mississippi lies in 
its fertile bottom-lands and in the agricultural and commercial 
industries which they support; and since these are affected by 
floods and other fluctuations of the river, the water stages have 
become paramount as subjects of investigation. The researches 
concerning the regimen of. the river began while it yet retained 
prime importance as a navigable waterway, and yielded one of 
the earlier scientific classics of America in the monograph by 
Humphreys and Abbot, issued in 1861. These hydrologists 
were concerned chiefly with normal conditions rather than ab- 


26 THE MODERN MISSISSIPPI PROBLEM 


normalities, with means rather than extremes; and their mas- 
terly treatise remains the guide of students throughout the world. 
The principles developed by them were subsequently discussed 
and apphed by an important federal commission; while the 
problem of maintaining an open passage from the river to the 
gulf for vessels of deep draft was solved experimentally by Eads — 
in a manner eminently satisfactory to long-distance commerce. 

As the vast and fertile bottom-lands attracted the planter they 

were gradually reclaimed, the plantations extending quite to the 

river banks ; and to meet local and temporary needs (at least in 

part in every case). the natural levees built by the river were 

raised artificially to protect plantations and towns. These levees 

interfered with the natural regimen of the stream in some 

measure; they.checked the annual flooding of the bottoms, such 

as has enriched the valley of the Nile,and at the same time pre- 

vented the river from shifting to the lower grounds as its bed 

was built above the level of stability; in short, they initiated 

the transformation of the waterway from a natural river to an 

artificial canal. A direct and evident consequence of the change 

was to render the floods more disastrous when the stream burst 

its partly artificial barriers, and this led to a demand for build- 

ing the levees higher and higher and extending them further and © 
further along its banks; it also led to recognition of the impor- 

tance of floods as agencies affecting the material development of 

an extensive and rich section of the country. So the burning 

problem of the Mississippi today is not that of navigation, not 

even that of normal regimen asa great river, but that of the floods 

to which the stream is subject. 

Accordingly certain recent researches of the Weather Bureau 
are most apposite and timely.* The report in which they are 
made public is a straightforward and largely statistical presenta- 
tion of the facts pertaining to the floods of the Mississippi, espe- 
cially the notable flood of 1897. The material is arranged in four 
sections. The first relates to “ The River and Basin,” and sets 
forth the physical characteristics of the entire watershed as 
ascertained from various sources. ‘The second section treats of 
‘Normal Precipitation and Drainage ” throughout the basin as 
determined from the records of the Weather Bureau, which com- 
prise practically all the meteorologic observations extant. Then 

* Floods of the Mississippi River. Prepared under direction of Willis L. Moore, Chief 
of Weather Bureau. By Park Morrill, Forecast Official in Charge of River and Flood 


Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau. Bulletin E). Washington, 
1897. 4°, pp. i-vi + 1-79, pls. (i, ii unnumbered +-) 1-58. 


OUR FOREIGN TRADE 27 


follows “ The River in Flood,” in which the relation between 


precipitation (including the fall and melting of snow) in every 
part of the basin and the ensuing floods is discussed quantita- 
tively. ‘The fourth section deals with the “Spring Flood of 
1897,” and applies the principles and relations developed in 
the more general discussion. ‘The text is amply illustrated 
by means of charts and diagrams. The discussions are brief, 
deductive in character, and limited to exposition of the facts 
recorded; they do not (perhaps unfortunately) extend to the 
consideration of the levee problem, or to that gradual increase 
in the frequency and height of floods indicated by the figures— 
especially those of table xviii, pages 34-37—and undoubtedly 
attending the heightening of the levees, whether as cause, as 
effect, or fortuitously—indeed hardly a word appears in the 
report concerning that association of levees and floods which 
constitutes one of the important American problems of the day. 

The carefully drawn flood-map (plate 2) is especially inter- 
esting in view of the disasters still in the minds of patrons of 
the press; and it is interesting to geographers as giving a bird’s- 
eye view of features recording stages in the development of the 
region. Among these may be noted the lnear arrangement of 
alluvial belts, especially in the upper third of the embayment, 
an arrangement strongly suggesting the initiation of mountain 
corrugation ; also the lifted area about New Madrid, which was 
heaved some twenty feet above the general level of the bottom 
during the earthquake of 1811-715; and, too, the diversion of the 
flood from the course of the river in large districts. 


OUR FOREIGN TRADE 


HKvery nation, just as every individual, finds it necessary to 
sell some of its own products and to purchase others from for- 
elgn nations. Some nations find it necessary to purchase more 
than others, since some produce only a few articles, while others 
produce almost everything they require. Thus Australia pro- 
duces mainly mutton and wool, and finds it necessary therefore 
to exchange these for other necessities of life. Onthe other hand, 
the United States, which has a wide range of climate, produces 
most of the commodities which her people require, and her for- 
eign trade is therefore by no means as great in proportion to her 
population as that of many other countries. 


bo 
(og) 


THE PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY 


During the fiscal year 1896-97, the sum of her exports and 
imports hada value of 1,816 million dollars. Large as this sum 
is.itis small compared with the foreign trade of the United King- 
dom, France, or Germany. Of this great sum,765 millions, or 
about two-fifths, were imports. The difference between them, 
the “ balance of trade,” was in our favor to the extent of not less 
than 286 million dollars. In other words, we sold 286 million 
dollars’ worth more than we bought. The principal articles 
which were sold were cotton, wheat, meat, petroleum, tobacco, 
and manufactured goods. Those purchased were mainly sugar, 
coffee, and manufactured goods. 

In carrying on this enormous traffic the port of New York 
plays by far the most important part. Just about one-half of - 
our foreign traffic passes under the shadow of the Goddess of 
Liberty on Bedloesisland. Two-thirds of our imports and moré 
than one-third of our exports pass through New York. That 
city is probably the most important seaport in the world, for to 
this foreign trade is to be added a much larger amount of do- 
mestic trade by sea. 

Next to New York in foreign trade is Boston, which receives 
one-eighth of the imports and sends out one-tenth of the exports 
of the country. New Orleans holds the next place. Although 
she receives but two per cent of the imports, she sends out ten 
per cent of the exports, which consist mainly of cotton Phila- 
delphia is fourth in rank, with six per cent of the imports and 
four per cent of the exports. Then comes Baltimore, which, 
though she receives but one per cent of the country’s imports, 
sends out eight per cent of her exports. On the Pacific coast 
San Francisco is the only port which as yet has any prominence 
in foreign trade, and her share in it is but four per cent of the 
exports and imports. The Atlantic and Gulf coasts take about 
seven-eighths of the entire trade, and the Pacific coast only about 
one-sixteenth, an amount equal to that of the Great Lakes. 

EeGe 


THE PRESIDENCY OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 
5 © Clim 


At a meeting of the Council of the National Geographic So- 
ciety, held December 31, Prof. Alexander Graham Bell, LL. D., 
etc., was elected President of the Society. 


a 


GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE™ 


Eleventh Annual Report of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Advance 
copy withoutappendices. Pp. 150. Washington: Government Print- 
ing Office. 1897. 


It was to be expected that the first report of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission issued after the rendering of the recent far-reaching decis- 
ions of the Supreme Court would be an interesting one, and such it proves. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission has never claimed rate-making 
authority, but from its organization until early in 1897 it acted in accord- 
ance with the belief that when the legality of a rate, established in the 
first instance by a carrier subject to the act to regulate commerce, had 
been questioned by those interested, and the issue determined adversely 
to the carrier upon facts and arguments brought out during a formal in- 
vestigation and hearing, of which both parties had had suitable notice 
and at which they had had opportunity to introduce testimony and cross- 
examine witnesses, it then became its duty, not merely to declare the 
particular rate excessive or unreasonable, and consequently unlawful, but, 
in addition, to decide what rate would be right, and subsequently to en- 
force, in the manner provided in the law, the latter rate. Congress, it 
was supposed by the Commission, had by implication granted this power 
as a necessary incident of express authority to execute and enforce an act 
requiring that all rates shall be reasonable and just. In a decision ren- 
dered during May, 1897, the United States Supreme Court declared this 
to be a misconception of the purpose and meaning of the act, and 
that Congress did not confer upon the Commission the limited authority 
to prescribe future charges which it had supposed itself to possess. <Ac- 
cepting this interpretation, the Commission believes that the same rule 
will be found, when occasion arises, to leave that body without authority, 
in the absence of amendatory legislation, to enforce any order to prevent 
unjust discrimination or undue preference in the future. The result is 
thus stated in the report: 


“The other sections and provisions of the law are in aid of and 
were intended to make effective the first three sections, which re- 
late to and were intended to make unlawful and to prohibit unrea- 
sonable charges, unjust discriminations, and undue preferences ; 
and without authority to make these three sections effective in the 
future practically all the Commission can do toward executing and 
enforcing the vital provisions of the act is to inquire into wrongs 
done in the past and report the result of its investigation to itself.” 


The inadequacy of so restricted a remedy for the evils incident to cur- 
rent methods of railway rate-making is obvious. The farmers who pro- 
duce grain, cotton, live stock, and other commodities entering largely 
into interstate commerce are not as a rule shippers. They sell to dealers 
upon the basis of current rates, whether reasonable or the reverse, and 


29 


30 GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


the latter are the actual shippers. If the reasonableness of previous 
charges only may be investigated, the remedy is necessarily limited to the 
collection of damages representing the difference between the rate actu- 
ally charged and that which would have been reasonable and just. The 
only person in a position to collect these damages would be the one who 
had made the actual shipment, and to whom, having bought upon the 
basis of the rate paid, the amount collected would constitute an addi- 
tional and unreasonable profit. 

In the ‘‘ Louisville and Nashville case,” one of the earliest decided by 
the Commission, it was declared that the dissimilar circumstances justi- 
fying a higher charge for the short than for the long haul, under the fourth 
section of the law, might exist, (a) as a result of the competition of car- 
riers by water; (6) asa result of competition by carriers not subject to 
the interstate commerce law ; and (c), in rare and peculiar cases, as a re- 
sult of competition of carriers subject to the law. Subsequently it was 
laid down that if the rate for the longer haul was controlled by unregu- 
lated competition, the carrier might make a lower charge, to meet such 
competition, without application to the Commission ; but where the justi- 
fying competition alleged to exist was that of carriers subject to the law, 
application must be made to the Commission for permission to promul- 
gate the lower rate, under the proviso permitting the Commission in 
special cases to make exemption from the general rule of the long and 
short haul clause. During November, 1897, the Supreme Court. of the 
United States decided that competition of railway carriers subject to the 
act must be considered in cases arising under the fourth section, and that 
where it exists sufficiently to constitute a controlling force the cireum- 
stances are dissimilar. If therefore the Commission find the existence 
of such competition to a controlling degree, the rule of the fourth section 
is inapplicable. The Commission is apparently of the opinion that this 
construction practically eliminates the long and short haul clause from the 
law. 

The Commission frankly acknowledges that its members are unable to 
agree as to the wisdom of authorizing pooling contracts. ‘‘A majority,” 
says the report, ‘‘think it must occasion some improvement in the rate 
situation at almost all points, and that it might altogether amend it at 
many points.” Though reminding the public that whatever beneficial 
results pooling may accomplish must be secured through the restriction 
of competition, a majority of the Commission are inclined to recommend 
that the experiment, surrounded by suitable safeguards, be tried. Some- 
thing, it is admitted, must be done, and the insistence of the railways, 
whose officers are in a situation wisely to judge, that this is the proper 
remedy is entitled to careful attention. Protest is entered against the 
practice, akin to special pleading, of quoting a single sentence from some 
report of the Commission as evidence of an opinion favorable to pooling. 
The Commission is unanimous that to reverse the effect of the ‘‘ Trans- 
Missouri decision,” to repeal the anti-pooling clause and enact in its 
place a pooling bill, would be little better than a crime against the people, 
unless at the same time the Commission or some other tribunal was in- 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY ol 


vested with adequate powers of supervision and control. The following 
paragraphs are important enough to be given in full: 


‘‘Tt should be further said that, while a majority of the Com- 
mission have felt that it would be wise to adopt the remedy sug- 
gested by the carriers in the present emergency, we do not admit 
that Congress is altogether powerless to correct this evil without 
the adoption of that means. The difficulty with enforcing the 
present law is not in its criminal features, which, with some slight 
changes, are well enough and strong enough, but in obtaining evi- 
dence of violations of that law. When those who have knowledge 
of what is actually done are put upon the witness stand, they re- 
fuse to disclose the truth.” 

“Since these witnesses will not state the fact as it exists, some 
means must be provided of otherwise ascertaining that fact. So 
jong as these gentlemen refuse to tell, it is necessary to provide a 
way by which the Government can find out for itself. If the in- 
terstate carriers of this country were compelled to keep their ac- 
counts in some prescribed form, and if the agents of the United 
States had the right at. any time to inspect those accounts, or to 
take charge of one or more of the stations of a carrier when so ad- 
vised, the effect must be to greatly diminish these practices. This 
kind of supervision would be no more rigorous than that under 
which national banks now exist.” 


The report also discusses the work of the Commission during the cur- 
rent year, uniform classification of freight, through routes and through 
rates, procedure in the courts on applications for the enforcement of the 
orders of the Commission, railway statistics, and other matters of im- 
portance. Previous recommendations in regard to legislation on these 
subjects are renewed. Attention is called to the recommendation of the 
Statistician in regard to the establishment of a bureau of railway statis- 
tics and accounts, and to the endorsement of the plan by the latest con- 
vention of state railroad commissioners. H. T. Nrwcome. 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY, SESSION 1807-98 


Special Meeting, November 12, 1897.—Vice-President Greely in the chair. 
Dr Sheldon Jackson gave an illustrated lecture on Alaska: a Trip to the 
Yukon and Klondike Gold Fields. 


Excursion to the Naval Observatory, November 13, 1897.—Saturday even- 
ing excursion to the Naval Observatory by invitation of Commander 
Charles H. Davis, U.S. N.; attendance, about 400. Reception by the 
Superintendent and officers in the library. Parties were formed, in 
charge of officers and assistants, to visit the various departments and in- 
spect the instruments and the magnetic observatory. On the return, the 
members and their guests called at ‘‘ Twin Oaks” to pay their respects to 
President Hubbard, who had been prevented from attending the meeting 
by indisposition. 


Regular Meeting, November 19, 1897.—Mr Henry F. Blount in the chair. 
The report of the committee appointed to audit the accounts of the 


ft 


32 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


Treasurer was read and accepted. Papers were read, with lantern illus- 

trations, by Mr Arthur P. Davis on The Pollution of Potomac Water, its 
- Sources and Extent, and on The Effects and Remedies, by Passed ASSIS 
-Surgeon E. K. Sprague, of the Marine Hospital Service. 


Special Meeting, November 26, 1897.—Mr W J McGee in the chair. Mr 
W. H. Holmes, of the National Museum, gave an illustrated lecture on 
The Ruined Cities of Yucatan. 


Regular Meeting, December 3, 1897.—Mr W J McGee inthe chair. Papers 
were read by Mr F. W. Hodge, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
on Acoma and the Enchanted Mesa, and by Dr Walter Hough on Indian 
Medicinal Plants of the Southwest. The first paper was illustrated by 
lantern slides. 


Special Meeting, December 10, 1897.— Vice-President Greely in the chair. 
Professor E. A. Grosvenor, of Amherst College, gave an illustrated lecture 
on The Greek and the Turk: the Product of Geographic Environment. 


EvLecrions.—New members have been elected as follows: 


November 18.—C. F. Frederick Adam, 8S. M. Becker, R. G. Campbell, 
Dr O. F. Cook, Miss Amelia R. Ghenies, AG Coolidge, R. B. Dashiell, 
U.S. N., Assistant Naval Constructor Devaidl G. Fairchild, Edward M. 
Fowler, George R. Ide, Miss Mary E. O’Connor, Lieut. J. G..Ord, U.S. A., 
Hon. Ellis H. Roberts, Alfred G. Safford, John Sherman, Dr Andrew H 
Smith, Mrs Sterling H. Smith, Walter T. Swingle, Mrs Horatio N. Taplin, 
Miss Marion Thatcher, Mrs Julia C. Townsend, Rev. D. ©. Weston, D.D., 
J. W. Witten, J. E. Woodman. 


November 24.—Mrs E. F. Adams, Albert Carry, Dr J. B. Gregy Custis, 
Hon. J. L. Davenport, Miss Adelaide Fuller, Mrs E. C. Hobson, Miss 
Annie E. Jobnston, Rev. R. H. McKim, D.D., John Meigs, Jr., Gen. J. K. 
Mizner, U.S. A., Mrs W. H. Osborn, Mrs M. C. Peabody, J. A. Pitman, 
George W. Rouzer, Dr E. K. Sprague, 8S. Sugenheimer, Mrs Adelia L. 8. 
Thombs, Miss Ellen A. Vinton, Sanford N. Whitwell. 


PorruGurEsE East Africa. <A concession has been granted for the.con- 
struction of a railway from Beira to Tete, with the object of developing 
the Tete coal-fields. 


British Cenrran Arrica. The trade of Chinde, the port of British 
Central Africa, at the mouth of the Zambesi, is said to be increasing rap- 
idly. Chinde is now in direct telegraphic communication with Zomba 
and Blantyre. 


TransyAAL. The Industrial Commission reports that during 1896 out 
of the 185 gold mines in the Transvaal 79 produced gold to the value of 
£8,603,821. The remaining 104 produced no gold, most of them being 
merely in process of development. Only 25 companies declared divi- 
dends, the aggregate amount thus paid being £1,718,781. 


me NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the East and the West. 


H. W. FULLER, Genl/. Pass. Agent, Washington, D. C. 


SZ 
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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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J. H. WINGFIELD, Passenger Agent, Norfolk, Va. 


S. H. HARDWICK, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Atlanta, Ga. 
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ISAAC F. LLOYD, Second Vice-President. EMORY McCLINTOCK, Actuary. 
WILLIAM J. EASTON, Secretary. 


“NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 
THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST. 

The only American magazine devoted to the science of Anthropology in 
all its branches is THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, published at the 
National Capital. This journal is now in its eleventh year of increasing 
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ADDRESS : THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 
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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MONOGRAPHS 


On the PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE, designed especially to supply to teachers and 
students of geography fresh and interesting material with which to supplement the regular text-book. 


LIST OF MONOGRAPHS COMPRISING VOLUME I: 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROCESSES - - - - - = 
GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES - - - - - - ty. W. Powell 
PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES - - - 

BEACHES AND TIDAL MARSHES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST Prot. N. S. Shaler 
PRESENT AND EXTINCT LAKES OF NEVADA - - - - Prof. I. C. Russell 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—NORTHERN SECTION - - - Bailey Willis 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—SOUTHERN SECTION - - - C. Willard Hayes 
MrT. SHASTA—A TYPICAL EXTINCT VOLCANO - - - - J. S. Diller 

THE NEW ENGLAND PLATEAU - - - - - - - Prof. W. M. Davis 


NIAGARA FALLS AND ITS HISTORY - - - - - - G. K. Gilbert 


Price for one set of ten monographs, $1.50. Five sets to one address, $6.00. Single monographs, 20c. 


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TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 


An International Quarterly Journal 


Edited by L. A. BAUER 
With the Co-operation of Eminent Magneticians 


ass the March, 1897, issue, this Journal, devoted exclusively to Terrestrial Magnetism and allied 
subjects, such as Karth Currents, Auroras, Atmospheric Electricity, etc., entered on its second 
volume. The hearty co-operation extended by the workers in this promising field of investigation, as 
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Among the contributors of the main articles in the past have been Messrs. Barus, Borgen, Chree, 
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Future numbers will contain: 


‘‘The Earth, a Great Magnet,”’ 
By Dr. J. A, FLEMING. 


‘‘ The Electrification of the Atmosphere,’’ 
By Pror. ALEXANDER MCADIE. 


‘¢ The Height of the Aurora,’’ 
By Pror. CLEVELAND ABBE. 


‘¢The Distribution of Magnetic Observatories,’’ 
(Illustrated), 
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ete:; etc: 


_ The size of the Journal is royal octavo, a volume embracing about 200 pages. Domestic subscription 
price: Two dollars; single numbers, fifty cents. Foreign subscription price: Nine shillings, nine 


marks, or eleyen francs. Address; 
TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM, 
' The University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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Chattanoog: 

Shing ton and oP anipa via Columbia, Savannah and Jacksonville. 
shineton and Memphis via Atlanta, Birmingham and K.C.M. & B. 
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orfolk and Chattanooga via Salisbury, Asheville and Knoxville. 


Pullman Sleeping Cars—Dining Cars—Day peaches: 
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he direct line to the FLORIDA, GULF COAST and TEXAS, 
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; A.S. THWEKATT, Hastern Passenger Agent, 271 Broadway, New York, N. Y¥ 
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I. S. BROWN, General Agent, 705 Fifteenth St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 
J. H. WINGFIELD, Passenger Agent, Norfolk, Va. 


H. HARDWICK, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Atlanta, Ga. % 
A. BENSCOTER, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
H. TAYI,OB, Assistant General Passenger. Agent, Louisville, Ky. 


. M. CULP, Traffic Manager. i - W. A. TURK, General Passenger Agent. 


The Mutual Life Insurance Co, 


OF NEW YORK, 
RICHARD A. McCURDY, President, 


Is the Largest Insurance Company in the World. 


e Records of the Insurance Department of the State of New 
-York SHOW THAT The Mutual Life 

das a Larger Premium Income - -_ - ($39,000,000) 

fore Insurance in Force _- - - - -  ($918,000,000) 


Greater Amount of Assets. - - - -  ($235,000,000) 
rger Annual Interest Income - -~ - ($9,000,000) 
ites More New Business - - - -  ($186,000,000) 

ays More to Policy-holders -. - ($25,000,000 in 1896) 


THAN ANY OTHER COMPANY. 


aS aid to Policy-holders since | 
its a in 1843, lpn ria coats ar 


ILLETTE, General Manager. FREDERIC CROMWELL, Treasurer. 
Becond Vice-President. EMORY McCLINTOCK, Pasterngte 
rh PASIAN 1: area Seererny 


OF course you expect to go there this winter. 


me whisper seems | in your ear. 


the return oe of your ticket reads via the wee 


each more ae 14,000 ee high, Mt. 
lt. Adams, and others. You will also i ee leg 


to make side. trips into the Kootenai con 


the. United States, Bat pe ‘the World. 
begins June Ist each year. 
amade in Union Station, Portland, for 


cities and the east, via Northern Pacific. 


4 AN ILLUSTRATED--MONTHLY 


|. Haitor: JOHN HYDE 


Associate Editors , 
"WJ McGEE \ HENRY-GANNETT 
C©\HART MERRIAM ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE 


\ 


\ 


. |  conrents| / -- , 
IEGE; PORTRAIT OF GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD. 


cR GREENE HUBBARD. B 

NIS 8. HAMLIN, D Dj | -PR_MARCUS BENJAMIN, 
GRAHAM BELL. \ PRESIDENT D./C. GILMAN. 

$HN. GEO, M. STERNBERG, U.S. A. (MAJOR JOHN W. POWELL. 

)LANGLEY, — Vea aa “HON A. R. SPOFFORD. 

~WILSQN. | pete oh ON: JOHN W. ROSS. 


—* 


WHITMAN), 


‘ 


7B: 
sm, »~ a ff : } Z e 
SHED BY THE\NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


Th. * | \ 


\ 


tee Pa Hiya Sey aw, Sede iN. / 
AGeNts iIn-vun Untren Starrs and Canapa -;, 
AWS Company, 39 AND 41 Cuamuprs Streer, New York 


PR A OVALE. sh“ | | GENERAL A. W. GREELY, Ur 8. A. 


National Geographic Society 


ORGANIZED, JANUARY, 1888 


PRESIDENT 


ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL 


Vick-PRESIDENTS 


MARCUS BAKER A. W. GREELY . 

WILLIAM H. DALL C. HART MERRIAM 

G. K. GILBERT HERBERT G. OGDEN 
TREASURER 


HENRY GANNETT 


RECORDING SECRETARY CORRESPONDING SECRETARY 
F. H. NEWELL ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE 
MANAGERS 
CHARLES J. BELL EVERETT HAYDEN 
H. F. BLOUNT — JOHN HYDE 
F. V. COVILLE W J McGEE 
DAVID T. DAY W. B. POWELL 


SECRETARY’S OFFICE 
Room 55, Ohio Bank Building, Twelfth and G Sts. N.W., Washington 


The National Geographic Society, the object of which is the increase and diffusion 
of geographic knowledge, has a paying membership of 1,500. Its membership is not 
restricted to practical geographers, but is open to any person in good standing who may 
be sufficiently interested in its work to seek admission. The annual subscription is: for 
active members, $5.00 per annum ; for corresponding members, $2.00 perannum. Active 
members pay also an entrance fee of $2.00 on election. Tae Nationa GrograPHic 
MaGazineE is sent regularly to all members, both active and corresponding. 


Donations for the founding of Prize Medals and Scholarships are 
respectfully solicited. 


om 


a i i 


VOL. IX, 1898, PL. 2 


NAT. GEOG. MAG. 


National Geographic Magazine 


Vou. IX FEBRUARY, 1898 No. 2 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


An Address delivered at the Memorial Services held at the Church 
of the Covenant, Washington, D. C., December 13, 1897, 


By Rev. Treunis 8. Hamuiy, D. D. 


Our Capital city has lost its first citizen in civil life. The 
country and the world have lost a benefactor. Science, art, in- 
vention, discovery, the legal profession, philanthropy, broad- 
minded and generous culture, intelligent and refined hospitality 
are distinctly impoverished. Friendship of a pure, unselfish, 
persistent sort will miss a noble exemplar. Family life of the 
ideal type will have one less illustration among us. We areall 
personally bereaved today, and feel it our right to mingle our 
sorrows even with the more intimate grief of kindred, as we 
gather here to pay our last tribute of respect, reverence, and love. 

Gardiner Greene Hubbard was descended from an educated 
and gentle ancestry on both sides for many generations. Phys- 
ically, mentally, and morally his heredity, and so his personal 
nature, were of the best. He was bornin Boston August 25, 1822. 
His father, Samuel, an alumnus of Yale and a doctor of laws 
from Yale, Dartmouth, and Harvard, was an accomplished law- 
yer, and during his last years a member of the Supreme Court 
of Massachusetts. His grandfather, William, was a successful 
merchant. Back of this the family is English, its first repre- 
sentative in America being Wiliam Hubbard, a graduate of 
Harvard in 1642; pastor for 58 years at Ipswich, Mass., and 
historian of New England. His mother, Mary, was the daughter 
of Gardiner Greene, of Boston, one of the most prosperous and 
eminent men of his day. 

After careful preparation at the then, as now, excellent Boston 
schools, Mr Hubbard took a full course at Dartmouth in the class 
of 1841, and at once entered upon the study of law at Cambridge. 


> 
v 


a 


o4 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


Admitted to the bar in 18438, he entered the office of Benjamin 
R. Curtis and remained with that eminent-firm until its head 
came to this city to take his seat upon the Supreme Bench of the 
United States. For twenty years he practiced his profession in 
Boston and for five years longer in this capital, to which he was 
drawn by considerations of health and by our salubrious climate. 
It is so long since Mr Hubbard Jaid down his profession (almost 
twenty years) and he has since become so eminent in so many 
other activities that his real greatness as a lawyer has become ob- 
scured; but he was thorough in this as inallelse. He was asso- 
ciated with Webster and other great men in many notable cases. 
Both Dartmouth College and Columbian University gave him a 
doctorate of laws. Had he devoted himself till life’s close to his 
_ first pursuit he would have made and held a place among the 
leaders of the American bar. 

Mr Hubbard very early evinced the far-sighted enterprise and 
the broad and active public spirit that characterized him to the 
last. Fixing his residence in Cambridge, he threw himself at 
once into all its municipal interests. He became president of 
the company that built the first street railroad in this country 
outside of New York city—that, namely, between Cambridge and 
Boston. Hewas for some ten years a member of the State Board 
of Education of Massachusetts. In 1860 he was led by the re- 
sult of serious sickness in one of his own children to carefully 
investigate the possibility of teaching deaf mutes to speak. The 
idea had originated in Germany and been successfully applied 
in a few cases; but it remained for Mr Hubbard to make this, 
like several other things lying dormant or inefficient, widely or 
universally available. Convinced by personal study of what 
might be accomplished, and with an object-lesson before him in 
his own household, he gathered a half dozen pupils, employed a 
teacher, and opened a school in Chelmsford, near Boston, to which 
he was a most generous contributor for several years. Meanwhile 
he applied to the legislature for a charter only to be met with 
doubts, and discouraged as a visionary. Buthe persevered; took 
the pupils of his school, and even his own little daughter, before 
a legislative committee to demonstrate his success; and finally 
secured the founding of the Clarke school at Northampton, the 
best of its kind in the world, which he organized, of whose board 
of trustees he was the first president and a member till his death, 
and which, in telegraphing its condolence, says it ‘‘ recognizes an 
immeasurable loss.” In this great achievement Mr Hubbard 
opened the benefits and delights of language and of association, 
on practically equal terms with their fellowmen to a multitude 


” 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 30 


that had hitherto been doomed to live apart and to miss many of 
life’s sweetest joys. His keen interest in this work never lagged, 
and he has for many years been first vice-president of the Amer- 
ican Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. 
This alone would entitle him to be called a benefactor of mankind. 

These services, together with his high standing as a lawyer, 
and his very efficient labors as a commissioner from Massachu- 
setts to the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia, had given 
Mr Hubbard a national reputation ; and in 1876 President Grant 
appointed him chairman of a special commission to investigate 
the entire question of railway mail transportation. His work 
here was characteristically thorough, and is to be chiefly credited 
with the present excellent condition of that important branch of 
the public service. From that time distinguished political pre- 
ferments have been repeatedly offered him ; but though the com- 
pliment was fully appreciated, the offer was always declined, since 
he believed independence of action to be best, both for himself 
and for the causes that he loved, and aimed to promote. During 
his residence of nearly a quarter of a century at this Capital he 
has been the trusted friend and counsellor of Presidents and 
statesmen, and has exercised a strong, if indirect, influence upon 
national and international affairs. He was a wise and staunch 
friend of arbitration. He believed that the Government should 
use its post-offices as telegraph stations. He was vitally interested 
in the free library of this city. He had long urged what is just 
now happily coming anew to the front, the establishment here of 
a true national university upon the lines drawn by Washington. 
He was an active and efficient trustee of the Columbian University. 
He cherished the keenest interest in his Alma Mater; was presi- 
dent of her Alumni Association in this city, and provided a lec- 
tureship at the college which is filled by his close and cherished 
friend, ex-Senator Dawes. President Tuckersays: “The college 
honors the memory which has become a part of its lasting posses- 
sions.” He was a regent of the Smithsonian Institution, and 
eminently fitted to be, for he was committed mind and heart and 
soul to “the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men.” 

And so, while not himself a specialist in science, Mr Hubbard 
became a promoter of science, and ina remarkable degree a friend 
of scientists. He felt a hearty and honest pride in our city’s lead- 
ing position as a scientific center in this country. Every earnest 
student of science was sure of his sympathy and encouragement. 
Nowhere outside of his own household will he be more missed 
than in the goodly scientific fellowship here, as nowhere has he 
been more honored and beloved. It was this fondness, probably, 


36 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD — 


that led him to cast such a wealth of thought and labor into the 
National Geographic Society, the beloved child of his old age. 
He carried it daily upon his heart. He planned for it con- 
stantly. He was never too busy or too weary to consult and 
act for its welfare. He had willing and efficient helpers; but 
no one will be more quick than they to say that the President 
made it what it ‘was, easily the leading organization of its kind 
in the United States. The estimation in which he was held 
among the scientific men of the National Capital is shown by 
the fact that he was thrice elected President of the Joint Com- 
mission of the Scientific Societies of Washington, and held that 
honorable position from the formal organization of the Commis- 
sion in 1895 until his death. 

But, if not a technical scientist, Mr Hubbard’s intense sym- 
pathy with science was supplemented by a wide and far from 
inaccurate knowledge. He was a close student of the electric, 
or magnetic, telegraph, and the late president of the Western 
Union Company said he had done more than any other man to 
make the service of that great corporation popularly available. 
His capacities in such directions were widely recognized, and 
for many years he was first vice-president of the American Asso- 
ciation of Inventors and Manufacturers. One of his last labors 
was filling the semi-scientific position of Commissioner of Awards 
at the Tennessee Exposition. At the cost of immense care and 
very wide and protracted correspondence he formed his jury of 
fifty experts, and then spent three busy weeks in Nashville in 
directing and supervising their labors. So highly was his work 
appreciated that when death came there lay upon his desk an ~ 
invitation to do the same thing next year at Omaha. 

It was this scientific leaning, combined with a fine commercial 
talent and matured business judgement, that enabled him to ren- 
der to the telephone that inestimable service by which, perhaps, 
he will be most widely known and longest remembered. In no 
sense its inventor, Mr Hubbard’s unfaltering faith in its possi- 
bilities fitted him to take this product of the splendid genius of 
his son-in-law, Professor Bell, and make it practicably available 
and commercially profitable. When the invention—one of the 
greatest of the century—was to all intents and purposes com- 
plete, it had brought with it an enormous task. “A new art was 
to be taught to the world, a new industry created, business and 
social methods revolutionized.” Mr Hubbard was the man for 
the hour. “It does speak,” cried Sir Wiliam Thomson; and 
Mr Hubbard added, ‘‘ I will make the world hear it.” He did. 
What men thought a toy he showed to be a machine of price- 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 37 


jess value. He brought it into hourly use in this country, in 
England, on the continent of Hurope, organizing the Interna- 
tional, Oriental, and other companies, until, in less than a quarter 
of a century, it is conveying thought in every civilized language, 
and has become, more quickly than any other invention of his- 
tory, a necessity of daily life and an untold blessing to mankind. 

But this man of tireless energy and exhaustless capacity for 
varied enterprises does not diminish upon a closer view. He 
recognized his obligations as a citizen of this Capital, and met 
them promptly and well. He was governor of the Society of Colo- 
nial Wars in the District of Columbia. It was represented to 
him that the city should be made interesting and attractive by 
preserving some of its most notable historic houses, and suitably 
marking its historic sites. Instantly his mind assented and his 
heart was enlisted. He gave himself with ardor to the forming 
of the “‘ Memorial Association of the District of Columbia,” and 
it is largely through his efforts and influence that the Congress 
has purchased the house in which Mr Lincoln died and set it 
apart as a perpetual shrine of patriotic pilgrimage. He dispensed 
a generous and refined hospitality, not only or chiefly for his 
own pleasure—though he keenly enjoyed good society—but also 
because he recognized the duty of a suitable welcome to the city’s 
and the nation’s guests. It is many years since any man of dis- 
tinction for real merits or valuable services has come to Wash- 
ington without finding himself seated at Mr Hubbard’s table, 
and among/guests whom it was a pleasure and an honor to meet. 
He read the best books; and, while evincing no special talent as 
a writer, he had a fine literary taste and was a judicious and 
kindly critic. He had a passion for art, especially for etchings 
and engravings, in knowledge and appreciation of which he was 
a rare expert, and his collection is one of the finest in this coun- 
try. Seldom was he seen to better advantage than when show- 
ing these treasures to some appreciative friend, when his fine 
face would beam with pleasure and his deep eye scan afresh 
every detail of beauty that he knew and loved so well. 

Mr Hubbard was a man of marked purity of life, to whom a 
stain of any sort seemed: utterly foreign. No one would have 
ventured upon coarseness of word or act in his presence. He 
was intensely conscientious. He was unselfish, willing to accept 
the efficient result of his labors, and let others get the praise. He 
eould not be roused to resentment, and was often silent when 
friends thought he should speak and claim his rights. He served 
his fellowmen not only in the great ways already noted, but with 
unstinted gilts of thought and sympathy, and, if need be, of 


38 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


money, in quiet, unmentioned ministries; and he served them 
also with what is by no means easiest to give—steadfast friend- 
ship. The number is very large of young men, and men not so 
young, whom Mr Hubbard drew to him and who regarded him 
as more than friend—as almost father. This single fact is one of 
the finest tributes possible to the beauty and strength of his charac- 
ter. His family hfe may hardly be mentioned here; but itis no 
intrusion to name what all who entered his beautiful home wit- 
nessed—a chivalrous, conjugal devotion and a tender love for 
children and grandchildren, most delightful to see, and that 
have now become sacred and blessed memories. 

Mr Hubbard’s love for this church was intense and unfailing. 
During the second year of its existence he succeeded Mr Justice 
Strong as president of its board of trustees and still held the 
office at his death. He served upon its building committee 
and builded his best thought and devotion into its walls. He 
planned and labored to have it minister to all that is high and 
pure and elevating for the community; and one of his latest 
wishes was that this fine organ should be used freely to give 
pleasure to the music-lovers of the city. Of his inmost religious 
experiences we may not speak too freely, for he himself was 
reticent about them. He confessed Christ in his early man- 
hood in Boston under the ministry of the celebrated and godly 
Dr Edward N. Kirk, and later removed his church membership 
to Cambridge, whence he never brought it to this city. He was 
not clear about some points of metaphysical theology, and was 
too conscientious to do what would seem to commit him to any- 
thing that he did not fully believe. He was reverent, devout, — 
sincere, aiming each day to shape his life on the plan of fidelity 
to his noblest ideals, to man and to God. 

It is a unique life that has thus been led among us and that 
has now, amid universal grief, though as one has said with 
“exultation ” in what it has been and has accomplished, sunk 
peacefully and gently to its close. One of the most competent 
judges writes: “ When I say that I regarded him as the most 
useful citizen of Washington, I cannot say more of any man.” 
What high and noble phase of the life of our city is not the 
poorer for his going, but also the richer for his having lived 
among us? What that is purest, truest, sweetest, most broad- 
minded, most generous-hearted, did he not illustrate and adorn ? 
Man of faith and of action, scholar, lover of art, patriot, cosmo- 
politan, true friend, tender husband and father, who didst always 
live with thy face to the sun-rising! ‘‘ Good night; and flights 
of angels sing thee to thy rest.” 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


Memorial Meeting, held in the City of Washington, January 21, 1898, 


10. 


ill) 


Prof. Alexander Graham Bell, LL. D., President of the 
National Geographic Society, presiding 


ADDRESSES 


Introductory remarks by President A. Graham Bell............ 


. Address by Dr George M. Sternberg, Surgeon-General, U.S. A., 


Acting-President of the Joint Commission of the Scientific So- 
cieties of Washington, on behalf of the Joint Commission and 
EINER S CLOMbIMCHSOCLCMCS arose sapere elven ie Cecuete ea ielevait as ce Nene 


. Prof. 8. P. Langley, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 


introducing Honorable William L. Wilson. ................. 


. Honorable William L. Wilson, President of Washington and Lee 


University, ex-Postmaster-General, a Regent and Member of 
the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, on behalf of the Smithsonian Institution. . 


. Miss Caroline A. Yale, LL. D., Vice-President of the American 


Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, 
and Principal of the Clarke School, Northampton, Mass., on 
behalf of the American Association to Promote the Teaching of 
Speech to the Deaf SURE CRTC Bice HA CU Ca RAPT) TOE re EE : 


. Dr B. L. Whitman, President of Columbian University, on behalf 


Cig tne Wa erSkE yeu cies eine epemeaaaete a @ om cise mnie NE Un ay 


. Dr Marcus Benjamin, Historian of the Society of Colonial Wars, 


on behalf of that Society. -s2.42 5.4). 00. 2 csp tame Ley Rn IR aCe EE 


. Dr Daniel C. Gilman, President of Johns Hopkins University, on 


Gardiner Greene Elubbard astavclelpemac.c.so.. ss ses. aoe 


. Major John W. Powell, Director of the Bureau of American Eth- 


nology, Associate Editor of Science, ex-Director of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, on behalf of the journal Science........... 


. Honorable A. R. Spofford, Assistant Librarian of the Congres- 


sional Library, Vice-President of the Columbia Historical So- 
ciety, on behalf of the Columbia Historical Society........... 


Honorable John W. Ross, Chairman of the Board of Commis- 
sioners of the District of Columbia, on behalf of the City and 
Wei Tal oer nye nc NS ca cociak ees tyoce ence aise uve aT a. he a oe 


General A. W. Greely, Chief Signal Officer of the U. 8. Army, 
Senior Vice-President of the National Geographie Society, on 
Dekraloteth a SOCLeb venir Mia eaeticie iste sicicne: imu kere be: 


46 


On 
we) 


57 


59 


66 


68 


40 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


President Beit: A familiar face has departed from among us, 
and the place left vacant we cannot fill. The President of the 
National Geographic Society, the Honorable Gardiner Greene 
Hubbard, died December 11, at his home, Twin Oaks. He him- 
self arranged for this meeting to commemorate the tenth anni- 
versary of the founding of the National Geographic Society, and 
it has seemed ‘peculiarly appropriate to the Board of Managers 
that it should be made also a memorial meeting to himself. 

On behalf of the National Geographic Society, I desire to extend 
avery cordial welcome to the representatives of other scientific 
societies wlfo are present with us on this occasion, and to the 
many personal friends of Mr Hubbard who have honored us with 
their presence. 

Of the many letters of regret that have been received from gen- 
tlemen unable to attend, I will read but one. This letter is from 
the Executive Mansion, dated January 21,1898. It isas follows: 


‘*My Dear Sir: I beg leave to acknowledge the courteous invitation to 
attend the memorial meeting in honor of the late Gardiner G. Hubbard, 
to be held under the auspices of the National Geographic Society, at the 
First Congregational Church this evening. 

‘“The President wishes me to express his sincere regret at his inability 
to be present at this meeting, as he would have been very glad to join 
with Mr Hubbard’s friends in paying tribute to his high character and 
the commanding influence of his noble life. 

(Signed) Joun ApDpISON PortTER, 
Secretary to the President.”’ 


A large number of telegrams have also been received, but I 
shall read only the following cablegram from the Honorable 
Andrew D. White, Ambassador to Germany, who sends this 
message : 


‘*T unite in very affectionate tribute to Mr Hubbard, a faithful friend, 
patriotic citizen, devoted public servant, and true man. 
(Signed) ANDREW D. Wuire.”’ 


It will not be my place to speak to this assemblage of the in- 
terest and the work of Mr Hubbard in connection with the Na- 
tional Geographic Society, as that will be done by one far more 
competent, Gen. A. W. Greely. Mr Hubbard’s heart has for 
many years been especially devoted to the Geographic Society. 
His last thoughts were of this Society and of this meeting, the 
tenth anniversary of its foundation. So peculiarly wrapt up in 
this Society was he that his family entrusted his remains to its 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 41 


Board of Managers, the members of which personally carried his 
body to the grave. 

Mr Hubbard was a man of large views. I know of no man 
who could take so broad a view of things as he could or who was 
so well fitted to occupy the position to which he was elected in 
this city, and which he esteemed above every other honor of his 
life, the position of President of the Joint Commission of the 
Scientific Societies of Washington. His views were not confined 
to narrow horizons. Without making any claim to be a spe- 
cialist in science himself, he had an exceedingly clear concep- 
tion of the relations of the sciences one to another, and he was 
therefore admirably fitted to be the president of such an organ- 
ization as the Joint Commission. We'who are more especially 
identified with the National Geographic Society feel that our 
friend and leader has been taken from us, and I know that in 
the Joint Commission a similar feeling is expressed. I will call 
upon Gen. George M. Sternberg, Surgeon-General of the United 
States Army, who is Acting-President of the Joint Commission 
of the Scientific Societies of Washington, to speak to us on be- 
half of that body. 

Surgeon-General SrERNBERG: Itis my privilege to pay a brief 
tribute to the memory of my departed friend and late associate 
upon the Joint Commission of the Scientific Societies of Wash- 
ington, Mr Gardiner G. Hubbard. 

Mr Hubbard was elected President of the Joint Commission 
at a time when this organization was in a state of unstable equi- 
librium, due to differences of opinion as to the nature and extent 
of the powers which should be conferred upon it by the several 
societies whose governing boards constituted its membership. 
He looked upon it as an organization which, properly directed, 
might accomplish useful results in the diffusion of scientific in- 
formation and which would prove a bond of union between the 
scientific societies of Washington and enable them to act together 
in matters of common interest. These objects commanded his 
sympathy and active codperation, and from the time of its re- 
organization with increased membership and extended powers, 
in January, 1895, to the day of his death Mr Hubbard was the 
president of this body. We owe much to his experience and 
skill as a presiding officer, to his practical methods of dealing 
with business matters coming before the Executive Committee, 
and to his cordial sympathy with the objects in view. If, as we 
now hope, the Joint Commission, by a natural process of evolu- 


42 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


tion, shall become the nucleus of a Washington Academy of 
Sciences, Mr Hubbard will always occupy an honorable place in 
the history of this Academy of Sciences. He was in the habit 
of disclaiming any pretensions to be considered a “ scientific 
man.” Ifonly those who are engaged in scientific research work 
are properly so called, his modest disclaimer may be admitted ; 
but it would be well for many of the scientific men of the coun- 
_try if they could take as broad a view and as intelligent an in- 
terest in the general progress of scientific knowledge and of ap- 
plied science in all departments of human industry and art as 
that manifested by the late President of the Joint Commission. 
His interest in science was catholic, and no doubt found its 
inspiration to a large extent in that genial and generous human- 
ity which was so characteristic of him. Anything calculated to 
promote the comfort and happiness of those about him and of 
mankind in general was to him a matter of interest, and this 
kindly feeling led to the generous hospitality and cordiality of 
manner which all have experienced who enjoyed the privilege 
of his acquaintance. He quickly recognized merit and earnest 
effort in any department of human endeavor, and his ready sym- 
pathy and practical advice were always at command for the ad- 
vancement of any good cause. With him acquaintance quickly 
ripened into friendship when he was brought into contact with 
one whose work and character commanded his respect. 
Although his age and extensive personal interests might have 
excused him from active participation in the management of the 
affairs of the Joint Commission, he was too conscientious to neg- 
lect any of the duties pertaining to the office which he had ac- 
cepted, and at meetings of the Executive Committee his kindly 
presence was seldom missed. Prompt in his attendance and ex- 
pecting others to be equally punctual in keeping their appoint- 
ments, he had a happy method of dispatching business and of — 
checking unnecessary discussion and dilatory proceedings. He 
manifested no intention or desire to overrule the wishes of the 
majority in anything relating to the organization and interests 
of the Joint Commission, but as presiding officer did his best to 
promote harmony and to carry into effect the measures which 
were evidently favored by a majority of the members of the or- 
ganization. So far as his relation to the Joint Commission and 
the scientific societies of Washington is concerned [ have noth- 
ing to add, but I cannot close without expressing my personal 
sense of ee and bereavement. Although my acquaintance with 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 43 


Mr Hubbard dated back only to the year 1893, I had learned to 
look upon him as a friend and to appreciate his cordial greeting 
when we met as one of the pleasant things in life. 

He was so young at heart and in appearance that I scarcely 
realized that he was much my senior in years, and the announce- 
ment of his death after so brief an illness came to me as an un- 
expected shock. Those of us who knew him well will continue 
to cherish his memory as that of a public-spirited citizen, a lover 
of truth, a promoter of good works, and a trusted friend. 

President Bett: Mr Hubbard was a Regent of the Smithsonian 
Institution and took great interest in its progress. I shall ask 
Professor Langley and the Hon. William IL. Wilson, President 
of the Washington and Lee University and ex-Postmaster-Gen- 
eral of the United States, to say a few words on behalf of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Professor LANGLEY: I knew Mr Gardiner Hubbard for many 
years, and I owesome of the very pleasantest hours of my Wash- 
ington life to the kindness and hospitality I received in his home. 
Among the many occupations of his own varied life there were 
few in which he took more interest or was more zealous than in 
his duties as Regent of the Smithsonian Institution. It might 
seem asif I, as Secretary of that Institution, could with propriety 
give an account of his relations to it. That, however, can be 
better given by another, and since we have here tonight the gen- 
tleman whose name has just been mentioned, the late Postmaster- 
General, who, as a resident of Washington, became not only a 
Regent but a member of the executive committee and a col- 
league of Mr Hubbard, and who comes here in spite of the en- 
erossing duties of the University to speak to us tonight, I feel 
that I cannot do better than to give place to him and ask him to 
speak of one whom he knew so well in this connection, and whose 
relations as a colleague have been more intimate than mine. 

Mr Wirson: To those who were permitted to enjoy the per- 
sonal friendship of Mr Gardiner Hubbard and to garner up 
gracious memories of intimate association with him, the first and 
strongest impulse tonight naturally is to speak of him as a man, 
to recall and commemorate the qualities and virtues that lay at 
the foundation of all that he was andall that he did. The world 
outside the circle of his acquaintances may sometimes have re- 
garded him merely as a man of large possessions ; his occasional 
fellow-workers in the varied fields of his activity and interests 
doubtless regarded him as a man of great achievements. Those 


44 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


who were privileged to enter the closer circle of personal friend- 
ship knew that however ample those possessions, however varied 
and admirable those achievements, they were much less than 
the man himself. They were the natural, almost the necessary, 
fruit of a clear intellect, a strong will, and, above all, a moral 
force that instinctively arrayed itself with generous sympathy on 
the side of the true, the beautiful, and the good. | 

The good causes of which Mr Hubbard was ever the discrim- 
inating and liberal, though modest, patron; the good work in 
which he was, to the very close of his life,an active participant, 
were not external to him; they were, one and all, part of his own 
nature. He was too self-respecting a man to court notoriety, 
either as a philanthropist or as a patron of education or science, 
by ostentatious benevolence. 

Now that Mr Hubbard has gone from us forever, we begin to 
realize how large, how unique, and how beautiful a part he bore 
in the social, charitable, and intellectual life of his adopted city. 
Washington is doubtless destined to become more and more the 
residence of men who have won fame or fortune in other parts of 
the country, and come here to make their homes amid congenial 
surroundings, homes of hospitality, and not seldom homes of re- 
finement and culture. Mr Hubbard did this and he did more 
than this. No home in Washingtcn has dispensed a more charm- 
ing and constant hospitality than his. He came to Washington 
with an acknowledged social position, with well known and 
honorable lineage, with liberal education and refined tastes, with 
large and successful experience in the business world, with a 
mind stored and broadened and liberalized by much reading and 
much contact with men and things in his own and other coun- 
tries. For sucha man it was inevitable that he should become 
associated with every form of charitable, educational, and scien- 
tific work in this country that appealed to a man of public and 
patriotic spirit, and if he became connected with them, it was as 
inevitable that he should become a leader in them. 

His election, as Professor Bell has told us, to the presidency 
of the Joint Commission of the seven scientific societies of Wash- 
ington is but one illustration of this. The Congress of the 
United States chose him a Regent of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. His associates on the board made him a member of its 
executive committee, charged with a personal supervision of this 
institution and of the scientific department which Congress had 
placed under its administration. 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 45 


Professor Langley has said that I would speak of him in this 
connection tonight, and yet what can { say of him here that 
would not be true of him in everything and in every duty that 
he assumed? It was not in the nature of Mr Hubbard—it was 
not the habit of his life—to be a mere ornamental holder of }o- 
sitions, to be a mere routine worker. High as was his personal 
regard and unstinted his admiration for the ability and scien- 
tific attainments of the Secretary of that institution and the 
heads of its bureaus, he wished, if possible, to press still for- 
ward; and at the last meeting of the Board of Regents, on his 
motion a committee was appointed, of which he was made chair- 
man, to consider and report how the value and usefulness of these 
bureaus could be promoted. 

So many sided was Mr Hubbard’s character, so many sided 
were the activities of his life, that it is fitting that the tributes 
paid to him tonight should come from many friends and from 
many points of view; but, start from wherever they may, they 
will inevitably meet and blend in the common tribute to the man 
himself. . 

I have'tried to speak of him with that studied moderation 
which I know would be most in accordance with his wishes. I 
have spoken of him as a man of public spirit, as a patron of ed- 
ucation and science, and as a benefactor of his fellowmen. 

I will draw aside the curtain of his home life only so far as to 
say that in all the relations of husband and father and grand- 
father he was the embodiment of courtesy, affection, and gentle- 
ness, the inbred traits of a born gentleman. 

President Bett: Mr Wilson has referred to the philanthropic 
spirit of Mr Hubbard, and I will now invite. your attention toa 
philanthropic work of his that was unique. In March, 1864, 
Mr Hubbard brought into the Massachusetts legislature a bill 
for the establishment of an oral school for deaf children. The 
schools of this country were taught by means of spelling on the 
fingers and by means of the French sign language. Many per- 
sons had suggested that oral schools like those in Germany, 
where the deaf had been taught to speak and to learn to read 
from the lips, should be established in America; but none had 
been established, until in March, 1864, Mr Hubbard made the 
first attempt to establish a school where deaf children could be 
- taught to speak and to understand speech by the motions of the 
mouth without resort to signs or manual spelling on the fingers. 

It is not my purpose to fully set forth his efforts in this direc- 


46 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


tion, but simply to direct attention to the magnitude of the work 
that has resulted from those efforts. Last year there were more 
than 5,000 deaf children in the schools of the United States learn- 
ing to speak and to read from the lips. There were over 3,600 
pupils who were taught by the oral method alone, without resort 
to alphabets or the sign language. The percentage of pupils 
taught by speech since these early efforts of Mr Hubbard’s has 
gone on increasing, increasing, increasing, until we know now 
with absolute certainty that the time will come when there will 
no longer be any deaf or dumb in this country, for all shall be 
taught to speak without resort to spelling or the French sign 
language. The instrumentalities through which this wonderful 
change has been effected are largely the Clarke school at North- 
ampton, Mass., and the organization of a society to promote the 
teaching of syeech to the deaf, known as the American Society. 
There are three great results that were originated by the move- 
ment of 1864: First, the teaching of speech to the deaf; second, 
lowering the age of instruction to the deaf (at that time no at- 
tempt was made to teach deaf children under 12 yearsof age), 
and last, but not least in importance, the employment of women 
as teachers of the deaf. Before that time the instructors were 
largely men; but the necessity of teaching speech to the very 
little child led to the employment of women. This fact and the 
improvement in the methods have been the secret of success in 
teaching speech to the deaf, and the work is now largely in the 
hands of women. 

The American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech 
to the Deaf is represented here tonight by its Vice-President, Miss 
Caroline A. Yaie, LL. D., who is also the Principal of the Clarke 
School at Northampton, which sprang from Mr Hubbard’s move- 
ment of 1864. Mr Hubbard has passed away, but he has 
breathed his spirit into us. In this work of teaching speech to 
the deaf there are hundreds of Mr Hubbard’s friends. They are 
organized into a society, and they are working and accomplish- 
ing the result at which he aimed. ‘The leader of this movement 
is with us tonight and will tell us something of the work. I in- 
troduce to you Dr Caroline A. Yale. 

Miss YALE: Among all the interests of Mr Hubbard’s life, 
possibly none extended over a longer period or was more deeply 
rooted in his rich nature than his interest in the education of ~ 
the deaf. In this, as in many other departments of his activity, 
he seemed possessed of prophetic vision. In his own little child’s 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 47 


voice he heard the prophecy that deaf children might speak, 
and to him is due, probably more than to any other one man, 
the fact that all America has realized the fulfillment of that 
prophecy. 

The results of the teaching of his own little child, made deaf 
by illness in early childhood, by means of lip-reading and speech, 
without the use of signs or the manual alphabet, were so satis- 
factory that Mr and Mrs Hubbard were confirmed in their opin- 
ion of the importance of very early instruction for deaf children 
and of the superiority of the oral method of instruction. They 
were most anxious that this method should be fairly tried and 
felt strongly that such trial could not be made satisfactorily in 
any of the already established schools, which employed the sign 
method and to which pupils were seldom admitted under ten or 
twelve years of age. 

The story of Mr Hubbard’s efforts to establish a school in 
Massachusetts, in which instruction should be given through lip- 
reading and speech alone, may most fittingly be told in his own 
words. He writes that previous to that time “ the sign language 
was believed in this country to be the best and only efficient 
method of instruction for the deaf. The reports of the Hon. 
Horace Mann in favor of the German system of articulation had 
attracted attention, and gentlemen from our oldest institutions 
had been sent abroad to examine into the subject. Their re- 
ports were only partially favorable, and the efforts to engraft the 
German system of articulation upon the French system of signs 
then in use in our country proved a failure.” So when in 1864 
Mr Hubbard presented a petition to the legislature asking for a 
charter for a school, it was the first attempt to establish a school 
under the oral method in a country where for fifty years the 
sign method had been firmly established. 

Hesays: “ This application was opposed by the friends of the 
American Asylum, on the ground that it was a visionary project 
and attempting the impossible. Dr Samuel G. Howe, of South 
Boston, earnestly seconded the petition and appeared with me 
before the legislature. Our efforts were unsuccessful and our 
proposition was rejected. I determined to show that it was not 
a visionary project, and meeting Miss Rogers, who was then 
teaching a deaf girl by articulation, we determined to organize 
a small school, so that when we again appealed to the legislature 
we could show the results of our new system. A small fund 
was raised. Our plan was advertised in the papers and after 


48 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


six or eight months we found six pupils, with whom we opened 
‘a school at Chelmsford, under the care of Miss Rogers.” 

Miss Rogers began teaching her first pupil a few months after 
the failure of the first attempt to establish a school. Mr Hub- 
bard watched the work of this little school with most intense 
interest, for from the first the full import of the experiment 
seemed clear to his mind. If it was successful it meant speech 
for the deaf and the English language through speech ; if it failed 
it meant a deeper silence and a strange language of signs used 
in place of the language of home and country. The success of 
the school exceeded their expectations, and in 1867 an effort was 
made to secure its incorporation. Mr Hubbard wrote: ‘‘ Mr 
Talbot and myself called on Governor Bullock and asked him in 
his message to the legislature to refer to our school and favor an 
application we intended to make for a charter for it. To our 
great surprise, he told us that he had that morning received a 
letter from a gentleman in Northampton offering $50,000 if a 
school for the deaf could be established in Northampton.” 

Governor Bullock did refer at considerable length to the offer 
of Mr Clarke and recommended the establishment of a school for 
the deaf in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. That portion’ 
of his message was referred to a special committee of the Senate 
and the House, of which the Honorable Lewis J. Dudley, of 
Northampton, was chairman on the part of the House. Long, 
earnest, and sharp were the debates held before the committee. 
The advocates of the sign method still felt that a fearful mistake 
was being made. The Massachusetts State Board of Charities, 
of which the Honorable F. B. Sanborn was secretary, heartily 
endorsed the movement toward the establishment of the new 
school. Mr Dudley had become a convert to the oral method 
and used his utmost influence to forward the movement. The 
act of incorporation was secured, and Mr Clarke expressed his 
purpose to give the school the bulk of his remaining property. 

The little experimental school of Miss Rogers was closed. Its 
zealous and devoted teacher and her pupils became the nucleus 
of the Clarke school in Northampton, which opened in October, 
1867. Mr Hubbard was made president of its corporation and 
for the first ten years of its existence gave the school much per- 
sonal attention. 

Then followed years when he lived much abroad and when his 
life was overcrowded with other interests; but wherever he was 
and however busied with other matters, he always found time to 
visit schools for the deaf and write of their methods and results. 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 49 


When later he was more at home and less abroad, the old- 
time enthusiastic interest in the school seemed to be roused 
anew. He rejoiced in the growth and expansion of its work, 
its adaptation of kindergarten methods, its establishment of a 
training class for teachers, and most of all he rejoiced in the 
higher intellectual work accomplished, which made it possible 
for a steadily increasing number of pupils to leave the school, 
fitted to enter higher schools for hearing young men and women, 
and to pursue their studies as students simply, in a world of 
ordinary students, becoming a part of the great world of speak- 
ing people. 

In 1890 the American Association to Promote the Teaching 
of Speech to the Deaf was founded by Dr Alexander Graham 
Bell, the husband of the little child whose need of special in- 
struction first led Mr Hubbard to take an interest in the instruc- 
tion of the deaf. The specific objects of its organization were to 
aid schools for the deaf in their efforts to teach speech by train- 
ing teachers and by disseminating information in regard to 
methods of speech-teaching. Into Dr Bell’s plans for this new 
organization Mr Hubbard entered with all the enthusiasm which 

she gave to his early work. He was its first vice-president, and 
the wisdom of his counsel and thestrength of his purpose have 
done much to guide the association through the difficulties of 
its first years of work and to give it the position which it now 
holds as the most influential and effective organization con- 
nected with the education of the deaf in this country—prob- 
ably in the world —its membership including, in addition to a 
large number of teachers, many other persons like Mr Hubbard 
and Dr Bell, who are most effective promoters of the work of 
the association. 

The influence of these two institutions, in the founding of 
which Mr Hubbard bore so active a part—the Clarke school and 
the American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech 
to the Deaf—has been most widespread, both in this country and 
in Europe. Today one-half of all the teachers in the schools for 
the deaf in America are teachers of articulation, and over one- 
half the pupils in those schools are taught speech. 

Beyond these definite results the effect of the growth of oral 
teaching in this country has been most stimulating to the gen- 
eral work of the education of the deaf, and “at every turn and 
on every marked occasion the influence of Mr Hubbard has 
been felt in this expanding and liberalizing movement.” Surely 

4 


50 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


the work and the workers must sadly mourn the loss of a leader 
and a friend, one clear of vision, strang of will, and kind of 
heart. 

President Bett: Mr Hubbard, as a Trustee of the Columbian 
University, took, as we all know, a great interest in that institu- 
tion, and I shall ask Dr Whitman, its President, to speak to us 
on its behalf. 

President Wurrman: Dr Hubbard was exceptionally happy 
in educational work. The Columbian University does not speak 
for itself alone when it emphasizes this phase of his influence, 
but it is able to speak with unusual emphasis from the fact that 
Dr Hubbard was an active member of its board of trustees. His 
name had an honored place on other boards of like character, 
but Columbian has been so situated that it has been able at all 
times to take advantage of his time and strength and influence: 
This makes it peculiarly proper that Dr Hubbard’s educational 
work should be represented in a tribute from this particular 
institution. 

The preparation of Dr Hubbard to serve educational interests 
was large and varied. His own academic and professional train- 
ing made him familiar with general educational principles, and 
continuous service through a long and busy life kept him in 
touch with the progress of educational enterprise. His well- 
known intimacy with prominent educators both at home and 
abroad, his recognized standing as a patron of art and science 
and literature, his well-known leadership in the business world, 
gave him peculiar fitness for dealing with educational problems. 
This fitness it was the good fortune of the Columbian University 
to enlist directly in its service. 

Two sets of ideas indicate clearly the services of Dr Hubbard 
to the University. 

On the one hand there is a group of ideas—thoroughness, pru- 
dence, progressiveness. Dr Hubbard always insisted upon the 
obligation to go to the bottom of things, whether the matter under 
consideration was a course of study ora purchase of real estate. 
He always urged the importance of knowing just what the facts 
were; this, however, was simply part of his great habit of pru- 
dence. He was never an obstructionist, but he was never will- 
ing to go faster than conditions warranted. It was thoroughly 
characteristic of him that when a few days before his death he 
sent for a representative of the University that he might be ac- 
quainted with the progress of a movement looking to the radical 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 51 


betterment of part of the University’s property. The enterprise 
itself he heartily commended, but at the same time he insisted 
that it should not be undertaken until it was known where the 
means would come from to carry the enterprise to completion. 
This incident illustrates, perhaps, as clearly as a trait can be 
illustrated the general attitude of Dr Hubbard’s mind toward 
work to be undertaken; in it thoroughness and prudence both 
speak. Happily, however, the habits of thoroughness and pru- 
dence did not make him unduly conservative ; rather he was 
one of the most progressive of men. His mind was so well bal- 
anced that so far from suggesting obstruction, prudence with 
him was simply the basis of wise undertaking. He never cut 
loose from the base of supphes, but the base of supplies was for 
him also the base of vigorous operations leading to ever larger 
movementand ever larger conquest. Dr Hubbard had in marked 
degree the great gift of far-sightedness; his vision was large; 
his plans for an institution could no more be confined to the 
limits of a single city than his own life and influence could be. 
There were always fields beyond to be taken into account, and 
there was in his heart largeness of hope answering to the large- 
ness of his vision; he was no pessimist. It was a sad, dark day 
for university work in Washington and everywhere when his 
large vision of things was clouded by death. 

On the other hand, we have his life as manifested in the great, 
virtues of integrity, trustfulness, sympathy. Integrity he pos- 
sessed in large degree; it is simply the truth to say that his life 
was a life of integrity. Falsehood, deceit, double speaking, un- 
faithfulness of every kind was hateful to him. Clouding of issues 
he could not tolerate. A line of thought he developed with great 
clearness and power when engaged three years ago in committee 
work with reference to filling the office of president, then vacant, 
was simply the speaking out of his own sense of the importance 
of a clear conception of the purpose of the institution. Conver- 
sation had turned upon certain obligations of the University 
toward those who had founded it in prayer and sacrifice. Dr 
Hubbard insisted that these prayers and offerings should be held 
in remembrance, and that while the institution ought not to be 
regarded as an agency for the glorification of any body of Chris- 
tians of any name, it ought beyond all question and beyond all 
doubt to be an agency for the furtherance of Christian education. 
When at the close of the last academic year, after long and pains- 
taking canyass of the whole question, it was thought well to revise 


52 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


the charter of the institution, Dr Hubbard worked indefatigably 
toward clearing up all doubtful questions, and heartily coincided 
with the Committee of Revision, on which he was serving, in their 
recommendation to the corporation that such changes should be 
made in the governing boards of the University as should clearly 
define all general issues and secure the most efficient oversight 
possible. It was not first a question of policy with him, but a 
question of right. Is it right that this should be done? And 
when he himself answered yes, he could add, and he did add, 
“ Tf it is right, then it is wise.” And when during the past year 
the University had to face the painful task of dealing with dis- 
honesty in a trusted official, it was the sense of violated obliga- 
tion that filled the soul of Mr Hubbard most with righteous 
indignation. His horror and contempt for theft and falsehood 
were the natural language of a soul which kept itself unsullied 
by insisting that the supreme rule of life is the rule of right. 
Naturally enough Dr Hubbard’s integrity made him trustful of 
others; the presumption of honesty in the other man was always 
emphasized by him. Clear proof had to be eiven that his con- 
fidence was misplaced before that confidence was withdrawn, 
His own word meant his honor pledged, and he assumed that 
the word of the other man meant the other man’s honor, too. 
Withal, Dr Hubbard exhibited in marked degree the beauti- 
ful traitof sympathy. Many were not aware of this. They saw 
the man who had achieved success in his business and profes- 
sional career and who gathered up unto himself lines of influence 
that made him a man of mark in the community; but those 
who were permitted to know him as a man were impressed by 
his kindliness of spirit, his willingness to sacrifice self for others, 
and his wonderful ability to enter into the joys and sorrows and 
ambitions of others. His life was a life of infinite detail along ’ 
the most varied lines of interest; but all these details and inter- 
ests did not make him forgetful of those who needed encourage- 
mentand help. It was a revelation to the man in question, but 
it was in every way characteristic of Dr Hubbard’s kindly 
thought, that from his sick chamber he sent for a representative 
of the University, who did not dream that certain of his activ- 
ities had been noticed, only to say to him these words, “‘ You are 
working too hard.” <A thousand illustrations of this trait could 
be enumerated, but the one experience tells the whole story as 
clearly as a thousand could; and when one had once learned 
that the brusqueness which sometimes marked his speech had 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 53 


no connection with his heart, but was rather to be interpreted 
by the twinkle in the eye that looked so kindly on the world, 
one had found the way to a rich store of sympathy and help. 
He admonished only when admonition was necessary; he 
warned and admonished and rebuked, but all was done with a 
kindliness that took away the sting. In all his life he never in- 
tentionally wounded a friend. He was no croaker; he was no 
faultfinder; heneverscolded; he never complained. He shared 
his gifts without grudging. The most precious of all his gifts he 
gave most freely of all, and that was himself. 

It is no wonder, then, that the Columbian University holds 
his name in grateful remembrance, for in that institution, as in 
the world outside, all respected him, and those who knew him 
loved him. His best monument is a community enriched and 
a world made better by his influence. All else decays; this 
abides forever, and in this the Columbian University gratefully 
records its part. 


“What is excellent 
As God lives is permanent. Hearts are dust. 
Hearts’-loves remain.” 


President Bett: Mr Hubbard was President of the Society of 
Colonial Wars. I will ask Dr Marcus Benjamin, Historian of 
that Society, to speak on its behalf. 2 
* Dr Bensamin: Gardiner Greene Hubbard was twice Governor 
of the Society of Colonial Wars in the District of Columbia, and 
at the time of his death his name had been selected by the com- 
mittee on nominations to head the list of the society’s officers 
for a third time. 

The society, which it is my privilege to represent on this oc- 
casion, is composed of descendants in the male line of those men. 
who in a military or naval capacity or in high civil office ren- 
dered service in the wars of the American colonies from the time 
of the settlement of Jamestown, in 1607, to that of the battle of 
Lexington,on April 19,1775. Ithas for its object the preserva- 
tion of the memory of those forefathers whose public services 
made our freedom and unity possible. 

It is not for me to attempt an account of the achievements 
that made Mr Hubbard so valuable a citizen to the world, for 
that has already been done by those who knew him more inti- 
mately ; indeed, my acquaintance with him only began with his 
admission to the Society of Colonial Wars, in the winter of 1895 ; 
but if you will permit me, I will, in the short time at my disposal, 


ot GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


say a few words concerning those ancestors whose records Mr 
Hubbard filed with our society and of whose memory he was so 
justly proud. f 

The first of his forefathers to settle in the New World was Wil- 
ham Hubbard, who sailed from London on the ship Defence and 
landed in Boston on October 6, 1635. He is believed to have 
been a gentleman of easy circumstances and the owner of much 
landed estate, but left his home because of a sense of irritation 
to his religious views, caused by the interference and restrictions 
then placed upon freedom of worship in England. Two years 
previous John Winthrop, the younger, had founded the settle- 
ment of Ipswich in the young colony, and here William Hub- 
bard, who had come from the older Ipswich in Suffolk, made his 
new home. That he was a man of means is shown by the numer- 
ous purchases of large tracts of land that are recorded in the 
“Old Norfolk County Deeds.” Hewas also a lover of learning, 
for in 1636 he became the founder and principal of the Ipswich 
Grammar School, giving one acre of ground for its site. The 
spot is still preserved, for the Cogswell school occupies today the 
acre consecrated to education more than two hundred and fifty 
years ago by the first of the Hubbards. This early pioneer was 
highly appreciated by his neighbors, for he was a deputy to the 
general court during 1638 and 1646, and held other public ap- 
pointments. About 1652 he removed to Boston, and there he 
died in the summer of 1670, at the ripe age of seventy-six. He 
was regarded as “a very learned man, being well read in state - 
matters, of a very affable and humble behavior, who hath ex- 
pended much of his estate to helpe on this worke.” Such was 
the ancestor through whom Mr Hubbard sought admission to 
our society. 

Of greater fame, perhaps, was the second William Hubbard, 
the fourth child and second son of his parents. He was born in 
Essex county, England, and came to this country with his par- 
ents. While a resident of Ipswich he entered Harvard and re- 
ceived from that university the master’s degree in 1642, in the 
first class that ever graduated from an American college. While 
in Harvard he studied medicine, but the church claimed him 
and he was ordained in 1658, becoming the pastor of the Congre- 
gational church in Ipswich, over which charge he continued 
until advancing years compelled his retirement in 1708. He was 
recognized as a scholar, a historian, and a divine, and was active 
in many concerns of public interest. His historical works are 


° 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 55 


painstaking records of the condition of New England between 
1620 and 1630. They include a “ Narrative of Troubles with the 
Indians,” published in Boston in 1677, and a“ History of New 
England,” finished in 1680. ~ 

For the last-named work he received £50 as a “ manifestation 
of thankfulness ” from the general court, and the manuscript is 
still preserved in the library of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety. Cotton Mather in his “ Magnalia” acknowledges his in- 
debtedness to Mr Hubbard. He died in 1704, and of that event 
the record is still preserved in the following words: “ He goes 
to ye lecture, after to Col. Apletons, goes home, sups, and dyes 
that night.” The Reverend John Eliot refers to him as “‘ equal 
to any in the province for learning and candour, and superior to 
all his contemporaries as a writer.” 

The line of descent continues through John Hubbard, who was 
born in Ipswich in 1648 and who in early manhood settled in 
Boston, where he became a leading merchant. In 1671 he mar- 
ried Ann Leverett, second daughter of Sir John Leverett. 

To the career of this distinguished military leader a few words 
must be given. Bornin England in 1616, he came with his father 
to Boston in 1632 and became a successful merchant. Early in 
life he was chosen captain of a militia company, and in 1644 he 
went to England to fight against the King under Cromwell. 
Later he returned to Boston and was chosen a delegate to the 
general court, also becoming a member of the governor’s coun- 
cil. In 1671 he was appointed deputy governor, and two years 
later governor of the colony. Meanwhile his knowledge of mil- 
itary matters was recognized, and from 1665 to 1673 he was 
major general of the Massachusetts soldiers. It was during his 
administration as governor that King Philip’s war occurred, and 
it was largely owing to his skill and energy that the war was 
brought to a fortunate issue. For his services in this direction 
Charles II conferred upon him the honor of knighthood. 

Returning to the Hubbard ancestry, John, previously men- 
tioned, had a son, born in 1677, to whom he gave the name of 
John. This second John was graduated from Harvard in 1695 
and became pastor of the church in Jamaica, Long island, in 
1698. He died in 1705, and is described as a man “‘ of gentle 
disposition and greatly beloved by his flock, who deplored his 
early death.”. In1701 he married Mabel Russell, granddaughter 
of Richard Russell and, on her mother’s side, of Samuel Wyllis. 

The Honorable Richard Russell was a man of much impor- 


56 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


tance and most of his life was devoted to public service. He 
was born in Hertfordshire, England, in 1612, and came to Mas- 
sachusetts in 1640. Four years later he was made treasurer of 
the colony, and held that place until his death, in 1674. Besides 
filling that important office, he was a member of the general court 
for many years, serving as its speaker in 1648-’9, 1654~’6, and 
1659, and he was assistant during the years 1659 to 1674. 

Mr Hubbard was sixth in descent from Samuel Wyllis in conse- 
quence of the marriage of his great-great-grandfather with Mabel 
Russell, and we pass from the records of Massachusetts to those 
of Connecticut. 

‘Samuel Wyllis was a native of Warwick, England, and ac- 
companied his father to the New World, settling in Hartford. 
He was graduated from Harvard in 1653, and a year later was 
elected one of the magistrates of Connecticut. In this office and 
the corresponding one of assistant under the charter of Charles 
II he was retained by annual election until 1685. It was on 
his estate, directly in front of his house, that the famous oak 
stood in which the charter of Connecticut was concealed in 1687. 
His death occurred in Hartford on May 30,1709. Samuel Wy!1- 
lis married Ruth, daughter of Governor John Haynes, and of 
whom a few words are necessary. 

John Haynes was born in Hertford, England, in 1654. He 
was a man of wealth and culture and lived on his estate of Cap- 
ford Hallin Essex before emigrating. In company with Thomas 
Hooker he sailed in the Griffin and arrived in Massachusetts in 
1633. In the year following he was made a freeman and also 
an assistant, becoming governor of Massachusetts in 1635.  Re- 
moving to Connecticut a year later, he settled in Hartford, and 
in 1639 was made first governor of Connecticut. Thereafter, 
until his death, in 1654, he was chosen governor every alternate 
year. Governor Haynes was one of the five authors of the first 
constitution of Connecticut in 1638, which embodies the main 
points of all subsequent state constitutions and of the Federal 
Constitution. He was a man of great uprightness and refine- 
ment of character, and of strong religious convictions. He tem- 
pered justice with mercy and had the power of making himself 
greatly beloved. His life was spotless and his character with- 
out reproach. 

Of the six ancestors whose records were filed by Mr Hubbard 
in the archives of our society there still remains one to be men- 
tioned, namely, the father of Samuel Wyllis. 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 57 


George Wyllis was descended from an old and honored fam- 
ily, and was born in Warwick, England, about 1570. He re- 
ceived a liberal education and settled on a valuable estate in 
Knapton; but, espousing the cause of the Puritans, he sent his 
steward, William Gibbons, with twenty men to purchase an es- 
tate in Hartford, and on which to erect a suitable house for 
himself and family. Two years later he sailed for America, | 
and at once on his arrival became an important member of the 
colony. Hewas one of the framers of the constitution in 1689, 
and at the first election that was held under it was chosen one of 
the six magistrates of Connecticut, holding that office until his 
death. In 1641 he was chosen deputy governor, and a year later 
was elevated to the higher office. Governor Wyllis was famed 
for his social and domestic virtues, his simplicity of manner, and 
his love of civil and religious liberty. He died in Hartford in 
1645. 

It would be a pleasant task to mention other ancestors of Mr 
Hubbard, and even to continue his genealogical line down to 
himself. Moreover, it would be of interest to point out those 
traits of character that were inherited from his forefathers ; but 
time will not permit. 

It is axiomatic that ‘“‘ pride of ancestry is a natural and en- 
nobling sentiment.” Well might Mr Hubbard be proud of his 
ancestors. As educators, ministers, governors, and generals, their 
names stand out conspicuous in the annals of our American col- 
onies; they were leaders of men. And of their descendant what 
shall we say? Equally was hea leader among men, and law, 
education, literature, and science have been advanced because 
of his life. 

President Brin: Dr Daniel C. Gilman, President of Johns 
Hopkins University, was very dear to Mr Hubbard’s heart, and 
he will speak upon him as a helper. 

President Gruman: I come forward tonight not as a neighbor, 
not as a colleague, not as a fellow-citizen, but as a friend, and I 
speak to you as friends. It is natural that weshould regard the 
benefactors of society in groups, by the various services they 
render to their fellowmen. ‘The gifts of genius are dramatists, 
poets, sculptures, pictures, buildings, and inventions; the gifts 
of wealth are hospitals, libraries, churches, colleges, and institu- 
tions; the gifts of wisdom are education, science, law, philosophy ; 
but the gift that is best of all, the gift that smells sweet and blos- 
soms in the dust, is the gift of one’s self for the benefit of others. 


58 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


Our departed friend, as every speaker has reminded you, gave 
himself almost without reserve during his residence in Washing- 
ton and, as I have been told, throughout his long life to the 
advancement of good ‘works. This title of remembrance is as 
comprehensive as it is honorable; he was a helper of his fellow- 
men. ‘Time, money, effort, thought, suggestion, influence, the 
acquisitions of a long life and the experience of a versatile career, 
were at the service of any one who needed them. All classes and 
conditions of men were his clients; the writer, the editor, the 
preacher, the artist, the inventor, the investigator, the arbitrator, 
and the statesman turned to him for counsel, and never went 
empty away. Men of science trusted his good sense, men of 
affairs knew his sagacity, men of education depended upon his 
advice, philanthropists and men of religion were sure of his sup- 
port. At home everything was for others ; his books, engravings, 
etchings, and, in summer, his grounds, with their shrubbery, 
shade trees, and flowers, were given to hospitality. Nothing for 
display, but everything that strangers might be friends and that 
neighbors might become more friendly through the amenities of 
social intercourse. 

In the city of his choice it was natural that a man of such 
breadth, of such varied observations in other lands, and of such 
eagerness for information should be best known as the founder 
of a society whose field is the world, and which believes that 
nothing human is alien, nothing in nature barren or dry. What 
plans he suggested, what persuasiveness he employed, what suc- 
cesses he won in bringing to the front the makers of geography, 
the interpreters of the earth, air, and sea, are all well known to 
one who has spent a winter in this capital, and best of all to you 
who are here assembled. 

In the world at large he was regarded as an original promoter 
of that epoch-making invention which in twenty years has not 
only revolutionized the processes by which speech can be heard 
at a distance, but has completely changed the business usages of 
every country where civilization is found. To those who knew 
our friend only as a business man or only ata distance, this gives 
him fame. But there are others, like the speaker, who came 
near to him during the latter years of his life, and never heard 
him speak of business or allude to his successes, who never met 
him when his mind was not alert to promote a cause, to render 
a service, to encourage merit, to remove perplexities, or to find 
the right man. These seemed to be the occupations not of leis- 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 59 


ure, but of life. Most noteworthy has been his devotion, as you 
have already been told, from an early period of his life, to the 
welfare of the deaf. He was one of the first to believe that they 
could be taught to speak with their lips, and he lived to see this 
belief transferred from the domain of faith to that of fact. 

* As I recall the manifold subjects I have heard him discuss, I 
know not which is the more remarkable, the range of his sym- 
pathy or the depth of his goodwill. The possible relief of Helen 
Kellar; now a rare print that he had acquired or an attractive 
book he was reading; now the Garfield hospital ; now the mem- 
ory of Abraham Lincoln, or the story of Napoleon Bonaparte, 
of Greely, Melville, or Nansen; now the promotion of interna- 
tional intercourse and the prevention of war; now the relief of 
the Armenians; the possible establishment of a National Uni- 
versity ; now the awards to be bestowed upon exhibitors at At- 
lanta and at Nashville; now and always the support of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, the Geological Survey, and every scientific 
bureau supported by the Government. 

The graces of a good ancestry, of a liberal education, and of 
wide intercourse with his fellowmen, and of a home where the 
refinement and affection of a devoted wife and children were 
supreme, enriched his life and adorned his character. His heart 
craved sympathy; he must keep in touch with those whom he 
trusted—by speech, by print, by mail, by wire. Few men val- 
ued friendship as he valued it, and the much that he required 
he returned with ample usury. 

Public station would not have increased his influence nor 
added to his happiness; it would have fettered his spontaneity 
and his impulses. Itis as dear friend; considerate, helpful, and 
strong, versatile and suggestive, that we who have known him 
well now call him venerable and beloved because he was the 
helper of his fellowmen. 

President Bern: Mr Hubbard’s great interest in the advance- 
ment of science in America led to the foundation of an inde- 
pendent scientific journal for the use of scientific men on this 
continent, and I shall call upon Major J. W. Powell, Director of 
the Bureau of American Ethnology, Associate Editor of Science, 
and ex-Director of the United States Geological Survey, to speak 
on behalf of the journal Science. 

Major Powrti: This is an age of specialized literature. The 
daily papers serve a daily purpose; but when the day is gone 
the paper is gone. A flame is kindled twenty-four hours after 


60 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


the issue of the daily paper in every home in America, and the 
yesterday’s news is the origin of this household fire, but it comes 
to us freighted with power with the same regularity that longi- 
tudes wheel to the matinal light. Weekly, biweekly, monthly, 
and quarterly journals have a longer life. .Within the last quar- 
ter of acentury the magazine has become a forum in which pub- 
lic men find expression for their best thoughts to a large public, 
who wish to consider with care the current questions of the day 
and preserve the material thus utilized for future reference. For 
this reason it has come about that magazines have multiplied. 
All thoughtful people are now magazine readers. The daily 
press has become the mighty organ of current news, business 
life, and political affairs, while the magazine is the organ of cur- 
rent thought as literature and science. The daily paper,.re- 
viewing the daily affairs of life, makes comment on public men, 
public measures in the nation, the state, and the city. It pours 
out wit and humor, sometimes good, sometimes far-fetched, with 
a story for the idle and a syndicate letter for the inquisitive, 
which are read and forgotten, all going to the morning crematory. 

Neglecting the magazine as the organ of literature and consid- 
ering itas the organ of science, by a careful review of the subject 
it will be seen that the correlation of scientific research and the 
organization of scientific opinion is now largely dependent upon 
magazine literature. 

In late years this new organ for the correlation of scientific 
research hassprune up. The heat, light, electricity, magnetism, 
and gravity of which the ether is the medium between celestial 
orb and celestial orb, the orbs themselves, of which the earth is 
a modest member, stealing its way through the universe by an 
unseen path, content with reflecting the light of others—the earth 
itself, with its moving atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and 
centrosphere—all codperate with the chemical agencies that are 
forever reconstituting the rocks of the earth, and these through 
their mantle of soil coédperate with living vegetal forms, and 
these again codperate with the hosts of animate things. This 
vast system of codperation between the hierarchy of bodies which 
constitute our solar system allies every man engaged in scientific 
research to every other man who studies the ways of nature. 
For the solution of the problems connected with every crys- 
tal, every plant, and every animal cannot reach their final solu- 
tion without considering the whole world of bodies. One human 
mind cannot solve them all. Inductive research must consider 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 61 


all of the multitude of particulars in every body, and those 
observed by one must be added to those observed by others be- 
fore the induction is complete. Then deduction may enter the 
field for the final reconstruction of the external universe in a 
hierarchy of valid concepts representing the hierarchy of the 
universe until the universe itself shall be reproduced in every 
human mind. 

Many men must work together to operate a railroad across the 
continent; but when codperating, what feats of transportation 
they can accomplish. All the men of the world could not carry 
the freight from San Francisco to New York which could be 
transported by one railroad. Codperation in scientific work is 
equally economic. The problems of the universe are to be solved, 
and they cannot be without the organized labor of research. To 
expect men to accomplish this labor without codperation is like 
expecting men to gather the wheat of the prairie and carry it on 
their shoulders to the seaside mart; but a selected few of those 
laborers may easily perform the task when they are organized 
as railroad transporters. 

By what agency can the men engaged in scientific research 
cooperate in the solution of the problems of the universe? 
Scientific men will solve these problems when they codperate, 
for all problems can be solved after they are stated. One man 
may be an agnostic, but all men are not agnostic for all time; 
while much of the universe is unknown, the universe is not un- 
knowable. The universe is unknowable only to the fool who 
would try to carry it in a sack on his own shoulder. 

There is an army of men engaged in research in America which 
is but an integral part of the world’s scientific men. In 1883 
two men, Gardiner Greene Hubbard and Alexander Graham 
Bell, sought to more thoroughly organize the American army 
and put it in codperation with the world’s scientific host; for 
this purpose they essayed to organize a magazine or journal of 
science. They called to their aid President Gilman, of the Johns 
Hopkins University ; Professor Marsh, of Yale College, and Pro- 
fessor Scudder, of Harvard. Mr Scudder was made the editor 
and the journal was launched on the sea of publication. 

This journal was specialized in five departments: First, there 
was editorial comment on public affairs relating to the institu- 
tions of research in America; second, its columns were open to 
the discussion of scientific subjects by the leaders of thought ; 
third, it was a medium for the announcement of discoveries ; 


62 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


fourth, it contained announcements of what men and institu- 
tions were doing in America; and, fifth, it contained a summary 
of thescientific progress of the world. In these five departments 
the two volumes of the first year contained a well-digested sum- 
mary of the current scientific thought and accomplishment in 
America and throughout the world. This journal was called 
Science; and it had engaged in the labor of its preparation many 
men in the different departments of research employed in the 
preparation of materials for publication relating to all branches 
of work. It inaugurated the new era in America. Hitherto 
men had worked largely in isolation, without the sympathy and 
assistance of their fellowmen; few of them meeting once or twice 
a year for conference as the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science and the National Academy; but in the 
general isolation diversities of opinion sprang up and grew to 
unnecessary proportions, so that the infrequent meetings of scien- 
tific bodies were characterized by bitter discussion which often 
led to lifelong antagonism. Under the egis of this journal there 
sprang into existence many more organizations, and the meet- 
ings of scientific men were multiplhed and the differences of scien- 
tific men were harmonized ; ultimate differences of opinion were 
modified and mollified and the whole spirit of research as exhib- 
ited on this continent was transformed; jealousies and antag- 
onisms melted in the sunlight of publication. In the host of 
scientific workers there has always been a few men exploiting 
on the verge of research whose chief delight is in controversy 
and who consider that eminence can best be acquired by attack- 
ing their fellowmen. This modicum of malcontents were speed- 
ily relegated to the purlieus of disputation and the real workers 
remain to cooperate, encourage, and assist. 

Since 1883 the journal has passed through many vicissitudes, 
and many experiments have been made with it in order that it 
might become self-supporting, and many efforts have been made 
to secure an enlarged clientage, but the first three volumes estab- 
lished the high-water mark of scientific journalism and are ideals 
for all future enterprises in this field. In this manner the 
founders of the journal, led by Mr Hubbard, contributed to the 
organiz ition of scientific research. In later years I had the honor 
to be called into their councils, and I know how earnestly they 
labored to make a magazine worthy of the scientific public, and 
wherein there was failure and wherein there was success. Mr 
Hubbard was the leading spirit in all this work and to it he gave 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 63 


much time and profound thought. It was designed, not as a 
business enterprise, but as a contribution to science; not for the 
purpose of accumulating a property from which a revenue could 
be derived, but of establishing a means of communication for 
scientific men, to be presented to them as their journal. 

In the library on Connecticut avenue and under the shadow 
of Twin Oaks Mr Hubbard was wont to assemble his friends in 
conference on scientific subjects; often the magazine was the 
theme under consideration; other interests of science were also 
considered. The hours which he spent with his friends in con- 
sultation from day to day, month to month, year to year, en- 
deared him to an ever-enlarging circle of public men, for his 
sympathies were wide, his plans large, and the resources of his 
genius great, and, though he has gone, the works of his heart and 
mind will remain to bless mankind. 

I could talk with a full heart of Mr Hubbard as a friend. 
Through many years at his home in the city and at his home 
in the country and in far-away lands and in long journeys across 
the continent I spent many hours with him, and while I hon- 
ored him asa public man, and think what he has accomplished, 
‘these days and years have more than led me to learn to love 
him as a friend. 

President BELL: Mr Hubbard was Vice-President of the Co- 
lumbia Historical Society. I will call upon the Honorable A. R. 
Spofford to say a few words on behalf of that Society. 

Mr Sporrorp: The talents and energies of him whom we com- 
memorate tonight embraced a wide and varied field. His active 
mind took in many subjects of inquiry, and his sympathy and 
aid were hospitably given to so many causes and objects of pub- 
lic interest that it is perhaps difficult to name any of the more 
important in which, at some time or other, his name and influ- 
ence were not invoked. One of the more recently organized of 
the societies devoted to objects of research to which he belonged 
was theColumbia Historical Society. Thisassociation was formed 
March 7, 1894, at a meeting held at Columbian University, adding 
another to the historical societies, now numbering nearly three 
hundred, which have been organized with a view to preserve and 
perpetuate historical knowledge in the United States. 

To this meeting, not being able to be present on account of ab- 
sence from the city, Mr Hubbard sent a note throughia friend who 
was a leading promoter of the movement, suggesting the possi- 
bility of some encroachment, in the new society to be organized, 


64 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


upon the sphere of the Memorial Association of the District of 
Columbia, of which he was himself an active and earnest mem- 
ber. But, upon discussion of this suggestion by gentlemen pres- 
ent who were affiliated with both societies, it was the concur- 
rent judgment of the meeting that the objects proposed for the 
Historical Society were of a much more comprehensive scope, 
embracing the wide field of investigation of the annals of Wash- 
ington and the District of Columbia, its foundation, history (civil, 
literary, political, and ecclesiastical), biography, statistics, public 
works, education, and development generally. The special aim 
of the Memorial Association, on the other hand, was to preserve 
and commemorate historic buildings, marking by tablets or oth- 
erwise ancient landmarks, and endeavoring to perpetuate an in- 
terest in the past of Washington city by fitting memorials. 

At the meeting following the preliminary conference referred 
to, namely, on the 12th of April, 1894, the Historical Society was 
fully organized. Gardiner G. Hubbard was one of the original 
charter members, signed the constitution, and was elected first 
vice-president of the society. His great preoccupation, how- 
ever, with the work of other societies, and especially that of the 


National Geographic Society, over which he presided with such 


signal ability, prevented his attendance at the monthly meetings 
of the Historical Society, and for this he frequently expressed 
his regret. On May 29, 1894, feeling his inability longer to hold 
himself ready to discharge the duties of vice-president, he tend- 
ered his resignation of that office in a letter, assigning as a ground 
for his action that he was unable to give to its duties his per- 
sonal attention. The resignation was accepted, and Hon. John 
A. Kasson was chosen vice-president in place of Mr Hubbard, 
and succeeded to the presidency, by election, after the death of 
Dr Joseph M. Toner, the first president of the society. 

At a later day Mr Hubbard, continuing his membership, rec- 
ommended to the society, in a letter of November 29, 1895, 
through the secretary, a lecture by Professor Lewis on “ Lafayette 
and the Historians,” which, however, was not delivered. 

Regarding Mr Hubbard’s life-long interest in historicak sub- 
jects, those who knew him the best can best testify. An earnest 
student and a wide reader from early years, he was also a busy 
and intelligent collector of books. Upon the history of countries 
he read much and was unusually well informed. His many 
addresses and articles contributed to the Geographic Society 
evinced the breadth of his culture and the wealth of his knowl- 


A adhe 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 65 


edge upon the history and resources, as well as the topography, 
of the regions treated by him. 

It is pertinent for me to mention here, as an example of the 
thorough method of Mr Hubbard in treating the history of any 
subject, the elaborate article furnished by him to the Atlantic 
Monthly for January, 1875, entitled “ Our Post-office.” This 
historical article contains an admirable condensation of the facts 
regarding the postal system of the United States and its prede- 
cessors, the colonial and British post-office establishments. It 
draws many instructive parallels and points out the departures 
from the true objects of a governmental postal system, the quick 
and cheap diffusion of the people’s correspondence and period- 
icals, through the carriage of mere merchandise in the mails, 
leading to large annual deficits. The article, although appear- 
ing in the pages of a periodical, is of great and permanent value. 

The same may be said of another of Mr Hubbard’s studies, 
upon a subject of greatest practical interest to the people, namely, 
his article on ‘‘ Proposed Changes in the Telegraphic System,” 
published in the North American Review for July, 1878. This 
presents a history of the various American lines of telegraph up 
to its date, and is a close and careful analysis of the whole sys- 
tem, with comparative statistics of the telegraph as managed by 
governments in foreign countries and by corporations in the 
United States. 

Of Mr Hubbard as book-collector, art lover, and connoisseur 
others will doubtless make fitting record. His iibrary was large 
and select, and his refined taste led him to make choice always 
of the best editions. Like most bibliophiles, he read many sale 
catalogues of books, imported liberally from many of the best 
book-houses in London and on the continent, and had a marked 
liking for fine bindings. In the graphic arts his knowledge and 
taste were of the first order, and his large collection of early and 
late engravings, etchings, etc., was one of the finest gathered by 
a private individual. ‘These were the recreations of a busy man 
of affairs, and the collection, study, and illustration for the ben- 
efit of others (which he sometimes consented to offer in the form 
of an art lecture) were a source of constant gratification to his 
generous spirit. 

President Bett: The Honorable John W. Ross, Chairman of 
the Board of Commissioners of the District of Columbia, will 
speak on behalf of the city of Washington and the District of 
Columbia. 


5 


66 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


Mr. Ross: The honorable part has been assigned to me of 
speaking of the late President of our society with regard to his 
business activities and as a citizen of the District of Columbia. 

My last meeting with him was on an occasion when he was 
serving this people ina most effective manner. In the month of 
September, 1897, a committee of the National Educational Asso- 
ciation came to Washington to consider its availability as the 
city in which to hold their next annual gathering. Through the 
courtesy of the proprietor of the Riggs house a banquet was given 
to the visiting delegates and to the local committees, in order 
that our citizens might confer with the representatives of the 
National Association and explain to them the exceptional advan- 
tages offered here in comparison with the other cities under con- 
sideration. Mr Hubbard was one of Washington’s most influ- 
ential champions at that meeting. As I recall the enthusiasm 
and earnestness with which he portrayed the great educational 
features of the capital, it is difficult to realize the truth that he 
was then about 75 years of age. To him and to the other re- 
sourceful promoters of our cause is due the gratifying result that 
Washington will, in July next, welcome the largest convention 
of educators ever assembled in the United States. 

Amid all the cares and responsibilities which attended his 
useful life, Mr Hubbard never evaded any municipal duty. 
While he never sought preferment by the appointment of the 
executive officers of the District, yet his practical ability and 
his zeal were so generally recognized that successive boards of 
District Commissioners appreciated the fact that they served and 
promoted District interests by appointing him to positions of 
trust and responsibility. In May, 1896, he was selected as a 
member of the Tennessee Centennial Exposition Commission. 
In June, 1896, he was chosen a member of the board of trustees 
of the Free Public Library. In March, 1897, he was appointed 
one of the commission for the Omaha Exposition of 1898. He 
was also an active member of the board of directors of the Cen- 
tral Dispensary and Emergency Hospital. The duties pertain- 
ing to these positions were willingly assumed by him, notwith- 
standing his exacting engagements to the scientific societies of 
the District; and in so far as any work could be done, it was per- 
formed by him with fidelity and ability. 

Next to the great cause of scientific research, he loved his 
adopted home. There was not a movement made having for its 
end the prestige, the adornment, or the development of the Na- 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 67 


tional Capital which did not have his strong and sturdy support. 
From his beautiful home on the heights beyond Rock creek he 
had within his view that ideal site bounded by the Potomac, the 
Anacostia, and the commanding hills which border those streams 
whereon the wise foresight of Washington founded the chief cap- 
ital city of the new world. 

Every surrounding appealed to his keen sense of the beau- 
tiful and strengthened his conviction that Washington was des- 
tined to be the most superb of the world’s capitals. He believed 
that as the one and only city belonging to all the people of the 
United States, as the official home of the President, of the Con- 
eress, and of the 15,000 Government employés from the States 
of the Union, it of right should, as to its facilities for the educa- 
tion of its youth, as to its healthful conditions and surroundings, 
as to its means of protection of life and property, and as to its 
promotion of the comfort and well-being of the public servants 
residing here, be the first and foremost of American cities; and 
that the members of the enlightened Congress of the United” 
States, as its immediate custodians, should regard any impair- 
ment or lowering of that standard a slight and an insult to their 
own constituents. His high character and strong personality 
helped to impress these, his views, upon the national representa- 
tives with whom he was associated. 

In the decease of Gardiner Greene Hubbard, therefore, the 
people of this municipality have suffered a grievous loss and 
bereavement. It may not be unfair to the living to state that 
there is no one quite so well fitted by temperament, by training, 
and by practical tact and ability to perform all the several roles 
on the stage of human activity which he enacted so well. His 
tall and commanding form and the kindly tones of his voice will 
be missed wherever Washinetonians may assemble to foster and 
protect the best interests of the District of Columbia. 

His name should and doubtless will, in time, be borne by some 
appropriate municipal building. We cannot hope even by all 
these tokens of respect and affection to give adequate expression 
to our sorrow or to our appreciation of his public service. The 
most eloquent tribute to his memory on the part of his surviy- 
ing associates would be an emulation of his civic virtues and an 
effort to be as zealous, as sincere, and as patriotic as he was in 
the performance of every public duty. 

President BeLi: The last address of the evening will be made 
by General A. W. Greely, Chief Signal Officer of the United 


68 GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 


States Army and Senior Vice-President of the National Geo- 
eraphic Society, on behalf of that Society. 

Gen. A. W. GREELY: When I first came to know Mr Hubbard 
his years were such as had well won a right to rest, but with 
noble discontent he held the creed, “Old age hath yet his honor 
and his toil.” How great that toil it has been for few to know; 
how great that honor in some way we felt before death touched 
him, but its full extent has only been revealed by this notable 
memorial meeting in the capital city of the Nation, of which 
he was so proud. The school, the library, the university, the 
Smithsonian Institution, the church—in short, all the varied ele- 
ments of a Christian civilization, in which he was not only an 
actor but an inspirer—are distinct losers by his death. It is, 
however, the National Geographic Society that has a right to feel 
itself especially bereft, for this Society was the child of his old 
age, which had won his heart, for which he toiled at all seasons, 
and toward which, last of all, turned his thought and affection. 
His last months were filled with plans for the fit celebration of 
our tenth anniversary, which now lacks so much by his absence, 
but which also seeks inspiration for the future by a brief review 
of the past. Mr Hubbard was not only our President for these 
ten years, but he was also an initiator and an incorporator of the 
Society. At the original meeting, on January 13, 1888, there were 
present thirty-three individuals, who have increased to an aggre- 
gate membership of 2,421, of whom remain with us 1,572, the 
loss by death and resignation being 849. 

In his introductory address of February 17,1888, Mr Hubbard 
set forth the aims and objects of the Society on broad and gener- 
ous lines, thus insuring growth and success. Hesaid, “ lam one 
of those who desire to further the prosecution of geographical 
research. We hope to bring together, first, the scattered workers 
of our country ; second, the persons who desire to promote their 
researches.” 

The work was to be patriotic, educational, and scientific. How 
far it succeeded is rather a record of facts than an expression of 
opinion. It appealed to the spirit of patriotism by the estab- 
lishment of two departments, the Geography of the Air and the 
Geography of the Sea, representing the two allied branches of 
meteorology and oceanography that owe their initial formation 
to the genius and activity of Americans. To this Society is due 
the credit that America was fittingly associated through the 
means of a Geographical Conference at the Columbian Exposi- 


GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 69 


tion at Chicago, an exposition that celebrated contemporaneously 
the discovery of America and the birth of modern geography. 
Again, at the meeting of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, at Toronto, this Society upheld the dignity of 
our country by a series of geographic papers that won the gener- 
ous praise of Huropean scientists. Conjointly with other Ameri- 
can societies, it played a conspicuous part in the proceedings of 
the International Geographic Congress in London in 1895. On 
this last occasion, it may be added, it excited attention by the 
presence of women as delegates, thus emphasizing our broad 
spirit of indiscrimination in advancing science by the codpera- 
tion of all willing workers and promoters. The Lenten lectures 
of 1898, Mr Hubbard’s last plan of work, will do patriotic service 
by bringing to our members an appreciation of the advantages 
and a pride in the evolution of the great and varied sections that 
constitute the American Union. 

On educational lines the Society has striven, not with the 
greatest success, it must be said, to stimulate proper geographic 
instruction in schools and universities. It has also added to 
geographic literature a series of monographs, written by eminent 
specialists, which have elicited praise from foreign scientists 
that must bear good fruit in their use by American teachers. 
Our regular winter course of lectures, by eminent specialists and 
on timely topics, exceed in number, variety, and utility those 
furnished by any other geographic society in the world. 

In science this Society has done important work, if only in 
forming under governmental auspices a Board on Geographic 
Names. In our technical meetings have been presented and dis- 
cussed papers of great value, and the influence of many of these 
papers has been extended by their publication in Tor Narronan 
GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. 

Among other important work should be noted the encourage- 
ment of exploration in Alaska, the establishment of THE Na- 
TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, now in its ninth year, and the 
instituting of geographic field days. 

Finally, we have a right to ask, Could any organization in the 
first ten years of its existence more fully carry out its initial 
plan than has this Society? In deserving and winning this 
success no other member did so much as did Mr Hubbard. 
Dealing with a Board of Managers composed of able but positive 
men, it was Mr Hubbard’s strength that he was receptive, con- 
ciliatory, and practical. Many a seemingly hopeless idea he 


70 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


changed into practical form, and often from conflicting opinions 
he evolved an acceptable plan. 

It would be placing Mr Hubbard’s labors on a low plane to 
say that this Society throve only by them. He had the higher 
aim to interweave his labors with others, and so to plan and 
build that he might exert an enduring influence. This higher 
work he accomplished. We feel that the future of this Society 
is not doubtful; that it will continue to maintain its high ideals 
of public usefulness by fostering patriotism, by stimulating edu- 
cation, and by advancing science. ‘Thus it will best show its 
active appreciation of the labors of Gardiner Greene Hubbard, 
and in thus doing justify the poet’s words: 

““So when a great man dies, 
For years beyond our ken 


The light he leaves behind him lies 
Upon the paths of men.” 


President BeLti: The meeting is now adjourned. 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY, SESSION 189708 


Regular Meeting, December 17, 1897. —Vice-President Greely in the chair. 
The Chairman spoke of the recent death of President Hubbard and an- 
nounced that a committee had been appointed to make arrangements for a 
memorial meeting. He also stated that Mr Everett Hayden had re- 
signed the office of Recording Secretary, and that Mr F. H. Newell had been 
designated to fill the vacancy. Professor D. G. Elliot, of the Field Co- 
lumbian Museum, gave an illustrated lecture entitled ‘‘A Naturalist’s 
Expedition to East Africa.”’ 


Special Meeting, January 7, 1898.—Mr W J McGee introduced with ap- 
propriate remarks the new President, Dr Alexander Graham Bell, who 
took the chair. Mr H. Snowden Ward gave an illustrated lecture enti- 
tled ‘‘ Shakespeare at Home.’’ 


Regular Meeting, January 14, 1898.—President A. Graham Bell in the 
chair. Surgeon-General George M. Sternberg gave an illustrated lecture 
on the Geographical Distribution of Yellow Fever. 


Special Meeting, Januarg 21, 1898.—President A. Graham Bell in the 
chair. This was a memorial meeting in honor of the services and char- 
acter of the late President Gardiner G. Hubbard. About 1,000 members 
and guests were present. Addresses were made by Surgeon-General 
Sternberg, U.S. A.; President Wilson, of Washington and Lee Univer- 
sity ; President Whitman, of Columbian University ; President Gilman, of 


GHOGRAPHIC LITERATURE “1 


Johns Hopkins University; Dr Marcus Benjamin, Hon. A. R. Spofford, 
Dr Caroline A. Yale, Professor S. P. Langley, Hon. John W. Ross, Major 
J. W. Powell, and General A. W. Greely. 


Regular Meeting, January 28, 1898.—President A. Graham Bell in the 
chair. Mr N. H. Darton gave an dllustrated lecture on the Bad Lands of 
South Dakota and Nebraska. . 


Exections.—New members have been elected as follows : 

December 14.—Miss Mary O. Dean, Mrs Annis H. Enochs, Lieut. C. D. 
Galloway, U. S. N., Alexander Grant, Mrs Gardiner G. Hubbard, E. G. 
Kimball, Gerard H. Matthes, E. W. Nelson, Professor Henry 8. Pritchett, 
Charles H. Stevenson, Miss Mary A. Taylor. 

December 27.—Elmer I. Applegate, Major E. 8. Godfrey, U. 8. A., Wil- 
liam Ogilvie, W. H. Wiley. 

December 81.—Dr Arthur M. Edwards, F. F. Hilder, Professor W. H. 
Norton. \ ° 

January 7, 1898.—Miss Rachel C. Brown, Cyrus L. Hall, Dr F. C. Ken- 
yon, Miss A. M. Lakeman, Heber J. May. 

January 14.—William Churchill, S. F. Emmons, Miss Margaret French. 

January 24.—Miss Mabelle Biggart, Miss Mira Lloyd Dock, Levi Maish, 
Daniel P. Mumbrue, August Piepho. 


GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


Stanford’s Compendium of Geography and Travel. North America, Vol. I; 
Canada and Newfoundland. By Samuel Edward Dawson. Pp. 719, 
with 18 maps and 90 illustrations. London: Edward Stanford. 1897. 


This work forms part of a revision of Stanford’s Compendium, the first 
edition of which was published in 1883. In that edition Canada and the 
United States occupied one volume. In the present the Dominion occu- 
pies, with Newfoundland, one large volume, being more than doubled in 
size. The book is simply a geographical description of the British pos- 
sessions in North America. Its first chapter, after the introduction, de- 
scribes the American side of the north Atlantic. Then the Dominion of 
Canada is taken up as a whole—its extent, area, boundaries, relief, drain- 
age system, climate, fauna, Indian tribes, political organization, popula- 
tion, means of communication, government, history, and industries. 
Each of the provinces is then described under much the same plan, but 
in greater detail, in succeeding chapters. This method of description 
involves much repetition, greatly and unnecessarily extending the book. 
An interesting chapter is included in the history of Acadia. The illus- 
trations and maps are excellent and the type and paper all that could be 
desired. Altogether, the work, asa description of our northern neighbor, 
is easily the best yet published. It is curious to find, however, at this 
late date any one gravely contending for the preposterous claims of Great 


72 GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


Britain in regard to the international boundary on the north of Maine, 
as is done by the author of this book. The story may be briefly told: 
By the treaty of peace at the close of the revolution that boundary was 
placed, in terms, on the divide between the Atlantic and the St Lawrence. 
No sane, disinterested person could interpret this otherwise than as mean- 
ing the divide north of St Johns river; but Great Britain, with her ac- 
customed modesty, claimed that the divide referred to was that between 
the Penobscot and the St Johns. The matter was finally referred to the 
King of Holland, who split the difference between the conflicting claims 
and placed the boundary on the St Johns river. And now our author 
pleads that Great Britain fared hardly under this decision. H. G. 


A pamphlet recently issued by Dr E. L. Corthell, C. E., entitled ‘* Re- 
marks Before the Committee on Rivers and Harbors,” contains a history 
of the jetties at the mouth of the Mississippi and a statement of the 
dangers to which navigation is now subjected at that point. Twenty-five 
years ago New Orleans was well-nigh cut off from the sea by reason of 
bars which had been deposited at the mouth of the passage. Southwest 
Pass, then the broadest and deepest, had a depth of water at its mouth 
of barely 18 feet. To remedy this it was proposed by the Board of Army 
Engineers to canalize the Southwest Pass, at a cost of eleven and a half 
million dollars. In opposition to this Mr James B. Kads proposed, at his 
own risk, to build jetties and maintain a channel 30 feet deep. After a 
long struggle Mr Eads’ proposition was accepted, with certain modifica- 
tions, the principal of which was that South Pass, a much narrower and 
shallower outlet, should be taken, and that a depth of 26 feet, or a breadth 
of not less than 200 feet, should be opened and maintained. Every one 
knows the triumphant success of Mr Eads’ project, that the river has cut 
away its bar at the mouth of South Pass, and a depth of 34 feet has been 
maintained through South Pass for a score of years. Now, however, 
these improvements are seriously threatened. In 1891 a crevasse was cut 
through the low bank just above the head of South Pass, and through 
this crevasse a large proportion of the river’s water is pouring to the Gulf, 
so large a proportion that a sufficient flow cannot be obtained through 
South Pass to keep the channel clear, and it is rapidly silting up. The 
Eads executors have spent, in attempts to close this crevasse, $145,000. 

BGs 


Mapaaascar. A steamship line has been organized between Havre and 
Madagascar. The telegraphic system of the island is being rapidly ex- 
tended. 


SwirzerRLtaAnp. The total value of importations into Switzerland in 1896 
was $191,814,822, or $58,980,443 in excess of the exports. Germany fur- 
nished 30.7 per cent of the imports and took 25 per cent of the exports, 
France following with 17.9 and i1.8 per cent, Italy with 13.8 and 5.7 per 
cent, Great Britain with 5.2 and 21.4 per cent, the United States with 
4 and 10.3 per cent, and Austria-Hungary with 7.2 and 5.9 per cent re- 
spectively. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 


The only American magazine devoted to the science of Anthropology in 
all its branches is THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, published at the 
National Capital. This journal is now in its eleventh year of increasing 
usefulness. 

No magazine ever published on the Western continent is such a 
storehouse of authentic information concerning ARCHEOLOGY, ETHNOL- 
OGY, FOLK-LORE, TECHNOLOGY, SocroLoGy, History, SOMATOLOGY, 
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Is your name on the subscription list of the ANTHROPOLOGIST? If 
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the January number. 


A bibliography of the anthropologic literature of the world is one of its features, 


Handsomely Printed—Abundantly Ilustrated. 
Published Monthly—Two Dollars a Year. 
Volume XI Begins with January, 1898. 
ADDRESS: THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 
1804 Columbia Road, Washington, D. C. 


COMMENCED JANUARY, 1888. TWO VOLUMES PER YEAR. 


THE AMERICAN GEOLOGIST, 


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TERMS. 
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The AMERICAN GEOLOGIST is issued monthly from the office of publication at Minne- 
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THE GEOLOGICAL PUBLISHING CO., 
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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MONOGRAPHS 


On the PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE, designed especially to supply to teachers and 
students of geography fresh and interesting material with which to supplement the regular text-book. 


LIST OF MONOGRAPHS COMPRISING VOLUME I: 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROCESSES - - - - - - 
GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES - - = - - - hy. W. Powell 
PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES - - - 

BEACHES AND TIDAL MARSHES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST Prot. N. S. Shaler 
PRESENT AND EXTINCT LAKES OF NEVADA - - - - Prof. I. C. Russell 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—NORTHERN SECTION - - - Bailey Willis 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—SOUTHERN SECTION - - -  C. Willard Hayes 
MT. SHASTA—A TYPICAL EXTINCT VOLCANO - - - - J. S. Diller 

THE NEW ENGLAND PLATEAU - - - - - - - Prof. W. M. Davis 
NIAGARA FALLS AND ITS HISTORY - - - - - - G. K. Gilbert 


Price for one set of ten monographs, $1.50. Five sets to one address, $6.00. Single monographs, 20c. 


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TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 


An International Quarterly Journal 


Edited by L. A. BAUER 
With the Co-operation of Eminent Magneticians 


ye the March, 1897, issue, this Journal, devoted exclusively to Terrestrial Magnetism and allied 
subjects, such as Earth Currents, Auroras, Atmospheric Electricity, etc., entered on its second 
volume. The hearty co-operation extended by the workers in this promising field of investigation, as 
abundantly shown by the numbers thus far issued, has made this Journal the international organ for 
making known the latest achievements. The magnetic needle has become such a promising instrument 
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investigators. The geographer, the geologist, the astronomer, the meteorologist—all are interested in 
the development of the subject of terrestrial magnetism. It should therefore receive their support. 


Among the contributors of the main articles in the past have been Messrs. Barus, Borgen, Chree, 
Eschenhagen, Littlehales, Riicker, Schmidt, Schuster, and de Tillo. 


Future numbers will contain: 
‘¢The Earth, a Great Magnet,’’ 
By Dr. J. A. FLEMING. 


‘‘The Electrification of the Atmosphere,’’ 
By Pror. ALEXANDER MCADIE. 


‘s The Height of the Aurora,” 
By Pror. CLEVELAND ABBE. 


‘‘The Distribution of Magnetic Observatories,’’ 
(Illustrated), 
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_ The size of the Journal is royal octavo, a volume embracing about 200 pages. Domestic subscription 
price: Two dollars; single numbers, fifty cents. Foreign subscription price: Nine shillings, nine 


marks, or eleven francs. Address: . 
TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM, 
The University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


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PSTD pute ! Fidtir) ARAN ON a oy ce ae EA 


x 


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will contain, among other interesting features, the follow 


; illustrated articles 


ee 


Iceland, Greenland, and Vineland in Sag 
By MISS CORNELIA HORSFORD 


Two Hundred Miles up the Kuskokwim 


Mie Oe 


ALSO A PORTRAIT OF 


Prof. Alexander Graham Bell, LL. 
ap PResiDENT OF THE Nationat Geocrapie Socuery. 


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é pense WJ McGEE _ os HENRY GAN BIT 
HART |MERRIAM ELIZA nee ence o 
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CONTENTS) / |. akc 


ee : 


BG ee NDER Logan pp 
'D, GREENLAND, AND / 

ELA (CORNELIA -HORSFORD. / 73. 
PLETION OF HE DA BOCA DOCK. t) pee PS he ) 
HUNDRED MILES UP THE HE KUSKOKWIM. / | mat ‘ 
With illustrations. \ mf eau CHARLES, HALLOCK~. _ 85 
M m ELIAS EXPEDITION OF PRINCE LUIGI OF SAVOY. 

PRENCH-CANADIANS. i Va 

GHT OF MT RA IER) ihe JRICHARD. U. GOODE. 
eWORK BY THE B BUREAU oF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. | 
E LEWIS AND CLARKE ee Cc. C\ BABB. 


BIC NAMES Ty Wes pe B oo, 


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National Geographic Society 


ORGANIZED, JANUARY, 1888 


PRESIDENT 


ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL 


V tck- PRESIDENTS 
A. W. GREELY 
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The National Geographic Society, the object of which is the increase and diffusion 
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Donations for the founding of Prize Medals and Scholarships are 
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NAT. GEOG. MAG. VOL. IX, 1898, PL. 3 


PERRET 
RSC OE 


wh 


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SSA sy 
SOA 


RRO 


TN ih 
NRG 


uaa 
HPP AES 


TOE 


National Geographic Magazine 


Vou. IX MARCH, 1898 No. 3 


DWELLINGS OF THE SAGA-TIME IN ICELAND, 
GREENLAND, AND VINELAND 


By CornELIA HorsForD 


The Saga-time began with the colonization of Iceland in 875 
and lasted for about 150 years. During this time the oft-repeated 
accounts of the discovery, colonization, and early history of Ice- 
land, as well as that of all Scandinavia, acquired the form of 
Sagas or narrations. Ari Thorgilsson, the historian, who was 
born in Iceland in 1067 and died in 1148, was the first to write 
down these events in chronological order. In each of the four 
books attributed to this writer Greenland and Vineland are 
briefly mentioned.* Other Sagas relate the adventures, trage- 
dies, and family histories of the colonists, and among these are 
the Sagas which tell about Greenland and Vineland.f 

We know that Scandinavia has been a rich field for collecting 
relics of the stone, bronze, and early iron ages, but no ruin of a 
dwelling dating from the Saga-time has yet been identified in Den- 
mark, Sweden, or Norway. This may be due to the lack of dura- 
bility in the way of building the houses and to the custom of 
using over and over again in new buildings all the suitable 
material from the old walls. 

In 1888 a young Icelander named Valt¥r Gudmundsson, who 
was studying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Uni- 

* Islendingabok, Landnamabok, Kristni-Saga, and Konungabék, 

+ Hauksb6k, Hiriks Saga Rauthi, and Flateyjarbok. Greenland and Vineland are also 
briefly mentioned in the Fornmanna Ségur, Eyrbyggja Saga, and in three vellum manu- 
seripts in the Arna-Magnzean Library at Copenhagen. An account of these will be 


found in the first chapter of ‘‘ The Finding of Wineland the Good,” by Arthur Middle- 
ton Reeves. London, 1890, Henry Frowde. 


6 


74 DWELLINGS OF THE SAGA-TIME IN 


versity of Copenhagen, chose for the subject of his thesis “ Pri- 
vate Dwellings in Iceland in the Saga-time.’* In preparing for 
this he read every saga of his native literature, comparing each 
description, sentence, and word relating to his subject, until in 
imagination he had reconstructed every form of dwelling and 
outhouse of the Saga-days. These buildings differed considera- 
bly from the design given by Finsen in his edition of Gunnlaug’s 
Saga, printed in 1775, which was the accepted model until the 
publication of Dr Gudmundsson’s work. 

In 1894 Lieutenant Daniel Brunn, of the Danish navy, was 
sent by the Danish government to make extended researches 
among the Norse ruins in Greenland. These researches went 
far toward confirming the results of Dr Gudmundsson’s studies. 

It was therefore with much gratification that Dr Gudmunds- 
son (who was by that time professor of Old Norse literature and 
history at the University of Copenhagen) accepted my commis- 
sion to direct archeological researches for me among the ruined 
dwellings and other works of man in Iceland during the summer 
season of 1895.f He took with him from Copenhagen another 
Icelander named Thorsteinn Erlingsson, and to him the greater 
part of the work is to be accredited, for Dr Gudmundsson was 
in attendance at the Icelandic Parliament and could not be 
present in the field himself. 


ICELAND 


The Icelandic Antiquarian Society has done some good work 
in the field. They have identified and roughly measured the 
ruins of many historical farms and of several hundred booths at 
some of the old open-air law courts called “things.” One or two 
pagan temples have been dug out and carefully described, and 
many burial mounds, which also belonged to the pagan days. 
The ancient dwellings were situated on sloping ground, near 
rivers or fjords. 

From the-early days this has been believed to be the ruin of 
the house built by Erik the Red in the Hawk River valley soon 
after his marriage with Thorhild, and here his eldest son Leif 
was probably born. Erik lived in four different places in Ice- 


/ 
* “ Privatboligen paa Island i Saga-Tiden ” af Valtyr Gudmundsson. Copenhagen, 1889, | 


Andr. Fred. Host & Sons, Forlag. 

+The report of this expedition will soon be published by the Viking Club of London 
under the title of ‘‘ Ruins of the Saga-Time.” 

t The researches of this society are published yearly at Reykjavik, Iceland, in the 
«Arbok hins Islenzka Fornleifafélags.”’ 


ICELAND, GREENLAND, AND VINELAND 75 


SUPPOSED BIRTHPLACE OF LEIF ERIKSON 


Jand before he finally settled in Greenland. The supposed ruins 
of his houses on Oxney and Sudrey can still be seen also,” but 
I do not know that any ruins have been identified at Drangar, 
The ruins of these dwellings, when undisturbed, are low, grass- 
grown ridges and hollows often difficult to detect, except when 
stones protrude through the turf. A dwelling usually consisted 


Perera Nee yee 
Coe a 
a SOP i < 
Bs 


re 
Z 
as 
wy, yc” ¢ 
in tf Retale Pte ly fea 
TT ENS 


r 


fe pe 


Se ee SS ee __1_____J 10 Meters. 


VERTICAL SECTION OF AN APARTMENT 


of three apartments: a hall or principal room, in which there 

was always a fireplace; a sitting-room for the women, and a 

store-room or pantry.t These apartments were like small houses, 
*‘* Winding of Wineland the Good,” by A. M. Reeves, p. 165. 


+“ Fortidsminder og Nutidshjem paa Island” of Daniel Brunn. Copenhagen, Ernst 
Bojesen, p. 161. 


76 DWELLINGS OF THE SAGA-TIME IN 


each with a separate roof, but attached to each other, with pas- 
sages through the thick walls. Near by were usually one or more 
small outhouses. These dwellings were built on the surface of 
the ground, which was probably levelled when necessary. The 
floor was of firmly beaten earth. 

The walls were one and a half meters thick and from one to 
oneand a half meters high. The inner side was built of unhewn 
stones and the interstices were filled with earth. The outer side 
was of alternate layers of turf and stones, and the space between 
the two sides was filled in with earth kneaded hard. When these 
walls fall, the stones necessarily slip down on either side, and the 
bottom row with the space between remains almost intact, unless 


ene: Le oo REET 
; Rey 


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EFT COS 3S Maite 53 a PR eB oR Fie ae 
7 


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0g lagra enti adalhusinu. a. fannst aska. ab. fannst aska og hrossténnur. 


_ RUIN OF PAGAN TEMPLE AT THYRLI 


Arbok Hins Islenzka Fornleifafelags, 1880-1881 


unnaturally disturbed. Often, however, the walls were built en- 
tirely of layers of turf or with only disconnected rows of stones 
at the base. 

The drawing of the pagan temple at Thyrl shows the manner 
of laying the inner and outer sides of a wall with the earth be- 
tween the two. A large stone, of course, extends farther back 
into this earth between than a small one does. 

The inside measurement of a hall varied from 3 to 7 meters 
in width and from 10 to 17 metersin length. The plan is of the 
ruin of Hrik the Red’s house, shown above from a photograph. 
A long narrow fire-place usually extended through the middle of 
the room. This was either paved or surrounded with stones 
standing on edge, and was about 3 meters long and from 60 to 80 
centimeters broad. Besides the long fire which served to warm 
and light the hall, there was a small cooking fire made in the 
same way, about 1 meter square and raised a few centimeters 


SN, eH Fe re Gf Koen Wardell are sete 


ca 

<a  - : 

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Sv PANTS 
ia ees U ‘ ‘yp? . 


eee ee eri 0) Marars 


PLAN OF THE HOUSE OF ERIK THE RED IN HAUKADALE 


above the level of the floor. Other non-essential forms of fire- 
place I need not describe here. A separate apartment was often 
formed by erecting a thin partition across a room, as is shown 
in this plan by the dotted line. Pavements, but more often 
thresholds made of one or more long stone slabs, were some- 
times in the doorways and also in the passages through the thick 
walls between the apartments. The outhouse shown at the 


1 Mh Hee pe 
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2 Bi 
: E= : Sey ee 1A 
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a S < IRS SIMU ARS 7 
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aA Pee era ian man , 3 i o AS 
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A No v 


oS Bn dt dh 10 Meters 


RUIN OF SAMSSTADIR IN HIGORSARDALR 


78 DWELLINGS OF THE SAGA-TIME IN 


left was about 18 meters from the door of the house, on the 
steep mountain side. It was 4 meters square, built of turf only, 
and partially underground. There was a large square platform 
of stones in one corner which had served for a fire-place. 

Narrow platforms of earth faced along the outer edge with 
upright stones, on which the inhabitants both sat and slept, ex- 
tended along one or both sides of the hall. In the large halls 
these platforms were about 23 centimeters high and 14 meters 
broad. Sometimes there was also a broader platform at one end 
of the hall. Samsstadir is one of the farmsteads in the Thor’s 
River valley which was buried during an eruption of Mount 
Hecla in the fourteenth century. This valley is called the 
Pompeii of Iceland. The farm was probably abandoned about 
1500. It shows the first change in the evolution toward thicker 
walls. 

With the exception of some spinning-stones, which were found 
in the sitting-room of a house not shown here, no relics were 
found during these researches. It is also an interesting fact that 
no runic inscription belonging to the Saga-time or for two cen- 
turies later has yet been found in Iceland. 

The evolution which has taken place in house-building since 
the Saga-time has been in the steady increase in the thickness 
of the walls until their breadth is nearly doubled, a slight in- 
crease in height, not admitting 2 second story under the roof, 
and the addition of many apartments, so that from a distance 
the many roofs of a farmstead look almost like a little village. 


GREENLAND 


Greenland was discovered and colonized by Erik Thorvaldsson 
toward the end of the tenth century, and from that time two 
Norse colonies, called respectively the eastern and the western 
settlements, prospered for about three hundred years. The 
ruins of these two settlements have been studied with more or 
less care by the Danish government. In the eastern settlement 
a hundred and fifty farms, with all their outbuildings, have 
been surveyed and measured. A few dwelling-houses have been 
thoroughly dug out and examined.* 

* Beskrivelse af Ruiner i Julianehaabs Distrikt i Aaret 1880, af G. F. Holm. Meddel- 
elser om Groénland, udgivne af Commissionen for Ledelsen af de geologiske og geo- 
graphiske Underségelser i Grénland. Copenhagen, 1883, vol. vi. 

Undersogelse af Gronlands Vestkyst fra 64° til 67° N. B. af J. A. D. Jensen, 1884 og 
1885. Meddelelser om Gronland. Copenhagen, 1889, vol. viii. 


Arkeologiske Undersogelser i Julianehaabs Distrikt af Daniel Brunn, 1895. Meddel- 
elser om Gronland. Copenhagen, 1896, vol. xvi. 


ICELAND, GREENLAND, AND VINELAND 79 


As in Iceland, these farmsteads were situated on the shores of 
rivers and fjords. Although in the main they resemble those of 
Iceland, one is impressed at once with certain striking differ- 
ences. Even the undisturbed ruins suggest narrower, straighter, 
and stronger walls. 


WALLS OF A NORSE RUIN IN GREENLAND 


Meddelelser om Groénland, vol. xvi. Daniel Brunn 


+ 


Udgravet pet 


REO! + cs ¥ 


o ee Ri eee melon Minly Po 


PLAN OF A NORSE RUIN IN GREENLAND 


Meddelelser om Grénland, vol. xvi. Daniel Brunn 


The dwellings were usually long and narrow, consisting of 
from three to eight rooms, and were surrounded by numerous 
outhouses and stables for cattle, sheep, and goats. Close to the 
houses are found enormous midden heaps, often larger than the 


80 DWELLINGS OF THE SAGA-TIME IN 


ruins of the houses themselves. The walls were narrower than 
the Icelandic walls, and, although they were built of layers of 
turf and stone or sometimes of turf on a foundation of stone, the 
middle space, filled in with earth, had almost disappeared, as 
may be seen in the sketch. The long platforms of stone along 
the walls, the pavements, thresholds, and scattered fireplaces 
recall similar constructions in Iceland. 

In 1261 Greenland became subject to the Crown of Norway, 
and to this influence the Danes attribute certain differences be- 


el 
Paes 
r 

184 Bios vada 3s 


- ¥ overgroet ===,” 
=a 
Fpccretiesnene, FES a 


SUPPOSED SITE OF THE HOUSE OF ERIK THE RED IN GREENLAND 


Meddelelser om Groénland, vol. xvi. Daniel Brunn 


tween the customs of the Norsemen in Iceland and in Greenland, 
which I need not describe here.* Perhaps the difference in archi- 
tecture is due to the same cause. The ruin of the house found 
on the supposed site of Brattahlid, the abode of Hrik the Red, 
looks as if it might have been remodeled several times since that 
fearless Norseman first settled in the land. 


* Meddelelser om Gronland, vol. xvi, p. 490. 


ICELAND, GREENLAND, AND VINELAND 81 


Numerous relics have been found in these ruins—iron nails 
and knives, pieces of stone vessels, spinning stones, bone combs, 
and stone pendants bored with holes and incised with rune-like 
but illegible characters. These, like all the ruins in Greenland 
which have been thoroughly dug out, are attributed by the Danes 
to a period later than the Saga time. 


VINELAND 


The ruins, found where one had every reason to hope to find 
traces of the houses built in Vineland by Leif Erikson and his 
followers, did not differ in their essential features from those of 
Iceland in the Saga-time. The situations were similar. The 
walls were laid in the same way and were of the same thickness, 
and the fireplaces were constructed as they were in the habit of 
constructing them at home. 


10 Meters 


SUPPOSED NORSE RUIN IN MASSACHUSETTS 


The walls of this house can be little more than suggested. 
They were probably built almost entirely of turf, and they looked 
as if they might have been intentionally destroyed. I show it 
for its fireplace. Three or four fireplaces were on the site, one 
of them being the familiar Indian clam-bake, with its neatly 
paved, saucer-shaped hearth piled with ashes and unopened clam 
shells, for this temptingly prepared feast had never been eaten. 
One of these fireplaces, however, was very different from the 
others, and of the Icelandic type, with its surrounding upright 
stones at the four corners and a mass of charcoal and stones in- 
side. This house is one of those on the place pointed out in 
Cambridge by my father, Eben Norton Horsford, as the site of 


82 DWELLINGS OF THE SAGA-TIME IN 


the group of houses built by the party of Thorfinn Karlsefni in 
Vineland. 

The second house I show for the constraction of the walls and 
the little pavement, presumably at the door, which resembles that 
in the templeat Thyrlishown before. The outer side of the wall 
contained only one layer of stones, the inner, according to cus- 
tom, containing more and larger stones, some of which had fallen 
in. The oblong platform of small stones occupied the place of 


yy; Meters 


SUPPOSED NORSE RUIN IN MASSACHUSETTS 


and resembled a fireplace, but showed no trace of such use, un- 
less in the dark sticky earth between and under the stones, which 
I have since been told may have been ashes absorbed in the soil. © 
This house, with the other ruins near it, are about ten or more 
miles from the settlement at Cambridge, and so far from the river 
that it must be attributed to later visitors from the North than 
those told about in the Vineland Sagas. 

No relics have been found at either of these sites which I attri- 
bute to the Northmen. I have, however, one stone implement, 


ICELAND, GREENLAND, AND VINELAND 83 


which was found imbedded in the yellow sand and seemed to 
have been lost before the advent of the Northmen, and presuma- 
bly belonged to the savages they found here. 


Probably the reader will contrast these different dwellings of 
the Northmen with those of the native tribes of North America, 
from the magnificent ruins of Copan to the long, narrow houses 
of the Iroquois, and will detect the similarities and differences 
between these and the habitations of the Greenland Eskimos. 

The Spanish, Dutch, French, and English explorers visited 
and might have built houses on these shores, but in Europe no 
houses of this type are found outside of Iceland, except in the 
Faroes, and, although ruins of Norse dwellings are probably 
awaiting detection in England, Scotland, Orkney, and Shetland, 
they have not yet been brought to the notice of archeologists.* 

The earliest examples of architecture on our shores, as well as 
the present knowledge of the evolution of European architecture, 
as far as I have been able to find out, show that the walls of the 
inferior houses in post-Columbian times were unlike those of 
Iceland. Our oldest French house is the Sillery manor house 
near Quebec, built by the Jesuits in 1637. The walls of this 
house are built of stone, and are three feet thick, laid in mortar 
which is now nearly as hard as the stone itself. I have been 
unable to find anything more primitive of French workmanship 
here. I have found nothing in English work which is not famil- 
iar to you all, although I have followed up several mistaken re- 
ports. The Dutch buildings show an equally advanced though 
different type of development, and also the Spanish. 


I am glad to have an opportunity to express publicly my sin- 
cere thanks and deep indebtedness to the American archeologists, 
both here and in Canada, who have come most kindly to my 
assistance and taught me in the field the knowledge they had 
acquired by their own experience, without which I could not 
have learned how to gather many facts, a few of which I have 
here presented. 

Mr Gerarp Fowke: Seven weeks of field work in and near Cambridge. 
Two weeks of field work in Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Mary- 
land, 1894, Five weeks in Cambridge, 1896. 

Dr Franz Boas: Two days in and near Cambridge, 1894. 

Mr Davin Boyt, Curator of the Canadian Institute at Toronto: One week 


inand near Cambridge. One week in Ontario, Canada, 1894. One week 
in Cambridge, 1896. 


* Since writing this I have been notified that ancient Norse ruins have been found in 
the Hebrides. 


84 COMPLETION OF THE LA BOCA DOCK 


Mr F. W. Norris, Hon. Editor of the Viking Club, London: One week in 
Cornwall, 1895. Three weeks in Scotland, Orkney, and Shetland, 1896. 
Two weeks in England, 1897. 

Dr pain. Vattyr GupmMunNpsson, Professor of Old Norse History and Liter- 
ature at the University of Copenhagen: Direction of explorations in Iceland 
for four months, 1895. Five weeks in and near Cambridge, 1896. 

Mr TrHorstetnn Erurnesson, Iceland: Four months in Iceland, 1895. 

Rey. Henry Orts THaysr, Maine Historical Society: Two weeks among 
old English ruins in Maine, 1896. 

Str JAmMres Lemorne, Past President of the Royal Society of Canada: Di- 
rection of researches near Quebec, 1896. 

MrC. C. Witiovuausy, Peabody Museum, Cambridge: Two days on Cape 
Cod, 1897. 


Mr W J McGee: Advice, criticism, and encouragement, both in Wash- 
ington and Cambridge for over four years. 


COMPLETION OF THE LA BOCA DOCK 


In a recent report to the Department of State, Consular Clerk 
Murphy of Colon announces the completion of the La Boca dock, 
the Pacific terminus of the Panama canal. The real importance 
of the work at La Boca, says Mr Murphy, remains to be demon- 
strated. The tide fluctuation at Panama amounts to over 25 
feet, and at the lowest ebb the bottom of the sea is exposed for 
a mile or more from the shore. As to whether or not vessels will 
venture to use the La Boca dock, time alone will prove. Mr 
Murphy says he has heard the opinion expressed that the dock 
will prove to bea complete success. On the other hand, he has 
heard it even more confidently stated that this is only another 
example of the waste which has characterized the management 
of this apparently simple undertaking. To one traveling across 
the isthmus, he says, it appears that there can be no obstacle to 
the completion of the canal which money, honestly used, engi- 
neering skill, and common sense cannot easily overcome. The 
land is mostly level, the highest point being little over 300 feet 
above thesea. The distance is only about 45 miles. The freshets 
of the river Chagres seem to be the only difficulty, and it ap- 
pears that provision for the storage or escape of such water can 
be made. The work, if it were in American hands and under 
American control, could, Mr Murphy believes, be completed in 
a few years at moderate cost. About one-half of the work—14 
miles at the north end and 6 miles at the sonth—has been com- 
pleted or partially completed, though the freshets of the Chagres 
river have caused great damage during years of neglect. 


TWO HUNDRED MILES UP THE KUSKOKWIM 
By CHARLES HaLiock 


Many mighty rivers besides the Yukon flow out of Alaska into 
Bering sea, of which the largest and most notable is the Kusko- 
kwim. Itis 800 miles long. From its source in the geographical 
center of the province, it flows with many a majestic sweep and 
sinuous curve out from granite walls, through rounded foothills 
and level plains, into the bosom of the sea some two degrees north 
of the Aleutian peninsula, and with the great bay of the same 
name, into which it empties, constitutes the phenomenal counter- 
part on the Pacific of the bay of Fundy and the river Peticodiac 
on the Atlantic, though the Kuskokwim is beyond comparison 
the larger river of the two. Itis so wide at its mouth that its 
shores are invisible from mid-channel, and it is navigable for 
barges for a distance of 500 miles up. The tide rises fifty jeet, 
and when it runs out it exposes a vast area of oozy mud flats 


[ 


KUSKOKWIM RIVER FROM KOLMAKOVSKY 


85 


86 TWO HUNDRED MILES UP THE KUSKOK WIM 


(sixty miles wide at the entrance of the river), which are seamed 
with countless shallow, dirty rivulets flowing seaward. Very 
different is its physical aspect when it is bank-full at flood. ‘ It 
shimmers then like an inland ocean studded with myriads of 
mossy islands.”” The head of the tide is 100 miles upstream, at 
a trading post called Mumtrekhlagamute. Boats ascending the 
river must wait for the tide, whose flow is irresistible even by 
steam-power, for it rises vertically over eight feet an hour, filling 
up the vast chasm which forms its bed in the brief space of six 
hours, though thereis an entire absence of anything like a tidal 
“Dore”? rolling in and overwhelming everything in its impet- 
uous career. This phenomenal procedure is an old fable which 
used to be current regarding the bay of Fundy, until people 
learned differently, and graphic recitals were told of pigs which 
had been foraging on the flats, scampering before the advancing 
wave and being presently overtaken and engulfed. 

On the Kuskokwim there are no less than sixteen trading posts 
and villages within the first 400 miles of its mouth. Messrs 
Hartmann and Weinland, Moravian missionaries from Bethle- 
hem, Pennsylvania, who are men of marked ability, located a 
school and mission at Kolmakovsky, 200 miles up, as long ago as 
1885; and the description of the river which here follows, with 
the accompanying illustrations, is from observations made by 
them on their initial trip. They afford a very realistic picture 
of summer life in the interior of Alaska and will serve to coun- 
teract the popular impression that the country is wholly frigid 
and barren. 

When these gentlemen first arrived at the mouth of the river, 
in June, the salmon fishing was at its height, varying little, if 
any, from the running season on the St Lawrence tributaries. 
The eastern bank of the estuary was swarming with native fish- 
ermen (Eskimos), whose huts were strung along the top of a 
narrow dike at high-water mark in close continuity for miles, 
crowding each other so closely that there was hardly room for 
more. This dike was fringed with alders, willow, birch, and pop- 
lar saplings interspersed, flanked by a vigorous growth of coarse 
sedges and bulrushes. Back of the dike (or levee, as it would 
be called in the southern states) the country is a flat waste, cov- 
ered with a spongy bed of moss or “tundra” from six inches to 
a foot deep and destitute even of shrubs. Great deposits of drift- 
wood from above line the shore and afford fuel for the resident 
inhabitants, who number several thousands, but whose ranks are 


TWO HUNDRED MILES UP THE KUSKOK WIM 87 


FRAMES FOR DRYING FISH 


swelled in the fishing season by accessions from the Yukon to 
a total of perhaps seven or eight thousand. There is a portage 
of sixty miles from the Yukon to the Kuskokwim, which has 
been traveled for a century by employés of the Russian Fur 
Company and others since. The salmon are taken chiefly in dip- 
nets along the banks, and our travelers measured a specimen 
which weighed 41 pounds and measured three feet in girth and 
nearly four feet in length. 

Though the Yukon is the great arterial drainage conduit for 
the summer meltings from the snow-capped mountain ranges 
which traverse the interior and are consequently filled with 
glacial mud, big salmon are found in it, and in some of its clear- 
water tributaries there is an abundance of large grayling and so- 
called salmon trout. 

Leaving the steamer (in which they had taken passage from 
San Francisco) at the mouth of the river landing stores, the mis- 
sionaries proceeded up the stream in company with four freight- 
ing barges destined for upper posts. Their own private convey- 
ances were native bidarkas, or sealskin canoes decked over, each 
with three manholes, the passenger occupying the central hole 
and the paddlers the end ones. A three hours’ sail brought them 


88 TWO HUNDRED MILES UP THE KUSKOK WIM 


to one of the storehouses above mentioned, located near the out- 
let of a small, deep river, it being 11 o’clock at night and still 
daylight. The weather was clear, but head winds detained them. 
for the next five days. Starting on June 18,.at 2 a. m., just be- 
fore sunrise, they made an eight-mile pull to a village of about 
ten barabarahs or native houses, named Kuskokwagamute (it is 
well to remember these names), and, lying by until 1 o’clock, 
attempted to snooze, but were distressed by ravenous mosquitoes. 
Then a two-hours’ paddle found them, at 3 o'clock, at the village 
of Apokachamute, numbering about 150 inhabitants, located on 
a small tributary of the Kuskokwim,where large numbers of beau- 
tiful salmon were lying on the bank waiting to be dressed. All 
the people were dressed in sealskin coats and wore beads and 
ivory ornaments. lying by twelve hours, starting again at 3 
o'clock in the morning—always waiting for the tide to serve— 
they arrived at Togiarhazorimute at 8, and after breakfast made 
a 60-mile run to Lomavigamute (mute means village). Traveling 
was delightful. A fine breeze kept the mosquitoes off. Point 
after point was reached and left behind. The skin boats seemed 
to glide through the water. *‘As we went on, the river grew nar- 
rower, so that the opposite bank became distinctly visible. The 


BIDARKAS (SKIN CANOES) ON THE LOWER KUSKOKWIM 


‘~ a 


TWO HUNDRED MILES UP THE KUSKOK WIM 89 


MUMTREKHLAGAMUTE 


river, which hitherto had been an unbroken stream, was now di- 
vided by numerous islands into many channels. The shores 
were lined with a higher growth of underwood, and thickets of 
small birch trees alternated with grassy or mossy banks. The 
tide was also sluggish.” 

The next day, sailing still among enchanting wooded islands, 
they came to Napahaiagamute, where a lot of Eskimos were in 
their kayaks or sealskin boats with a single hole—fishing for 
salmon with gill nets. Soon they passed Napahaiagamute and, 
rounding an island, came in view of the important trading sta- 
tion of Mumtrekhlagamute, situated on a high bank, with a back- 
ground of pine trees and a hill range in the distance. The tide 
here rises about 4 feet. The station comprises two large, well- 
built log-houses and several smaller ones, and a Russian bath- 
house or kashima, besides the usual annex of native barabarahs. 
Here the boatmen struck for higher wages, as they always do, 
but were finally conciliated by the factor of the trading post. 
The dogs here were numerous, and howled so as to disturb the 
missionary when he was reading the 116th Psalm by daylight at 
1 o’clock a.m. The cause proved to be a wrestling match be- 
tween two rivals for the permanent possession of awoman. The 


( # 


90 TWO HUNDRED MILES UP THE KUSKOK WIM 


. 
following day they proceeded up a winding channel whose banks 
were clad with pine trees forty feet high, and finally reached 
Kikkhlagamute, where they counted fifty birch-bark canoes, 
which here begin to replace skin ones. The village contained 
216 people and was situated in a low, marshy ground, with an 
abundance of mosquitoes. On the 27th of June they stopped at 
a small Eskimo fishing station, where they met a white mining 
prospector coming down. The villages of Akiagamute, Iulukiak, 
and Kivigalogamute were afterward successively passed, and the 
following day found them at the fishing station of an enterpris- 
ing half-breed, when rain began falling, the first of any conse- 
quence since they left Unalaska on the 16th of May. Still 
proceeding up river, more villages—Ugavik, Kalkhagamute, 
Ookhogamute—were passed, all under the influence and civili- 
zation of the Greek church, and at last, after a journey of 9 days, 
the great focal trade center of this district, Kolmakovsky, was 
reached. Ranges of snow-covered mountains were visible the day 
previous, with foothills clad with pine, up whose somber glens 
favorable glimpses were had at times. Kolmakovsky consists of 
7 log buildings, built in the form of a square, including a church 
and a hexagonal block-house built 50 years ago. It stands on 


’ 


SAS 


— 


: 
2 


KOLMAKOYSKY 


% 


TWO HUNDRED MILES UP THE KUSKOKWIM 91 


a bluff. The country seems much more populous than Alaska 
had been credited with being. All the white traders whom the 
missionaries met had adopted native women as partners, who 
were very decorous in manner and behavior. Their children are 
of prepossessing appearance, dressed in European fashion, and 
trained in the ways of their white fathers. There are some 50 
children at Napaimute, a village 10 miles higher up the stream. 
These people know nothing about intoxicating liquors. 
Kolmakovsky is 200 miles above the mouth of the Kuskokwim. 
There is another trading post, called Venizali, twenty days’ jour- 
ney still farther up. The missionaries retraced their voyage from 
this point, reaching the mouth of the Kuskokwim on July 17,in 
nine days’ time, while the journey upstream occupied twenty- 
one. The weather for the previous fortnight had been fickle— 
sometimes bright and often rainy, warm and cold by turns, and 
frequently too hot for comfort. Thence they cruised along the 
seacoast, following its indentations to Good News bay, a large 
and beautiful basin surrounded by lofty mountains, and, pass- 
ing safely through its narrow entrance on the surf of an in- 
coming tide, came to anchor at the head of the bay in front of a 
_ village of 150 people of mixed complexion, and some of them 
almost white. By taking a canoe route from there across the 
neck of a mountainous headland or cape, it was possible to reach 
their place of destination at Togiak bay, and thus avoid a peril- 
ous coastwise journey outside, and so poling up a winding moun- 
tain stream, beautifully clear and very rapid, which finally cut 
a deep crooked rut through a mossy swamp, with high grass 
lining the banks, they came to a portage, and, crossing the divide, 
entered a chain of lakes which formed the headwaters of the 
_ stream which they had to descend. The lakes, of which there 
are four, are small, the largest scarcely a mile in length, with 
water beautifully clear and sweet, and full of “ red salmon,” some 
of which their native guides speared. This fish is probably 
Salvelinus malma, or Dolly Varden. One characteristic of these 
fish was “‘a big swelling on the back close to the neck.” (Can 
these be the same as the redfish of Idaho described by Captain 
Bendire?) ‘Their flavor was not highly esteemed. The outlet 
of this chain of lakes which the canoe followed was at first so 
narrow and crooked as to be scarcely passable, but 1t soon de- 
veloped into ‘a winding mountain torrent, alive with trout, some 
of which we saw shooting through the water with incredible 
velocity.” The paddlers had little to do except to let her run 


92 TWO HUNDRED MILES UP THE KUSKOK WIM 


and keep her off the banks at the bends. The scenery was very 
beautiful, the view bounded on either side by well-shaped moun- 
tains, green with sphagnum, rising from the plain below, with 
snow still resting on them in patches. The region was ‘‘ one vast 
solitude, over which bears and birds hold undivided sway.” On 
July 26 the voyagers took dinner at the deserted village of 
Aziavigamute, and then made their way in a short time to Togiak 
bay, having occupied three days in crossing the divide. “ Brother 
Weinland shot some ducks and four geese, and the natives speared 
~ a large salmon.” 


ESKIMO MONUMENTS 


Subsequently the missionaries made a trip up the Togiak river, 
which occupied two days, and after visiting several villages with 
polysyllabic names they returned to the coast, where they found 
a hamper from their friends of the Alaska Commercial Company 
(bless them!) which “ contained thirty good cigars it seems the 
brethren smoke), four large cakes of tobacco, two tins of boiled 
oysters, two of corned beef, one of fresh boiled beef, three tins of 
sardines, one of peaches, one of corn, and one of peas.” 

So the record runs. 


THE MT ST ELIAS EXPEDITION OF PRINCE LUIGI 
AMADEO OF SAVOY, 1807 


A lecture of Dr Filippo de Filippi, who accompanied Prince 
Luigi of Savoy on his expedition to Mt St Elias, was delivered 
before the Turin Alpine Club and has been published in the 
Rivista Mensile del Club Alpino Italiano, the first authentic ac- 
count given of that remarkably successful ascent of one of the 
greatest snow peaks of the world. A translation of this article 
appears in the latest Sierra Club Bulletin, January, 1898, by Dr 
Paolo de Vecchi, of San Francisco, member of the Sierra Club 
and the Turin Alpine Club, who assisted Prince Luigi by making 
the advance preparations on the Pacific coast. 

Dr Filippo de Filippi tells how Prince Luigi determined upon 
the expedition in February, 1897, and at once began corre- 
spondence with those in the United States who could best in- 
form and advise him. He associated with hint Lieutenant Cagui, 
Sr Gonella, Sr Vittorio Sella, the Alpine photographer, and Dr 
Filippo. Four guides or huntsmen from the royal Italian estates 
and the special guide of Sr Sella accompanied them, leaving Turin 
May 17 and reaching New York from Liverpool May 28. They 
proceeded to San Francisco, where part of the equipment was 
procured, and sailed from Seattle on the regular mail steamer 
for Alaska June 13, Major E. 8. Ingraham, of Seattle, with ten 
American packers, their equipment and provisions, having sailed 
a few days before on the schooner Aggie. The expedition left 
Sitka June 20, the mail steamer towing the Aggie, for Yakutat 
bay, where a landing was made on the coast of the Malaspina 
glacier June 28. 

Prince Luigi was thoroughly informed of all the work of the 
expeditions of Schwatka and Topham and of the two expeditions 
sent to Mt St Elias by the National Geographic Society, Prof. 
I. C. Russell commanding, and before leaving Italy had planned 
every detail and mapped out his route. Professor Russell, Pro- 
fessor George Davidson, the senior scientist of the Pacific coast, 
Professor Fay, of the Appalachian Club, Boston, and Major 
Ingraham, of Seattle, who has climbed Mt Rainier again and 
again, gave advice and assistance without stint. It was the most 
thoroughly planned and well managed expedition that we have 


93. 


94 THE MT ST ELIAS EXPEDITION OF 


known of on American peaks, and was carried out like a mili- 
tary maneuver. Perfect discipline and harmony prevailed, the 
ten Italians leading the way, while Major Ingraham and his ten 
packers conducted a transport service that never failed in 
promptly passing on, by the chain of camps extending to the 
foot of the Newton glacier, the ample store of provisions landed 
at the seashore. There was not the slightest delay nor hitch in 
any of the arrangements, and from the time Prince Luigi left 
Turin until he returned to London everything moved like mil- 
itary maneuvers at an annual review. It was indeed but a 
promenade to the top of Mt St Hlias and back again—a prom- 
enade over the ice and snow that had daunted and defeated 
four expeditions before that year and a fifth expedition but a 
fortnight before Prince Luigi landed on the forest-covered edge 
of the Malaspina glacier. 
Starting from the seacoast on the morning of June 24 and 
always preceding the party to choose the way and determine the 
places for halts and camps, Prince Luigi led his men across 
Malaspina’s forest, and on the sixth day reached the edge of 
clear ice, where the four extra Indian packers were sent back to 
Yakutat and the sleds made ready for use. They were then 492 
feet above the sea, the real climb began, and for all the rest of 
the way their route lay over snow and ice—Mt St Ehas pre- 
senting the longest snow climb anywhere in the world. 
Beginning their alpine work on the 1st of July, allowing one 
day’s rest on the Fourth that the Americans might celebrate 
Independence Day, Prince Luigi piloted them across the Malas- 
pina and Seward glaciers to the point near Pinnacle pass where 
he found the cairn and tent fragments left by Prof. Russell in 
1890. At that point Major Ingraham and the American pack- 
ers were left behind to carry on independently the work of pass- 
ing provisions up from the coast and victualling the route as far 
as the upper Newton glacier, where the Italian guides then took 
charge of the packs. The Prince proceeded across the Seward 
and on up the Agassiz and Newton glaciers toward that same 
ridge on the north side of St Elias from which Prof. Russell es- 
sayed the summit in 1891. They encountered rain, fog, mist, 
and snow for all the early part of the climb, dragging the sleds 
over slush and soft snow in which they often sank to their hips. 
Of the thirteen days spent in toilsomely ascending the Newton 
glacier only three were tolerably clear, and Dr Filippo says: 
“During these the panorama was really enchanting, with its 


PRINCE LUIGI AMADEO OF SAVOY, 1897 95 


different colors changing at every instant, and with a character- 
istic indigo blue very different from the coloring of the Italian 
alps. These glaciers differ from those of the Alps in that the 
stormy weather in Alaska is not dangerous and the thunder is not 
heard mingled with the noises of the avalanches.” 

On the morning of July 30 Prince Luigileft the camp atthe head 
of the Newton glacier, 8,958 feet above the sea, and camped that 
night on a ridge 12,248 feet above the sea. ‘“ The atmosphere 
is so clear that the far-away sea and all the peaks around * * * 
can be seen. From St Elias and from the rocks of Newton con- 
tinual avalanches of snow and ice and stone fall with a tremen- 
dous noise. The sun-setting is beautiful. The sky is steel blue, 
the rest of the horizon orange-red, and Augusta (Mt) looks hke 
a volcano in eruption,” Dr Filippo observes, from which it may 
be inferred what photographs Prof. Sella was able to make with 
his two large cameras. Starting at midnight with perfectly clear 
sky and climbing to a point 16,400 feet, they halted for break- 
fast, and then continued the dizzying, exhausting climb, resting 
every ten minutes to breathe. 

“One hundred and sixty feet from the top, Petigax, who is at 
the head, stops to give way to the Prince, telling him, ‘ It is for 
you to touch the top first, as you deserve it by your persever- 
ance.’ His Highness steps to the top of St Elias, and all the 
others run, anxious and exhausted, to join him in the hurrah. 
The victory is complete, and it is all Italian. All ten have 
accomplished the purpose for which they left their own coun- 
try. * * * Itwas-11.45 of the 3lst of July, ‘and the Italian 
flag was waving, hanging to a post, while the little crowd stood 
cheering Italy and the King.’ 

“ The temperature is —12° centigrade. The mercurial barom- 
eter points to 385 mm. and, with the correction, shows an alti- 
tude of 18,086 feet above the sea level, closely approximate to 
that of 18,080 feet, calculated in 1891 by Russell with triangu- 
lation.” 

The descent was as perfect a military maneuver as the ascent, 
the party making three of the previous camps in each day; the 
food supplies were all in waiting at the chain of camps, and in 
ten days they had retraced the route it had taken them thirty 
days to ascend. The Prince had ordered the Aggie to meet 
them between the 10th and 11th of August. On the evening of 
the 10th they camped on the shore, embarked on the 11th, sailed 
on the 12th, reached Sitka the 17th of August, fifty-seven days 


96 THE ORIGIN OF FRENCH-CANADIANS 


after leaving it. Sailing from New York by the Lucania Sep- 
tember 4, the party broke up in London September 11, the Prince 
in good time to take part in some yacht races for which he had 
promised to reach England by the middle of September—the most 
modest and unassuming as the most intrepid and successful of all 
the explorers who have essayed Mt St Elias. JOB ade Sh 


THE ORIGIN OF FRENCH-CANADIANS* 


Acadia was peopled without any kind of organization between 
1636 and 1670. No one has yet satisfactorily demonstrated 
where the French of that colony came from, though their dia- 
lect would indicate their place of origin to be near the mouth of 
the river Loire. They were distinct from the French-Canadians 
in some particulars, and not allied by marriage with the settlers 
of the St Lawrence. It isascertained from Champlain’s writings 
that no “habitant” tilled the soil of Canada during the first 
quarter of the seventeenth century. 

From an examination of family and other archives, involving 
over thirty years’ labor, the following conclusions are arrived 
at: Perche, Normandy, Beauce, Picardy, and Anjou contributed 
about 200 families from 1653 to 1663, the period of the Hundred 
Partners’ regime. By natural growth these reached the figure 
of 2,200 souls in 1663. In 1662-1663 there came about 100 men 
from Perche and 150 from Poitou, Rochelle, and Gascony, with 
a small number of women. ‘This opens a new phase in the his- 
tory of our immigration by introducing Poitou and Rochelle 
among the people of the northern and western provinces of 
France, already counting two generations in the three districts 
of Quebec, Three Rivers, and Montreal. 

After 1665 the city of Paris, or rather the small territory en- 
circling it, contributed a good share. No part of the south or 
east of France had any connection with Canada at any time. 
Normandy, Perche, Maine, Anjou, Touraine, Poitou, Saint Onge, 
Angoumois, Guienne, and Gascony—on a straight line from 
north to south—furnished the whole of the families now com- 
posing the French-Canadian people. 

From 1667 to 1672 a committee was active in Paris, Rouen, 
Rochelle, and Quebec to recruit men, women, and young girls for 


*Abstract of paper, by B. Sulte, read before the Anthropological Section of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, at the Toronto meeting. 


THE HEIGHT OF MT RAINIER 97 


Canada. This committee succeeded in effecting the immigration 
into Canada of about 4,000 souls. Half of the girls were from 
country places in Normandy, and the other half were well edu- 
cated persons who did not go into the rural districts, but mar- 
ried in Quebec, Three Rivers, and Montreal. 

In 1675 the King stopped all immigration, and this was the 
end of French attempts to colonize Canada. The settlers, of 
course, remained as they were, and in 1680 the whole popula- 
tion amounted only to 9,700 souls. Double the number every 
thirty years and we have the present French population of the 
Provinces of Quebec and Ontario, and of the groups established 
now in the United States. 

On the subject of uniformity of language, which is so remark- 
able among the French-Canadians, we may observe that it is the 
best language spoken from Rochelle to Paris and Tours, and from 
there to Rouen. Writers of the seventeenth century have ex- 
pressed the opinion that French-Canadians could understand a 
dramatic play as well as the élite of Paris. No wonder to us, 
since we know that theatricals were common occurrences in 
Canada, and that the ‘‘ Cid of Corneille” was played in Quebec 
in 1645; the “ Tartuffe of Moliére” in 1677, andsoon. The taste 
for music and love for song are characteristics of the French- 
Canadian race. The facility with which they learn foreign lan- 
guages is well known in America, where they speak Indian, 
Spanish, and English as well as their own tongue. 


THE HEIGHT OF MT RAINIER 


By RicHarp U. Goopr, 


United States Geological Survey 


Four separate determinations of the height of Mt Rainier, 
Washington, have been made, and, while no single one of them 
independently would be considered conclusive, the close corre- 
spondence between the results warrants an acceptance of the 
mean as being very close to the true altitude. Two of these de- 
terminations were by cistern barometer and two by angulation. 

During the summer of 1897 Professor Edgar McClure carried 
a cistern barometer to the summit of Rainier, at the time the 
Mazamas had their annual outing, and obtained one set of ob- 
servations, including readings of attached and detached ther- 


98 GEOGRAPHIC WORK BY THE 


mometers.* The barometer had been especially prepared and 


was supposed to be in the very best condition. These observa- 
tions were carefully computed by Professor E. H. McAllister, of 
the University of Oregon, in connection with synchronous baro- 
metric readings at Seattle, Portland, Fort Canby, and Walla 
Walla, these points occupying positions approximately north, 
south, west, and east of Rainier. The result was 14,528 feet 
above sea-level. Major EH. S. Ingraham, of Seattle, had previ- 
ously determined and published the altitude of Rainier, as a re- 
sult of readings of mercurial barometers, as 14,524 feet. 

In 1895 Mr 8.8. Gannett, of the U. S. Geological Survey, de- 
termined the height by angulation, in connection with triangu- 
lation in the Cascades, to be 14,532 feet.t In 1896 Mr G. E. 
Hyde, also of the U. 8. Geological Survey, while making a topo- 
graphic map of the country to the northeast of Rainier, secured 
about forty angles of elevation to the highest point of the moun- 
tain from various points, the distances averaging about 25 miles, 
the mean of all these results being 14,519 feet. 


RECAPITULATION : ao 
Barometric determination, McClure and McAllister............. 14,528 
Barometric determination, Ingraham. ................... scentn) L424 
Angulation determination, U. S. Geological Survey, Gannett..... 14,532 
Angulation determination, U. S. Geological Survey, Hyde.... ... 14,519 

Mieamieaevensaitsae wocnaereatne 14,526 


In addition to the above, the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 
determined the height of Rainier by angulation to be 14,440, but 
the distances used were so great that the result was considered 
merely approximate. 


GEOGRAPHIC WORK BY THE BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
EDHN@OLO Gye: 


The germ of the Bureau of American Ethnology was an ex- 
ploration of the canyons of Colorado river, begun in 1867 by 
Major J. W. Powell. At first an amateur exploration, the work 
was gradually refined into a survey fostered and afterward sup- 


*In descending the mountain Professor McClure lost his life by falling over a prec- 
ipice on July 27. 

+ Nav. Geog. Maa., vol. vii, p. 150, April, 1896. 

+ Extract from one of the replies (signed by W J McGee, Ethnologist in Charge, Bu- 
reau of American Ethnology) to letters of inquiry for information to be incorporated in 
a paper on geographic research in the United States for presentation before the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science at the Toronto meeting. 


BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 99 


ported by the Smithsonian Institution and the Federal Govern- 
ment. The bureau thus built up was known as the “ U.S. Geo- 
graphical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region” 
until 1879, when the work was divided, a moiety being trans- 
ferred to the newly instituted U. 8. Geological Survey, the other 
moiety (including the ethnologic researches, which constituted 
an important part of the work of the Rocky Mountain survey) 
being continued in the ethnologic bureau at the cost of the Goy- 
ernment and under the supervision of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion; so the geographic work of the Bureau may be considered 
to have begun with the exploration and survey of Colorado can- 
yon and the neighboring country through the boldest and most 
perilous among the scientific expeditions recorded in the annals 
of the nation. Subsequently it was found inexpedient to make 
extended geographic surveys, and the work was generally car- 
ried forward by means of the surveys and maps of other instru- 
mentalities, notably the U. 8. Geological Survey. Yet from 
time to time special explorations and surveys have been made, 
the latest (and the most extended during recent years) being 
that of western Sonora (Mexico) and contiguous parts of Ari- 
zona, by W J McGee, with W. D. Johnson as topographer, 
who traversed a considerable territory of which portions were 
never before trodden by white men. Although the surveys 
have thus been limited, the researches, viewed broadly and 
in clear light, are largely geographic. It is a primary func- 
tion of the Bureau to trace the geographic distribution of tribes 
and larger groups of aborigines; and this has been done 
throughout the territory of the United States, and, to some 
extent, in contiguous countries, and the resulting ethno-geo- 
eraphic maps are recognized as standards throughout the world. 
At the same time, effort has constantly been made to trace the 
migrations of the native tribes, as observed by the pioneers and 
as indicated by the surprisingly rich legends and traditions of 
the tribesmen, and also as recorded in the distribution of pre- 
historic relics; and thus it has been found feasible to prepare 
ethno-geographic maps of various portions of the continent repre- 
senting different periods in the development of the primitive race, 
and a number of maps showing the migrations and less regular 
wanderings of the native tribes have been published. Through 
observations on the tribes and studies of their wanderings it has 
been found that primitive peoples are, in large measure, creat- 


100 A RELIC OF THE LEWIS AND CLARKE EXPEDITION 


ures of environment, and thus reflect the geographic conditions 
by which they are surrounded; and the researches concerning 
the relations between man and geographic condition have been 
found suggestive and fruitful. The various studies have served 
to correct early impressions concerning the aborigines; it has 
been shown that the Indians were more or less definitely organ- 
ized in tribes and confederacies, belonging to some sixty distinct 
stocks or families, each characterized by distinct languages, in- 
stitutions, and beliefs, and each occupying a definite though per- 
haps slowly shifting habitat. Some of the groups were large, 
some small, the greater number being confined to a narrow belt 
along the Pacific coast, while a few large groups occupied the 
eastern two-thirds of the continent. Study of the movements of 
the natives constituting each group indicates that they expanded 
or contracted, and shifted or persisted, much as do the definitely 
organized nations of civilization, under the influence of both ex- 
ternal and internal forces, the former being essentially geographic 
and the latter essentially human. It is only when the groups 
are defined and when their movements are investigated and 
compared that the principles of ethno-geography are brought to 
light. These principles are set forth in a score of the publica- 
tions of the Bureau. 


AREDIC OF VTE LEWISVAND? CLEAR KEE XE Das@N 


The print of which the accompanying illustration is a repro- 
duction, slightly reduced, was made from an iron believed to 
be an original branding-iron used by Captain Meriwether Lewis 
on the Lewis and Clarke Expedition of 1804-06. It was found 
by Mr Winans, of The Dalles, Oregon, about three years ago, 
clasped in the hands of an Indian skeleton, in one of the old 
Indian burial places on an island in the Columbia river, near 
The Dalles. 

Quite a number of Indian burial places are located along the 
Columbia, and several were described by Lewis and Clarke. It 
was the Indian custom to bury with deceased members of the 
tribe any articles especially prized by them. Lewis and Clarke 
passed down the Columbia in November, 1805, and wintered at 
Fort Clatsop, near Astoria, Oregon, at the mouth of the river. 
In the spring of 1806 they started eastward, homeward bound, 


A RELIC OF THE LEWIS AND CLARKE EXPEDITION 101 


advancing slowly up the Columbia. Their diary makes frequent 
mention of the fact that they exchanged trinkets of all descrip- 
tions for food and at times wood. Asthey approached the mouth 
of Snake or Lewis river, they were delayed several days in the 
effort to obtain horses for their overland trip across the conti- 


PE a Kee ue 


J ewis 


Pee SRNR SHS LES a, Sen bee > aterm 


nental divide. They found a difficulty in this, owing to their 
greatly reduced supplies, and everything not of absolute neces- 
sity was used in their barterings. 

The above-described relic is now deposited in the land office 
at The Dalles. It was seen by the writer during the summer of 
1897 in a fairly well preserved but, of course, rusty condition. 
It is one solid, welded piece of iron, with the box under the 
name formed by araisedrim. A pivoted handle, which was not 
found, was evidently used with the brand, as a short, cylindrical 
projection on the back of the iron could hardly have been used 
for any other purpose. This brand was not used for stock, but 
probably for stamping boxes, leather, or notices of locations or 
discoveries on near-by trees. It is the intention to deposit this 
relic with the Oregon Historical Society. 

Cyrus C. Bap. 


AN INTERESTING RUMOR CONCERNING ANDREE 


The recent publication in the daily newspapers of a dispatch 
from Stockholm to the effect that Professor Nordenskjold had 
informed the Swedish Academy of Science that he regarded as 
of sufficient importance to call for a closer investigation the in- 
telligence received by the Swedish Foreign Office that several 
persons worthy of credence saw Herr Andrée’s balloon in the 
Caribou District of British Columbia in August last led President 
Bell, of the National Geographic Society, to immediately ask the 
American Minister at Stockholm, by cable, what news of Herr 
Andrée the Swedish Foreign Office was really in possession of. 
The following day a reply was received referring President Bell 
to the Swedish Consul at San Francisco, who, in answer to a 
telegram that was forthwith sent him, replied to President Bell, 
by telegraph, as follows: 


“* Statement of a balloon passing over the Horse-Fly Hydraulic Mining 
Camp in Caribou, British Columbia, in latitude fifty-two degrees twenty 
minutes and longitude one hundred and twenty-one degrees thirty min- 
utes.—From letters of J. B. Hobson, manager Caribou Hydraulic Mining 
Company, and of Mrs William Sullivan, the blacksmith’s wife there, and 
statement of Mr John J. Newsom, San Francisco, then at-the camp, 
about two or three o’clock in afternoon, between fourth and seventh 
August last, weather calm and cloudless, Mrs Sullivan, while looking 
over the Hydraulic bank, noticed a round, gray-looking object in the sky 
to the right of the sun. As she watched, it grew larger and was descend- 
ing. She saw the larger mass of the balloon above and the small mass 
apparently suspended to the larger. It continued to descend until she 
plainly recognized it as a balloon and a large basket hanging thereto. It 
finally commenced to swing violently back and forth and move very fast 
toward the eastward and southward. She then called her daughter, 
eighteen years old, and after pointing the balloon out to her they both 
watched it rise rapidly until it disappeared in an easterly direction. Mr 
Hobson writes that Mrs Sullivan and daughter are intelligent, and he is 
disposed to believe their statement. Mrs Hobson had at about time 
stated noticed Mrs Sullivan looking into the sky at something, and that 
she called her daughter, who went to her side, looked in the directions 
indicated, and both watched some object for several minutes, turning 
their faces from southerly to easterly direction. Mr Newsom reports 
that something was thrown out from the balloon when lowest, and subse- 
quently people thought it might have been some message, but the coun- 
try is too wooded to warrant any search. When Mr Newsom returned 


102 


GEOGRAPHIC NAMES IN WEST GREENLAND 103 


to San Francisco he was ill and did not immediately report the matter. 
Mrs Sullivan has since examined the picture of Andrée’s balloon and 
says it represents the object seen. The president Geographical Society 
of the Pacific here instituted inquiries that have resulted as above.’’ 


The locality described is very near Quesnelle lake. While 
_ British Columbia is in the opposite direction to that in which 
Herr Andrée’s balloon is believed by Arctic explorers to have 
been borne, itis by no means an impossibility that it was carried 
in that direction, and the approximate date, August 4-7, at 
which a balloon is alleged to have been seen in that region would 
be just about the expiration of the time that it is believed Herr 
Andrée’s balloon would remain in theair. The physical features 
and conditions of British Columbia are such as to render it abso- 
lutely impossible to prosecute any search for traces of the al- 
leged aerial visitant at this season of the year. Meanwhile the 
consensus of opinion is that Andrée, if alive, is much more likely 
to be in Franz Josef Land, north Siberia, north or east Green- 
land, or Spitzbergen, and his safe return seems to depend largely 
on some fortunate accident that would lead to his being picked up 
by a whaler. 
deere 


GEOGRAPHIC NAMES IN WEST GREENLAND 


In his article in this magazine (vol. ix, pp. 1-11) Mr Robert 
Stein gives 46 new names to capes, bays, mountains, glaciers, ete., 
chiefly in honor of the “ advocates of a National University at 
Washington.” Most of these points were merely seen from a 
distance and most of them have already been explored and 
mapped, and some of them have been visited by at least two 
parties, each of which applied as few names as possible. The 
plan adopted by Mr Stein is not uncommon in “ geographic ex- 
ploration,” though it is difficult to understand the importance 
of such work. Doubtless the Danes will feel fully justified in 
ignoring the nomenclature, which is burdensome, needless, and 
meaningless. 

My chief object in this note is to call attention to the fact that 
in the promiscuous naming of things, the Wyckoff glacier,* one of 
the five names that I applied to this region, is ignored and re- 
placed by the name Hearst. My belief is that names of places 

6 


* Bull. Geol. Soc. America, Vol. viii, 1897, p. 257. 


104 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


are valuable only when needed in description, and I have scru- 
pulously avoided applying new names excepting where necessary 
for this purpose; but when once applied in this way they should 
not be put aside without a valid reason. But while I protest 
against this, I wish also to protest against geographic work which 
consists mainly in scattering names broadcast. Explorers often 
do little else than this. 
RALPH 8. TARR. 


PROMEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY, SESSION 1897-’98 


Special Meeting, February 7, 1898.—President A. Graham Bell in the 
chair.. Mr G. K. Gilbert lectured on the Origin of the Physical Features 
of the United States. 


Regular Meeting, February 11, 1898.—President A. Graham Bell in the 
chair. Mr Richard U. Goode gave an illustrated lecture on the Bitter 
Root Forest Reserve. At the conclusion of the lecture Hon. James Gunn, 
M. C., of Idaho, gave a description of that state, its topography, products, 
agriculture, irrigation, minerals, and mining. 


Special Meeting, February 14, 1898.—President A. Graham Bell in the 
chair. Hon. J. Phinney Baxter lectured on New England: ule Home of 
the Pilgrims and Puritans. 


Special Meeting, February 18, 1898.—President A. Graham Bell in the 
chair. Mr John M. Robertson gave an illustrated lecture on the Influ- 
ence of Climate and Land Formation on Early Civilization and Politics. 


Special Meeting, February 21, 1898.—President A. Graham Bell in the- 
chair. Professor Richard H. Dodge gave an illustrated lecture entitled 
“New York State: its Physical Geography.”’ 


Regular Meeting, February 25, 1898.—President A. Graham Bell in the 
chair. Mr Henry Gannett gave an illustrated lecture on Lake Chelan. 


The fine portrait of Prof. Alexander Graham Bell, LL. D., the distin- 
guished president of the National Geographic Society and inventor of the 
Bell telephone, which forms the frontispiece to this number, constitutes 
a notable addition to the series of portraits of eminent men of science 
which have appeared in the NarionaL GroGRAPHIC MAGAZINE during the 
past two years. 


a 
a 


NATI ONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST. 


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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MONOGRAPHS 


On the PHySIcAL FEATURES OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE, designed especially to supply to teachers and 
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LIST OF MONOGRAPHS COMPRISING VOLUME I: 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROCESSES - - - - - 
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PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES - - - 

BEACHES AND TIDAL MARSHES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST Prot. N. S. Shaler 
PRESENT AND EXTINCT LAKES OF NEVADA - - - - Prof. I. C. Russell 
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MT. SHASTA—A TYPICAL EXTINCT VOLCANO - = - - J. S. Diller 

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TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 


An International Quarterly Journal 


Edited by L. A. BAUER 
With the Co-operation of Eminent Magneticians 


Wiz the March, 1897, issue, this Journal, devoted exclusively to Terrestrial Magnetism and allied 
subjects, such as Earth Currents, Auroras, Atmospheric Electricity, etc., entered on its second 
volume. The hearty co-operation extended by the workers in this promising field of investigation, as 
abundantly shown by the numbers thus far issued, has made this Journal the international organ for 
making known the latest achievements. The magnetic needle has become such a promising instrument 
of research, not only in terrestrial, but in cosmical physics, that this Journal appeals to a large class of 
investigators. The geographer, the geologist, the astronomer, the meteorologist—all are interested in 
the development of the subject of terrestrial magnetism. It should therefore receive their support. 


Among the contributors of the main articles in the past have been Messrs. Barus, Bérgen, Chree, 
Eschenhagen, Littlehales, Riicker, Schmidt, Schuster, and de Tillo. 


Future numbers will contain: 


‘¢ The Earth, a Great Magnet,’’ 
By Dr. J. A. FLEMING. 


‘¢ The Electrification of the Atmosphere,’’ 
By Pror. ALEXANDER MCADIE. 


‘¢ The Height of the Aurora,’’ 
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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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WITH 160 ILLUSTRATIONS. ... 

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| 


4 ay | Me 
AN ims LUSTRATED M 


Editor: JOHN HYDE 


| Neen 
. Associate Editors, | 


, GREELY (\WJIMcGER ‘HENRY GANNETT 
é ae tae RUHAMAH SCIDMORE | 


} ¢ j 


HE, PAGE 
ORT ‘WEST PASSES ro THE YUKON. ( 
es a ith illustrations) —— is BLIZA) RUHAMAH SCIDMORE. 105 


OVERLAND ROUTES TO THE KLOND?KE. md) HAMLIN GARLAND. | 113 a 
1 With ae \ i} 


URE OF THE YUKON GOLDFIELDS, PROF. WM. H. DALL, 117 vi 


WILD FOWL AND GAME ANIMALS OF ALASKA. Ce 
th illustrations. Dee EH. W. NELSON. 121 / 


CONDITIONS ‘OF ALASKA. GEN. A. Ww. GREELY, U.S. A. 132 ae f 


| MIKE LEBARGE. | PROF. WM. H. DALL. 137 
\ \ \ eR eR eee}: 
\ 7 pn 
D.ITS MINERAL RESOURCES. at _ PROP. Ss. F. EMMONS, 139) is 
h map and illustrations. DR NAN iS Men ee ny 


NT OF ALASKA, ZEN TO an a oa : 
HON. GEO. C. PERKINS, U. S.'S. 1720 
Ons. wwe ‘PC SSTBILITIE OF AGRICULTURE | 
IR H. EVANS, 178 


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National Geographic Society 


ORGANIZED, JANUARY, 1888 


PRESIDENT 


ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL 


Vick-PRESIDENTS 


MARCUS BAKER A. W. GREELY 

WILLIAM H. DALL C. HART MERRIAM 

G. K. GILBERT Ei HERBERT G. OGDEN 
TREASURER 


HENRY GANNETT 


RECORDING SECRETARY CORRESPONDING SECRETARY 
FP. H. NEWELL ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE 
MANAGERS : 
CHARLES J. BELL EVERETT HAYDEN 
H. F. BLOUNT JOHN HYDE 
Be VE COWEN IGE 7. W J McGHE . 
DAVID T. DAY W. B. POWELL 


SECRETARY’S OFFICE 
Room 55, Ohio Bank Building, Twelfth and G Sts. N.W., Washington 


The National Geographic Society, the object of which is the increase and diffusion 
of geographic knowledge, has a paying membership of 1,500. Its membership is not 
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be sufficiently interested in its work to seek admission. The annual subscription is: for 
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Donations for the founding of Prize Medals and Scholarships are 
respectfully solicited. 


National Geographic Magazine 


Vou. IX APRIL, 1898 No. 4 


EE PNORVEWES IZPASSES TO THE YWKON 
By EnizA RuHAMAH ScIDMORE 


While Vancouver’s ships Jay at anchor in July, 1794, in his 
Port Frederick, the Komtokton of the natives and the Hoonah 
post-office of today, at the northwest end of Chichagof island, 
Messrs Whidby and Lemesurier, in a small boat, followed the 
north shore of Icy straits and penetrated the long Lynn canal, 
bringing back reports that ended Vancouver’s hope and search 
for a northwest passage through from the Atlantic—De Fuca’s 
straits and Del Fonte’s river myths and dreams of “ hypothetical 
projectors ” and “ closet navigators,” as this greatest of surveyors 
and explorers bitterly termed them. 

Whidby’s men rowed up that finest fiord of all that landscape 
coast to Point Seduction, so named because of the “ exceedingly 
artful character ” of the natives, who met them at that point and 
dared them further on up the western arm (Chilkat inlet) to the 


* mouth of the river, just beyond the modern Pyramid Harbor. 


These artful natives had then enjoyed trade with white men, 
and the Chilkats and Chilkoots, really one tribe and closely 
related, were not only the greatest warriors and boldest bucca- 
neers of the coast, but were great ‘‘ grease-traders ” and middle- 
men as well. Two ‘* grease trails ” led away from the two inlets 
across the range to the game country beyond, where the milder 
plains people, the “ Stick ” or Tinneh tribes of Athabascan stock, 
were content to trap and trade at great disadvantage, exchanging 
their pelts and horns for the fish oil and sea products of the coast 
tribes and the goods which the latter obtained from white traders. 
Russian, ‘ Boston,’ and Hudson’s Bay Company traders realized 

8 


JORTHWEST PASSES TO THE YUKON 


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106 


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THE NORTHWEST PASSES TO THE YUKON 107 


more than one hundred per cent profit on the goods they gave 
the Chilkats in exchange for furs, and the Chilkats realized a 
still greater profit when they dealt with the Tinnehs. 

For the half century that the H. B. Co.’s ships reeularly visited 
Chilkat inlet the traders never dealt directly with the Tinnehs. 
The Chilkats were relentless monopolists, meeting the Tinnehs 
at established camping grounds, at Tagish houses, and other 
points beyond the range each year, and packing the furs back 
over the Chilkat or the Shaseki (Chilkoot) pass. Occasionally 
they brought a Tinneh chief down under escort as a great re- 
ward and honor, to allow him to look at the fire-ship of the white 
traders. Mr Robert Campbell, of the H. B. Co., who crossed 
from the Mackenzie river to the Pelly in 1842-43, wrote: ‘‘ The 
rascally Chilkat Indians from the Pacific coast were in the habit 
of making trading excursions to Pelly. They ascended by Lynn 
canal, thence crossed over the mountains to the head of Lewes 
river. Descending this river they came to the Pelly, where 
oftentimes, when strong enough, they pillaged and massacred the 
Pelly Indians, than whom there could be no more honest men.” 

In 1849 the H. B. Co. built Fort Selkirk, at the junction of 
the Lewes river and the Pelly, buying furs directly from the 
Tinnehs and sending them out by the chain of H. B. Co. forts 
connecting with the Mackenzie river and Hudson bay. The 
difficulty of getting supplies into Fort Selkirk had induced the 
H. B. Co. to consider abandoning it, when the Chilkat chief, 
incensed at this interference with his fur trade, led a war party 
across the mountains and plundered and burned the fort. The 
blockade of the passes was more strictly maintained than ever 
against Tinnehs and whites. 

The first white man to cross the range, according to local Chil- 
kat and common Alaskan tradition, 1s said to have been a red- 
headed Scotchman in the employ of the H. B. Co., who, reach- 
ing the ruins of Fort Selkirk in 1864, started alone over the old 
““orease-trail” to the sea. He hid from Indians all the way, but 
was captured near the coast and held until ransomed by Capt. 
Swanson, of the H. B. Co.’s Labouchere, on its regular visit to 
Pyramid Harbor. Because of his red hair he was regarded as a 
shaman and treated with distinction during his stay. Dr Daw- 
son discredits this story of the Scotch pioneer, as Fort Selkirk 
was in ruins at that time, and he believes the whole story arose 
from the fact that certain articles belonging to the traders at Fort 
Selkirk were brought to the trading ship on the coast. 


198 THE NORTHWEST PASSES TO THE YUKON 


Prof. George C. Davidson, who had visited the Chilkat coun- 
try in 1867, when making a scientific reconnaissance of Russian 
America for Secretary Seward, returned in 1869 to observe the 
eclipse of the sun, August 7, establishing his station and obserya- 
tory at the upper Chilkat village, where he was the guest of the 
ereat chief Chartrich, Kloh-Kutz, or Hole-in-the-Cheek, as that 
head of the Cinnamon Bear clan was variously known. Secre- 
tary Seward and his party were escorted up the Chilkat river in 
Kloh-Kutz’s war canoe on eclipse day, and, joining Prof. David- 
son for another day, carried away the astronomer and his in- 
struments before there was time for him to make an intended 
trip toward the pass. During his stay Prof. Davidson had in- 
duced Kloh-Kutz and his wife to draw a very intelligible map 
of the route up the river to the Chilkat pass and across to Fort 
Selkirk, a route Kloh-Kutz had traversed since childhood, and 
which his father had traversed as one of the war party which 
burned Tort Selkirk. Lying face downward, the old chief and 
his wife discussed and laboriously drew on the back of an old 
chart the lines of all the water-courses and lakes, with the pro- 
file of the mountains as they appear on either hand from the trail. 
The great glacier is indicated by snow-shoe tracks to show the 
mode of progress, and the limit of each of the fourteen days’ 
journey across to Fort Selkirk is marked by cross-lines on this orig- 
inal Chilkat map, which is still in the possession of Prof. David- 
son, at San Francisco. There is a copy (Topographical Sheet 
No. 2268) at the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey office at Wash- 
ington, and this Kloh-Kutz map was the basis of the first charts. 


George Holt, a miner, claimed to have crossed the eastern, the_ 


Chilkoot, or Shaseki pass in 1872, and descending as far as Lake 
Marsh, returned by way of the Teslin to the headwaters of the 
Stikine, following in reverse a part of the route of Michael Byrnes, 
of the W. U. T. Co. survey, who came up from the Stikine region 
to the Teslin and Tagish lake in 1867. Holt crossed the pass 
again in 1874, and descended the Yukon to the portage connect- 
ing with the Kuskokwim. 

In 1877 Lieut. C. I. 5S. Wood, U.S. A., undertook independent 
explorations in Alaska. Mutiny of his canoemen prevented his 
reaching Mt St Elias, which he wished to chmb, but he visited 
Taylor and Glacier bays on Cross sound, camped and hunted 
mountain goats around Geikie and Muir inlets, and crossed from 
the Muir glacier to Lynn canal. He spent some time with the 
Chilkats and Chilkoots, but neither Kloh-Kutz nor Doniwak, 


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110 THE NORTHWEST PASSES TO THE YUKON 


the one-eyed tyrant of the Chilkoot village, would let him cross 
the mountains, which they pictured as full of dangers, although 
Lieut. Wood was fortified with messages, gifts, and tokens from 
Doniwak’s sister, the wife of Sitka Jack: An account of his stay, 
“Among the Thlinkets in Alaska,” was published in The Century 
magazine July, 1882. 

In 1878 Doniwak peremptorily refused entrance to the pros- 
pectors Rath and Bean, but is said to have permitted George 
Holt to go as far as Fort Selkirk and return under guard. 

In 1880 the same Hdmund Bean, with a party of nineteen 
miners, were placed under the special protection of Kloh-Kutz, 
through the active interest and clever diplomacy of Capt. L. A. 
Beardslee, U. S. N., and guided across the passes, after giving 
assurances that they would not interfere with the fur trade. A 
trader did slip in in the wake of the prospectors, but being de- 
tected, was brought back and his life saved by Capt. Beardslee’s 
earnest interference. As these miners went in, they met James 
Wynn (now of Juneau) coming out, and from him received warn- 
ing of the dangerous rapids in the river beyond the lakes. Wynn 
has assured me that he had previously crossed the pass in 1879. 

Forty-five miners crossed the pass in the spring of 1882 and 
returned in the autumn, and the Indians, finding that the pack- 
ing of miners’ supplies was more remunerative than the dimin- 
ishing fur-trade, virtually raised the blockade and established 
an exorbitant tariff for transportation. 

The Doctors Krause, of the Geographical Societies of Berlin and 

Bremen, spent the year 1882 and the succeeding winter at 
Pyramid Harbor and in the Chilkat villages, making the ethno- 
graphic studies published in the volume Die Thlinket Indianer 
and in collecting for their museum. Kloh-Iutz was, as usual, 
the patron and protector of scientists, and assisted in their ex- 
ploration and survey of the Chilkat river and its branches, the 
Chilkat pass, and the country beyond as far as the great lake 
named Lake Arkell in 1890. The Drs Krause’s maps of this 
region were published by the Berlin and Bremen Geographical 
Societies in 1883. 
_ In 1883 Lieut. Frederick Schwatka, U.S. A., crossed by the 
miners’ usual trail the eastern, Chilkoot, or Shaseki pass, re- 
named it the Perrier pass, and rafted his way down the Yukon 
to the sea. The miners who went in in 1883 sent back for pro- 
visions and spent the winter on the upper Yukon. 


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112 THE NORTHWEST PASSES TO THE YUKON 


In 1884 Dr Everette, U.S. A., crossed the Chilkat pass along 
the Krause route, intending to explore westward and descend 
the Copper river, coOperating with Lieut. Abercrombie, who at- 
tempted the exploration of Copper river from its mouth; but 
neither plan was followed to completion. When Lieut. H. T. 
Allen explored the Copper river in 1885, his party ascended to 
the headwaters, crossed the divide to the Tanana, and descended 
that stream to the Yukon. 

In 1890 Mr Ii. J. Glave, leading an expedition sent out by the 
Frank Leslie's Weekly newspaper, followed the Doctors Krause’s 
routeto the Alsek basin, went northward and returning descended 
the Alsek to the ocean at Dry bay. In 1891 Mr Glave proved his 
claim that pack horses could be taken over the range and could 
find sufficient pasturage in the bush country beyond. His “ Pio- 
neer Pack-horses in Alaska,” published in The Century magazine, 
September and October, 1892, describes his route across to Lake 
Arkell, a route now known as the Dalton trail—Jack Dalton 
having been his assistant in the experiment with pack-horses. 

The existence of a lower pass still further east, to be reached 
by an easy trail from Skagway creek, was reported to Mr Wil- 
lam Ogilvie during his survey of 1887, and Capt. Moore of his 
party was detailed to explore it. He determined the altitude of 
the pass as 2,400 feet above sea-level, and named it in honor of 
Hon. Thomas White, Canadian Minister of the Interior. It was 
at once seen that White pass most easily allowed a wagon road to 
be constructed across to Lake Bennett—a distance of 47 miles 
and a rise of 2.400 feet, in contrast to the distance of 27 miles 
and a rise of 5,500 feet on the Chilkoot, Shaseki, or Perrier pass, 
again named as the Dyea pass by Mr Ogilvie. 

The passes to the Yukon basin from Taku inlet and river were 
known to H. B. Co. traders and the W. U. T. Co. surveyors, but 
were first definitely exploited as a route to the Yukon mining 
rezions by the expedition of Tieut. Schwatka, U. 8. A., and Dr 
C. Willard Hayes, of the U 8. Geological Survey, in 1891. They 
followed the north fork of the Taku river and crossed to Lake 
Teslin, where they lacnched canvas boats and proceeded without 
interruption to Fort Selkirk. The river connecting Lake Teslin 
with the Lewes—known to the Indians as Teslintoo, and as the 
Hootalinqua or “ Hoody-Link” to the miners—was marked on 
the Coast Survey chart at the time as the Nas-a-thane, or ‘‘no sal- 
mon,” and was renamed the Newberry river by Lieut. Schwatka. 


OVERLAND ROUTES iO Whir sey ONDINE 


By HamiiIn GARLAND 


By all accounts the Yukon valley is a grim country—a coun- 
try of extremes. In winter the sun hardly makes itself felt, 
rising pale and white only for a few hours above the horizon, 
while in summer it shines all day and, as an Irishman might 
say, ‘part of the night.” Moss covers the high ground like a 
thick wet sponge throughout vast areas, and the soil is in effect 
perpetually frozen. There is little vegetable mould and plant 
life is sparse. Steam arises under the hot sun from the cold 
rain-soaked moss, and the nights are foggy and damp even in 
Juneand July. Gnats and mosquitoes move to and fro in dense 
clouds during midsummer, and add to the many discomforts 
and discouragements of the region. Life is a warfare. Fuel is 
scarce. There is little game, and not many fish. There never 
were many Indians in the district—the valley is too inhospita- 
ble for life of any kind to greatly abound. Agriculture is prac- 
tically impossible. It is likely to freeze any night of the year. 
The climate, in short, is subarctic in character, and in and about 
Dawson City nearly all the features of the Arctic zone are real- 
ized. The ice does not go out of the river, even at Dawson, till 
late in May or June, and the river closes early in September. 

Having decided that he wishes to take the risk involved in 
entering this grim ‘country, the miner must decide on his route. 
The routes may be divided into two groups—the overland and 
the seaport. Of the overland, there are at present three—the 
Edmonton and Peace River route, the “Old Telegraph Trail,” 
and the Kamloops inland route. The Edmonton route begins 
at Edmonton, a small town at the end of a northern spur of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, and proceeds by way of Little Slave 
lake to Peace river, thence across the divide into the vailey of 
the Stikine river to Telegraph creek and Teslin lake, which is 
the headwaters of the Yukon. This route isa very long one, and 
little information is obtainable concerning it. It is undoubtedly 
practicable, and will be largely traveled by those not in breath- 
less haste to get to Dawson City. It offers abundant fields for 
prospecting and is a pleasant summer route. It will take about 

113 


OVERLAND ROUTES TO THE KLONDIKE 


114 


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vnbon saungopr fo fisazunoo’ hg 


iL SSOUOV YNIMOOT 


‘ 


AL 


IO NOSMVG@ YVAN 


WOUT AM 


UTA 


OVERLAND ROUTES TO THE KLONDIKE 115 


sixty days to go from Edmonton to Teslin lake. The citizens 
of Edmonton are using all means to make this route easy and 
safe. It cannot be safely used before the middleof May. Pack 
horses are plentiful, and feed is good from May 15 to November. 
The second overland route, the ‘‘ Old Telegraph Trail,” begins 
at Ashcroft, a small village on the Canadian Pacific Railway, and 
follows the Fraser river over an excellent stage road constructed 
by the Canadian government to the little town of Quesnelle, 22 
miles north. Good stopping-places abound along the road. 
Here the road ends, and the trail turns to the west, and, passing 
over a nearly level country with good grass, reaches Fort Fraser, 
on Fraser lake, 125 miles from Quesnelle. Fort Fraser is a 
Hudson Bay post and trading store, with two white men and 
several families of Indians, quite well civilized, settled near. A 
limited amount of supplies will be obtainable here. Up to this 
point the trail is quite level, and though there are hundreds of 
creeks none are deep or hard to pass. The three rivers, the 
Blackwater, the Mud, and the Nechaco, can be forded except in 
high water, when rafts will have to be used and poled or paddled 
across. Neither of them is very wide. Many trails cross the 
route, and it will be necessary to have a native guide, unless 
some means should be taken to mark the main trail. In this 
125 miles there are over 300 good hay swamps and many Indian 
villages where feed for the horses can be found in abundance. 
Beyond Fort Fraser the next supply point is Stuart, a Hudson 
Bay post, with three or four whites and eighty or one hundred 
Indians, who live in cabins and make their living by hunting, 
fishing, and trapping. From Fort Fraser to Hazelton is proba- 
bly 825 miles. The trip from Quesnelle to Hazelton can be 
made by pack animals, and will require from sixteen to twenty 
days. Hazelton has a small population of prospectors who 
winter in the neighborhood. A Hudson Bay post, a few cabins, 
and a couple of stores are all that are to be found here, although 
about 15,000 Indians trade at this point. The goods are brought 
up by a Hudson Bay boat on the Skeena river during high water. 
“From here itis about 200 miles to Telegraph creek. The 
trail has been traveled for thirty-five years, and the government 
has spent thousands of dollars to keep it in first-class condition. 
It will probably take about ten days to cover this distance, as it 
is a little harder than before reaching Hazelton.” There are two 
large stores at Telegraph creek at present, and undoubtedly a 
small town wil! immediately spring up there. [rom Telegraph 


116 OVERLAND ROUTES TO THE KLONDIKE 


creek over to Teslin lake the trail will be opened and operated 
by the Canadian government. A wagon road will be constructed 
and a bill has already passed the House of Commons granting 
subsidies for a railway. The road at present is estimated to be 
about 150 miles long and can be traversed in ten days or less. 
The way is wooded and has no dangerous features. At Teslin 
lake is asaw-milland lumber for rafts or boats can be purchased 
and the rest of the journey made by water. 

The Ashcroft trail and the Kamloops route, which is practi- 
cally the same in character, is alluring. It begins in a genial 
climate between the coast range and aspur of the Rocky moun- 
tains, and is therefore somewhat like eastern Washington in 
temperature and rainfall. After leaving Quesnelle the trail 
plunges at once into the wild country, and to those who are 
fond of sport and adventure it will offer a special charm. There 
are frequent stopping-places, and the Indians are friendly and 
if properly treated will be a source of aid in case of necessity. 

The advantages of this route are offset, however, by obvious 
disadvantages. Itis very long. According to the most liberal 
estimates, it will take forty days from Quesnelle to Telegraph 
creek, though it can probably be done in less time, provided 
there are no delays for bridge-building. It will be possible to 
go in light, sending part of the outfit by way of Victoria to Tele- 
eraph creek, and by leaving an advance order for supples with 
the Hudson’s Bay Company to be delivered on a certain date 
from their stores at Hazelton. 

It will not do to leave Quesnelle until the grass comes, say by 
the 10th of May. Before that time, even though it might afford 
a fairly good “‘nip,” it would still be watery and without suffi- 
cient nutriment. After the 10th of May the Ashcroft trail will 
beacomparatively cheap and easy route to the Cassiar and Teslin 
Lake mines, with no duties and very little toll to pay. 

In the matter of outfitting itis probable that Kamloops, Ash- 
croft, and Quesnelle will be able to furnish complete outfits for 
a limited number of pack-trains, and being upon the Canadian 
Pacific Railway, supplies in case of need could be hurried forward 
by telegraph from Victoria, Vancouver, or Winnipeg. 

It is safe to count on about fifty days’ time from Ashcroft, 
and while the expense will be light, probably not exceeding 
three hundred dollars for transportation and a year’s provisions, 
it would not be well to start with less than five hundred dollars 
in hand or within reach at Teslin lake. 


THE FUTURE OF THE YUKON GOLDFIELDS 


By Witiiam H. Dat, 


Smithsonian Institution 


The conditions lkely to prevail in the near future at the 
Yukon goldfields have received but little attention in the public 
prints. Some discussion of them may, therefore, be useful. 

It is well understood among those who have had experience 
in that region that the most important question for the welfare 
of gold-seekers and others visiting the Yukon is that of transpor- 
tation. Men and, to some extent, domestic animals may reach 
the Yukon by their own efforts; but their food, tools, tents or 
other portable shelter, and the heavy clothing necessary for pro- 
tection against exceptional conditions of temperature and weather 
must be carried. No man can carry his own provisions and 
outfit without assistance. Even for dogs, the most economical 
draught animals, the necessary food will take up an exorbitant 


“proportion of their load. It is hopeless to attempt to transport 


the necessaries of life for thousands of people by the means 
hitherto in use. 

A conservative estimate places the number of people at present 
on the Yukon at 5,000. Few have estimated the number de- 
sirous of going in during the present season as low as 50,000. 
Should anything like that number succeed in reaching the Yukon 
during the next six months, it means that the transportation over 
that of the past season must be increased tenfold. A certain 
proportion must be allowed for waste, losses in transportation 
before reaching the destination, and the excess of need beyond 
the ordinary ration in more temperate climes. 

The number of trips to Dawson, from the seacoast, made in 
1897 by the steamers now on the river was seven in all. While, 
with all conditions favorable, two trips per season can be made 
by a capable vessel, it is unsafe to reckon on more than one. 
For 50,000 people seventy trips would have to be made in order 
to eliminate the possibility of starvation which has stared so 
many in the face under present conditions. This provides not 
for comforts, not for necessary furniture, tools, and machinery 
adequate to improve conditions as they exist, but merely to pre. 

117 


118 THE FUTURE OF THE YUKON GOLDFIELDS 


vent things from getting worse. Does any reasonable person- 
familiar with the region believe that seventy trips are possible ? 

Quite a number of flat-bottomed stern-wheelers for the Yukon 
are believed to be in process of construction at Unalaska, the in- 
tention being to tow them to St Michael on the opening of nav- 
igation. Suppose that the fleet succeeds in reaching that port 
by the 27th of June, the average date when the ice goes out of 
Norton sound. Allow a week for getting them loaded in work- 
ing order and ready to start for the river with a few days’ fuel 
onboard. Ifthey take much fuel they cannot take goods. Once 
well within the delta, feeling their way cautiously over the sand 
bars of the river, unknown to most of their navigators, they must 
depend for fuel on wood cut from the banks. The wood of the 
country is spruce, with a little poplar and willow. These will 
not burn when green. When the river ice breaks up, about June 
1, an enormous quantity of driftwood is carried down by the 
water, which runs bank full, owing to the obstruction caused by 
the broken ice. When the ice is fairly out the river falls a little, 
and all along the bars, low banks, and level beaches this wood 
is stranded, to remain until the freshet of next spring. It is 
mainly upon this driftwood that the steamers depend for fuel. 
The two old companies have landings scattered along the river 
and Indians employed during the winter cutting up the wood 
and sledding it to places where the steamer can reach the bank. 

The population of the Yukon is small in proportion to the 
area. ‘The reliable Indians are few and already engaged. When 
the first rush of the melting snows is over the river falls rapidly 
into its normal channel and for the most part remains there 
during July and August. Later the mountain springs begin to 
give out, or freeze at night, and the river continues to fall. Wide 
flats appear on either side, so that the spring drift, stranded on 
the shores, is separated from the channel by a wide space of 
sand and mud, over which wood must be carried after being 
found and cut into suitable lengths for use. The dry spruce 
burns rapidly, and 12 cords a day seems a not unreasonable 
estimate of the amount required to run a good-sized boat well 
loaded. How much of each day will be used up in procuring 
wood by the steamers not belonging to the two old companies 
any one may estimate for himself. 

Taking this delay into consideration, it is evident the inde- 
pendent steamers are very unlikely to be able to make more 
than one trip up the river as far as Dawson during the season. 


THE FUTURE OF THE YUKON GOLDFIELDS 119 


Let us allow two trips for each of the old companies’ steamers, 
or, say, twenty-four loads, and one trip each for ten independ- 
ent steamers. The total amounts to thirty-four loads, or less 
than half the number required to keep the assumed influx of 
people on a next-to starvation basis through the winter of 1898- 
99. I cannot emphasize too strongly that no dependence is to 
be placed on the rare beds of inferior lignite which occur on the 
upper river, even were any attempt being made to work them, 
which is not the case. The lower river affords plenty of food in 
the shape of salmon; but this must be caught, dressed, and dried 
or salted in the height of the season, July and August, when the 
very men who may need it are straining every nerve to reach 
the upper river, where there is very little fish. Once the ice 
sets in, transportation over it of any large body of food, such as 
would be required by the assumed population, is impossible. 

Enough has been said to show the impossibility of feeding 
50,000 people by means of supplies carried up the river under 
present conditions. 

We may now turn our attention to other routes of supply. 
We are told that the Canadian government proposes to give a 
monopoly of transportation over the old trail from Glenora, on 
the Stikine river, to Lake Teslin. No reasonable person familiar 
with the conditions of the region will believe that a railway 150 
miles long can be built and equipped for traffic over this route 
in four months. No such person in his senses will claim that 
provisions could be taken from Lake Teslin to Dawson for a 
population of thousands, in the winter season, over the frozen 
river. It is wholly impracticable. There is, therefore, no hope 
of adequate relief by this route. 

By the short route over the passes, if an immediate start is 
made, it is just possible that provisions might be rushed through 
before the close of navigation; but that this will be accom- 
plished there is little reason to hope. While legislators are 
wrangling about special privileges, precious time is being wasted, 
and many lives will pay the penalty. Unless the rush of in- 
comers is checked and the influx of people rigidly restrained, I 
see no escape from the conclusion that the winter of 1898-99 will 
see starvation on the Yukon on an unparalleled scale. Every 
instinct of humanity calls aloud for the promotion of every pos- 
sible transportation facility at once. Nothing but the fullest 
freedom in putting through every possible means of transport 
while there is yet time, regardless of private greed and the not un- 


120 THE FUTURE OF THE YUKON GOLDFIELDS 


natural desire to retain national control of the means of transit, 
can be justified fora moment. The true interest of Canada, as 
well as of the United States, hes in the fullest development of the 
resources of the region, and without accepting all possible means 
of transportation this is impossible. Those who may be able 
from their own resources to push through a year’s supply of pro- 
visions for themselves will in the long run beas much interested 
as any others in the welfare of the whole mass of immigrants, 
for a starving man will respect no property rights in food, and 
no man in the face of starving people may hope to keep his own 
store intact. 

Leaving out of account the impending crisis on the Yukon, it 
is the writer’s belief that it is imperatively necessary for the de- 
velopment of the goldfields that transportation for coal should 
be provided from the seacoast to the Yukon, avoiding the inter- 
rupted navigation of the Lewes river. Here, again, the change 
from the sea-going vessel to a river steamer on the Stikine, from 
that steamer to the railway, and then to another steamer on the 
Teslin marks the Stikine route as impracticable. One transship- 
ment to the railway at Pyramid Harbor and from the cars to 
barges on the Yukon is so much simpler and cheaper as to put 
an end to argument. 

The present method of using wood ofso poora quality as spruce 
on the Yukon steamers cannot last if the country is to be per- 
manently developed. With coal floated downstream on barges 
from the headwaters the steamers might be abundantly supplied | 
with suitable fuel, and two or even more tripsa season might be 
reckoned on as acertainty. British Columbia has coal in abun- 
dance, and here would be a means of its indefinite utilization, 
by which a far greater profit would inure to the people of that 
province than is possible through any short-sighted monopoly 
of transportation, which would infallibly strangle the develop- 
ment of their Yukon goldfield in a very short time. 

A broad and generous codperation of both countries is essen- 
tial to a satisfactory outcome of the projects now in contempla- 
tion. Let us hope that it may be realized before it is too late. 


The length of the coast-line of Alaska is estimated at 18,211 
miles, which is greater than that of the entire coast-line of the 
United States. 


ol 


NOTES ON THE WILD FOWL AND GAME ANIMALS 
OF ALASKA 


By EH. W. NELson, 
Biological Survey, U. S. Department of Agriculture 


Among the many interesting features to be seen by visitors to 
Alaska, the animal life is noteworthy for several reasons. During 
the brief summer, the otherwise desolate tundras are animated 
by swarms of water-fowl, which arrive from the south in spring 
as soon as the bare ground begins to appear, and after a short 
delay set about their summer housekeeping. The water-fowl 
on the rivers and lakes of the interior are the familiar species 
which winter among the ponds and marshes of the western 
United States. The Canada, Hutchin’s, white-fronted, and 
snowy geese are there with swans and fresh-water ducks of 
many species. Besides these, sand-hill cranes and numerous 
waders abound. One of the most strikingly colored species 
along the small tributaries of the Yukon is the harlequin duck. 
The most interesting part of the bird-life of this region, however, 
is found along the coast of Bering sea. Four species of eider 
ducks occur there, some of which are very handsome. Among 
these the king, Steller’s, and spectacled eiders are shown in the 
accompanying illustrations.* 

The emperor goose is another fine bird peculiar to this coun- 
try; it has its home in the marshy region between the mouths 
of the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers. It is the most elegantly 
dressed of its kind in America. The top and sides of the head 
and neck are snowy white, the chin, throat, and under side of 
the neck blackish, and the feathers of the back a soft, silky, gray 
color, bordered bya black crescent near the end and tipped with 
white. The under surface is similar, but duller, and the feet 
are vivid orange. 

The black brant pass along the coast of Bering sea in great 
numbers every spring, and afford royal sport to persons fortu- 
nate enough to choose good stands while the flight lasts. 

During the four years the writer lived at St Michael water- 
fowl was a very important item in the bill of fare, and when the 

*I am indebted to Mr F. W. True, Executive Curator, U.S. National Museum, for the 
photographs of bird and mammal groups in the Museum which illustrate this article. 


9 121 . 


122 THE WILD FOWL AND GAME ANIMALS OF ALASKA 


frosty autumn days approached he sallied out with his compan- 
ions into the marshes to lay in a supply of ducks and geese for 
winter. The question of cold storage cut no figure, for the two 
or three hundred birds brought in were drawn and hung up in 
an old warehouse and the climate did the rest, enabling us to 
have roast duck or goose during the entire winter. 


— — eS = ooeeesetecree er a Serre 


HARLEQUIN DUCK SPECTACLED EIDER 
KING EIDER STELLER’S EIDER 


Among the numerous berries growing wild on the treeless hills 
of this coast,a kind of blueberry is very abundant in September, 
and the young ducks feed upon it until they become excessively 
fat and so delicately flavored that they are delicious morsels. 
We became tired of hung duck, however, before the winter ended, 
and when the first solitary goose came flying over in spring, on 
a reconnoitering trip, there was general rejoicing. I still remem- 
ber the hearty zest with which we put an extra edge on our 
knives and attacked the pioneer old gander that fell to our guns. 
He was lean and tough after his long flight, but was thoroughly 
enjoyed as an earnest of the coming season of plenty. 

Two kinds of ptarmigan are common on the mainland, and 
will be considered dainty birds by many a hungry prospector, 


THE WILD FOWL AND GAME ANIMALS OF ALASKA 123 


although, to tell the truth, they are about the poorest flavored 
of the American grouse. Their handsome summer plumage of 
mottled brown gives way in winter to one of snowy white. In 
winter, in the valley of the Kuskokwim the ptarmigan called 
willow grouse gather in large flocks. During my sledge jour- 
neys I sometimes encountered flocks of hundreds among the 
patches of scrubby willows, and when flushed it seemed as if 
the snowy surface of the ground had suddenly burst up and 
taken wing. 

When the first mossy knolls appear in spring the willow grouse 
begins to lose its snowy winter dress. At first a few brown feath- 
ers show about the base of the bill and gradually increase in 


EMPEROR GOOSE 


number until the entire head becomes brown while the body is 
still white. his progressive change keeps pace with the melt- 
ing snow, and with the disappearance of the last dri-ts the last 
white feather has been dropped and the bird is in full summer 
garb. The willow grouse begins its courtship in May, with the ap- 
pearance of the first brown feathers, and it is vigorously carried 
on with loud challenging notes of defiance, accompanied bymany 
fierce rough-and-tumble fights. When the ground is mostly bare, 
the snow remaining only in scattered drifts, the males choose 
these white patches as the stage upon which to strut and ruffle 
for the admiration of their female friends. In the tundras they 
may be seen and heard on all sides as they fly up with stiffened 


124 THE WILD FOWL AND GAME ANIMALS OF ALASKA 


wings a few yards above the snowbanks and then glide down, 
uttering loud harsh notes. Every now and then the efforts of 
some gallant cock become too obnoxious for his neighbor, who 
starts full tilt for his detested rival. The latter likes nothing 
better and meets the enemy in mid-air. They clinch and fall 
to the ground, apparently using beak, wings, and claws in the 
encounter. During such times the moult of white feathers is 
profuse and the combatants are the center of a perfect blur of 
whirling plumage. Directly one of the birds gets enough and 
starts off in hasty flight, pursued for thirty or forty yards by 
the victor, who then gives up the chase and fairly splits his 
throat with exultant notes. The Hskimos take advantage of 
this belligerency and snare many ptarmigan by means of fine 
sinew nets placed on small stakes set on the snow around stuffed 
skins of male birds. The hunter conceals himself and imitates 
the challenge cries until a neighboring grouse dashes blindly at 
his supposed rival and becomes enmeshed in the net. 

Aside from the birds which have a definite value as food are 
numerous smaller species, among which the “ whisky jack ” will 
become a familiar character to the miners. He is a kind of jay 
with a dull, smoky-brown coat and bright inquisitive eyes, and 
is withal an intelligent and companionable little chap, who has 
no hesitation in sharing your camp for the gratification of a 
frank curiosity and sound appetite. His impish ways were 
always highly entertaining to me and I do not doubt will fur- 
nish amusement to many a gold-hunter in his lonely camp. 

Although I have dwelt upon the birds because they are more 
numerous and more generally distributed than most other kinds 


SEA OTTER 


THE WILD FOWL AND 


GAME 


ANIMALS OF ALASKA 


125 


BARREN GROUND CARIBOU 


126 THE WILD FOWL AND GAME ANIMALS OF ALASKA 


of game, the man who loves the rifle will find his opportunity 
among the mountains and valleys of the interior. Formerly 
large mammals were much more numerous in Alaska than at 
present, and the decrease has come about almost entirely since 
our ownership of the country. The history of the fur-seal is 
well known. The sea otter is another animal that is passing 
away. Its doom is even more certain than that of the fur-seal, 
for itis a dangerous thing for an animal to wear a coat worth 
from five hundred to a thousand dollars. All that has kept the 
sea otter from extinction is its shyness and the fact that the 
stormy parts of the sea it frequents render its pursuit hazardous 
and uncertain. Upon the mainland are several fine mammals, 
among which native reindeer are the most generally distributed. 
There are two kinds of these deer—a large, dark-colored one, 
ealled the woodland caribou, which lives in the wooded district 
of the upper Yukon, anda smaller, paler kind, called the barren 
ground caribou, which lives in the open tundras or treeless 
country. Barren ground caribou were once exceedingly numer- 
ous, and the coast hills along the shores of Norton sound are 
still scored with their trails, leading diagonally up to the cool 
summits, where the animals used to go in summer to avoid the 
mosquitoes that swarm on the tundras. But even so far back as 
1877 the caribou was very rare along most of the coast of Bering 
sea. When Alaska passed under Anferican control it became 
possible for the natives to secure breech-loading rifles, especially 
where whalers and trading schooners called, and the result was 
a rapid slaughter of the large game. 

Since the barren ground caribou usually live in the open tun- 
dras where there is no cover, it is extremely difficult for the 
hunter to approach unseen. Like the antelope of our western 
plains, they are inquisitive animals, and before starting away 
often make a circuit about anything which excites their interest. 
Before they became sophisticated by the common use of guns, 
the Eskimos had aningenious method of stalking them in open 
ground, which the old hunters told me was very successful. The 
Eskimos hunted in pairs, and when they found a bunch of caribou 
on an open plain they would start directly for the animals, one 
hunter walking immediately behind the other, keeping step, with 
their bodies touching, so that from the front they appeared like 
oneman. When they were still some distance away, the caribou 
would throw up their heads and start off to circle around the in- 
truders. The hunters kept on in their original course, appar- 


THE WILD FOWL AND GAME ANIMALS OF ALASKA — 127 


ently paying no attention to them, and when the men passed 
the first little bush, knoll, or other cover the one in the rear sank 
down behind it while his companion kept on. The caribou con- 
tinued to circle as the single hunter advanced, and were almost 
certain to pass close to the concealed man and thus afford a deadly 
shot at short range. The sudden appearance of the concealed 
hunter drew the attention of the game from the man who had 
gone on, enabling him to drop flat upon the ground without be- 
ing noticed. The caribou, in starting off wildly from the new: 
danger, often ran within shot of the man who had last concealed 
himself Hunters told me that in this way they often got several 
shots before the animals finally gathered their wits and left the 
vicinity. 

The large woodland caribou of the upper Yukon lives in the 
forest with the moose. The latter ranges over much of the inte- 
rior, and during my residence in the country a single individual 
was killed in the Yukon delta close to the sea—a very rare oc- 
currence. In summer they are rarely hunted by the Indians in 
the dense forests of the upper Yukon, but are killed every now 
and then on the banks of streams or while swimming across them. 
In winter they wander from place to place, browsing on the tender 
twigs of cottonwoods, white birches, and willows, until the in- 
creasing depth of snow forces them to unite in “ yards.” When 
caught in deep snow or with a heavy crust they are easily killed 
by the Indians who follow them on snow-shoes. 

On the upper Yukon the old method of moose hunting in 
early winter was for the Indians to go out on snow-shoes after a 
heavy snowfall and search for fresh trails. When one was found 
the swiftest runner, stripped to a shirt and breeches and carry- 
ing a light shotgun loaded with ball, started off after the moose, 
while the women and slower runners followed. Sometimes a 
moose would run eight or ten miles before being overtaken. At 
this season the cold is generally very intense, and the hunter 
would quickly freeze if he stopped while heated from his long 
run and with so little clothing. [or this reason, after killing the 
moose, he returned tocamp ata run, leaving the followers to cut up 
and drag the carcass home. When there was a light crust, small 
dogs were used to bring the moose to bay and enable the hunter 
to kill it with less exertion. Before the snow fell in autumn the 
moose were stalked in the dense spruce thickets, but they were 
very wary animals, and usually became alarmed and started off 
at a swift trot, with a great clatter of hoofs, before the hunter 


128 THE WILD FOWL AND GAME ANIMALS OF ALASKA 


caught sight of them. At such times the Indian, knowing the 
country and the habits of the game, would run at his best speed 
to the opposite side of the small basin or valley and take a posi- 
tion where he could see for some distance on all sides, for when 
started in this manner the moose often made a wide circuit and 
returned within gunshot. 


DALL’S MOUNTAIN SHEEP 


Two species of mountain sheep, quite different from one another 
and from the Rocky Mountain bighorn, are known in northwestern 
America. The first of these, a superb, snow-white animal, was 
described by the writer some years ago as Ovis dalli, in honor of 
Prof. Wm. H. Dall, the pioneer scientific explorer on the Yukon. 
The specimens upon which my description was based were ob- 
tained from the Fort Reliance country by Mr L. N. McQuesten, 
now President of the Order of Yukon Pioneers. Dall’s moun- 
tain sheep is found over a wide area, from the low hills beyond 
the tree limit near the Arctic coast south across the Yukon and 
Kuskokwim tothe Alaskan range. Last year Dr J. A. Allen de- 
scribed another species from the headwaters of the Stikine river 
and named it Ovis. stone’. But little is known of this handsome 
animal, which has a dark, almost iron-gray, coat, very different 
from the white of Dall’s sheep. The discovery of these two sheep 
in northwestern America indicates that we may expect other in- 
teresting, if less striking, new forms of animal life in the moun- 
tains of that region. 


THE WILD FOWL AND GAME ANIMALS OF ALASKA 129 


In the high mountains bordering the Pacific coast, north of 
Sitka, mountain goats occur, but we have little definite informa- 


tion concerning their range and abundance. Owing to the white 


color of Dall’s sheep, it is quite probable that in many cases they 
may have been mistaken for goats. 

Bears also are very numerous in some places, and several kinds 
are known to occur. The huge bear of Kadiak and the Alaskan 
peninsula is the largest species in the world, and the skull of an 
old male looks as if he belonged to the animal life of a former 
geologic age, when beasts of gigantic size roamed the earth. 
Black bears are generally distributed over the mainland, except 
on the barren tundras bordering the Arctic coast. About the 
last of October or first of November they find a sheltered cleft or 
cavern in the rocks, where they make a bed of leaves and grasses 
and hibernate until the warm days of April bring them out again. 
On the upper Yukon the Indians kill them with arrows, guns, 
orspears. Some of the bravest and most powerful of the hunters 
will attack them armed only with a long-bladed knife. In such 
cases the hunter wraps a blanket about his left hand and arm, 
and with it thus protected thrusts it out for the bear to seize as 
it rises upon its haunches, giving him an opportunity to make a 
fatal thrust under the guard thus formed. Both Eskimos and 
Indians give these animals credit for supernatural knowledge 
andcunning. The Eskimo hunters are very careful not to speak 
in a disrespectful manner of bears, and are especially guarded 


POLAR BEAR 


130 THE WILD FOWL AND GAME ANIMALS OF ALASKA 


against letting any one know of their plan to goon a bear hunt. 
They believe firmly that if they should speak of such intention 
these animals would know it at once and would lie in ambush 
to attack them. Bears figure largely in the folk-lore and cere- 
monial dances of the Eskimos on the lower Kuskokwim and 
Yukon rivers. 

About the Arctic coast the polar bear is a regular winter visitor, 
and a halfgrown individual was killed near St Michael in Au- 
gust, 1880. They are common on the pack-ice of the Arctic 
ocean north of Bering strait, and many were seen during the 
cruise of the Corwin in 1881. The accompanying illustration 
represents a female killed by the writer near Wrangel island, 
while with the Corwin. In summer these animals are usually 
well fed and avoid encountering men whenever possible. In 
winter, when hunger presses, they become dangerous, and I have 
heard of several Eskimos who were killed and have seen others 
who were badly scarred from encounters with them. 

In the fall, as the pack-ice comes south through Bering strait, it 
brings great herds of walruses and many white bears. The latter 
sometimes reach the Fur-Seal islands, but only at rare intervals. 
Some years many of the bears fail to retreat beyond the strait 
early enough in spring and are left stranded on St Matthew and 
St Lawrence islands. During the summer of 1874 Mr Elhott 
and Lieut Maynard found them on St Matthew island to the 
number of several hundred. When these gentlemen landed 
on the neighboring Hall island the same season sixteen white 
bears were in sight as the boat approached the shore, ten of 
which were together on the beach. Quite a number were killed 
and none showed fight. They were fat and when asleep were 
easily approached. When aroused they stood up and sniffed at 
the party as if to learn whether they were friends or foes, and 
when the men were scented the bears ran back into the hills. 
At this time they were seen feeding on grass and roots, with 
motions like those of a grazing hog. 

Aside from the whales, the walrus is the largest Alaskan mam- 
mal. Formerly it was very numerous around the islands and 
along the American coast of Bering sea and the Arctic ocean. 
During the cruise of the Corwin we saw thousands of them on 
the border of the pack-ice. The Eskimos report the female wal- 
ruses to be very dangerous in April and May, when they have 
young. At that time they say an old female will attack a man 
in a kyak on sight, and becomes as fierce and dangerous as an 


THE WILD FOWL AND GAME ANIMALS OF ALASKA 131 


old bear. An Eskimo living at Cape Vancouver once told me 
of an encounter he had had with a walrus while seal hunting in 
the drift-ice off the cape, in which he and a companion had a 
narrow escape. They met and killed a young walrus without 
having seen the female. A moment later she arose in the water 
and, catching sight of the hunters, uttered a hoarse bellowing 
ery and dashed at them. The men paddled for their lives and 
reached a cake of ice just in time to escape. Here they were 
kept prisoners for nearly a day. Several times, supposing she 
had gone, they launched their kyaks, but the moment they did 
so she appeared and drove them back on the ice. During our 
cruise in the Arctic we saw many females with young, and the 
watchfulness of the old ones was very noticeable. The young 
nearly always swam directly in front of its mother, and the 
latter, in diving, always carried the little one under with her by 
resting the points of her tusks on its shoulders and forcing it 
down. 

In the old days, when caribou were abundant, wolves were 
common and ran in large packs. With the growing scarcity of 
caribou the wolves decreased, until, during my residence at St 
Michael, they were uncommon along the coast of Bering sea 
and the adjacent interior. The white and blue arctic or stone 
foxes are common on the barrens, and red foxes are also com- 
mon and much more widely distributed. The region about 
Dawson City was formerly noted for the number and quality of 
the black fox skins taken there every winter. Canada lynxes, 
wolverines, land otter, American sable and mink are among the 
fur-bearing animals which helped make up the main wealth of 
Alaska until recent developments. 

Among the ‘‘ rats and mice and such small deer” are many ani- 
mals of more or less interest. The whistling marmots live in the 
mountains about the upper Yukon and Tanana rivers, and the 
bob-tailed little conies are also found in that region. The last- 
named animal makes its home in broken masses of rock and has 
an amusing way of barking at strange visitors with a squeaking 
voice like that of a toy dog. 

The great increase in the population of Alaska which is now 
taking place cannot but have a decided effect upon the large 
game. Most of the prospecting parties will be provided with 
rifles and will tuke every opportunity of securing an addition to 
their scanty camp fare. With this going on in thousands of lo- 
calities in the hitherto unvisited areas, the effect will necessarily 


132 CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF ALASKA 


“a 


be disastrous to such animals as bears, mountain sheep, caribou, 
and moose. Unfortunately not a museum in the world has even 
a passable representation from Alaska of any of these animals. 

The threatened early extermination of such fine species is to 
be greatly deplored, but cannot well be avoided, and it is alto- 
gether probable that within two or three years it will be ex- 
tremely difficult, if not impossible, to secure specimens for scien- 
tific purposes. The U.S. National Museum in Washington is 
the proper repository for a full representation of the animals in- 
digenous to our territory, for exhibition purposes as well as scien- 
tific study, and it will be a great loss to science if any of the large 
Alaskan mammals become extinct before a proper series of skins 
and skulls is in the possession of this institution. I wish to im- 
press this upon settlers and others going to Alaska the present 
season, in the hope that, having their attention called to the im: 
portance of saving specimens, they may take a patriotic interest 
in placing them in the National Capital. 


CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF ALASKA 
By GrENERAL A. W. GREELY, U. 5. Army 


The most obvious elements of climate are those of tempera- 
ture, humidity, precipitation (rain, snow, fog, etc.), and winds, 
and of these temperature and precipitation affect most potently 
the comfort and prosperity of man. 

It is about 25 years since the writer was one of several con- 
sulted by the late General A. J. Myer as to the establishment of 
stations of observation in Alaska, and in 1881 he was consulted 
by the late General W. B. Hazen regarding the extension of the 
system of such observations in the same remote and almost un- 
known region. <A certain class of persons—those who plume 
themselves on being strictly utilitarian—then sneered ata policy 
that would expend a few hundred dollars annually for the pur- 
chase of instruments and for the cost of recording meteorological 
observations by volunteer observers on this outer edge of this 
civilized world. ‘‘Who knows or cares,” said they, “ whether 
the Yukon river flows into Bering sea or the Arctic ocean, and 
of what use is a knowledge as to the summer and winter condi- 
tions under which the animals of this river valley live and 
thrive ? ” 


CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF ALASKA 133 


Today the question answers itself, and tens of thousands of 
men eagerly search for reliable and satisfactory data on which 
to base their plans and outfits for their search for fortunes in the 
gold regions of the upper Yukon. It therefore seems timely to 
bring together such observations of the climatic conditions of the 
different parts of Alaska as may give at least a general idea as 
to the weather to be encountered. 

Most extensive countries have two kinds of climate: first, 
the continental type, where far from the sea we find hot sum- 
mers, cold winters, light rainfalls, and much sunshine; second, 
the littoral or shore type, where the heat of summer and the cold 
of winter are modified by moist winds from the ocean bringing 
copious or heavy rains. To these Alaska adds a third kind, the 
marine or island type, where the winters are, comparatively 
speaking, unduly warm and the summers unduly cool, while 
rains, fogs, and cloudiness are prevalent through the greater part 
of the year. 

Considering first the marine climate, it is to be said that it 
prevails on all the outlying islands of Alaska in the Aleutian 
archipelago and in parts of the Alaskan peninsula. Naturally 
the extremes of temperature become more marked to the north. 

The littoral or coast climate of Alaska is materially tempered 
by the oceanic current usually known as the Japan stream, which 
keeps at an abnormally high temperature the moisture-laden 
winds that, blowing landward, deposit large quantities of rain 
or snow, thus setting free large quantities of latent heat to warm 
the land. The enormous quantity of such heat and its influence 
on the temperature of the air may beimagined from Haughton’s 
calculations, which show that “one gallon of rainfall gives out 
latent heat sufficient to melt seventy-five pounds of ice oz to melt 
4.5 pounds of cast iron.” 

The settlers and miners of Alaska will find that the coast 
conditions change rapidly as one goes inland to a continental 
climate of the most pronounced type. Cool, cloudy, and rainy 
summers, and raw, damp, foggy, and not very cold winters are 
to be anticipated along the immediate main coast or the inlets. 
Wherever rapidly rising shores are found the hills or mountains 
are subject to heavy precipitation, with resulting deep snows 
and low temperatures for a considerable part of the year. 

Almost everywhere in Alaska the climate changes decidedly 
within one hundred miles of the mainland coast and becomes 
continental in its characteristics. Rain and snow are less fre- 


134 CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF ALASKA 


quent, the summers are longer and warmer, the skies less cloudy, 
and the winters marked with excessive cold, though the winds 
are much lighter and storms are infrequent. Continuous freezing 
weather, usually below zero, continues for months, and even in 
July, with midday temperatures of 70° to 80°, it is an almost 
daily occurrence for the temperature to fall during the night to 
the neighborhood of the freezing point. 

Let us now turn from general statements to specific data from 
such selected stations as are acknowledged as climatically typi- 
cal of various parts of Alaska. In so doing one turns naturally 
to Dall’s admirable article and tables on the meteorology of 
Alaska, published in the Pacific Coast Pilot, 1879. Although his 
work and charts are 21 years old, yet they are the only discus- 
sion and data that have ever been published on the general me- 
teorological conditions of Alaska. 

St Paul island, Bering sea, has a typical marine climate; its 
lowest recorded temperature is —12° and its maximum 62°. The 
temperature rarely exceeds 50°, and in 1875 it only reached 48°. 
February is the coldest month, with an average temperature of 
26.1°, and August the warmest, with a mean of 48.4°. 

Sitka is a typical coast station for extreme southern Alaska 
and Point Barrow for the northern. In 45 years Sitka had ex- 
treme temperatures of 88° and —4°. The coldest month is Janu- 
ary, 01.4°, and the warmest August, 54.9°. Every year it is either 
rainy or snowy 200 days on an average. In 1856 rain and snow 
fell on no less than 286 days, but in 1883 there were only 114 
such days. The annual rainfall is very great, being 81 inches, 
of which about one-half falls from September to December. 

_ Point Barrow, the extreme northern point of Alaska, is in 71° — 
3’ N., 156° 40’ W., and its climate is important as indicating 
closely that of the coast-line of the whole tundra or moorland 
rezion situated along the Arctic ocean. It should be remem- 
bered that as one goes inland the winter becomes colder and 
clearer; the summers, warmer and drier. The observations of 
Capt. P. H. Ray, 1881-’83, and of H. M.S. Plover, 1852-54, are 
the base of the following notes: The winter is long, as freezing 
weather obtains from early September to early June, when sum- 
mer comes in full force. The mean winter temperatures are: 
December, —15.4°; January, —17.5°; and February, —18.6°, 
with occasional periods when the cold is from 40 to 52 degrees 
below zero. The average heat of July is 38.1°, and of August 
3/.9°; but the temperature often rises above 50° and has touched 


CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF ALASKA 135 


65.5°. Thesnowfalls are light, amounting (melted) to 8.25 inches, 
the greater part falling from July to October. The severity of 
the cold is indicated by the fact that the ground was found frozen, 
as far as excavations were made, to the depth of 38 feet. Winds 
and gales are most frequent from August to November and the 
lightest winds are from February to May. . The natives quit their 
snow huts for tents about May 1. The tundra is snow-free late 
in June. 

- The watershed of the Yukon includes the regions whose cli- 
matic factors are at present of the greatest interest and prospect- 
ive value. Fortunately, there are sufficient data to justify clear- 
cut statements that must closely approximate the truth. 

St Michael, 68° 28’ N., 162° 04’ W., although an island, imme- 
diately borders the mainland near the mouth of the Yukon. Its 
climatic characteristics have been fully set forth by Mr E. W. 
Nelson. The winter is very long, the average temperature being 
below the freezing point from October to April, inclusive. The 
coldest month, February, averages from twelve years’ observa- 
tions, —2.8°, but in 1877 it was —23,7°. A temperature as low 
as —55° has been observed. The warmest month, July, has a 
mean temperature of 53.6°. It should be said that one summer 
month of any year. closely resembles the same month of any 
other year, but there are great variations between the same 
winter months of various years. Spring bursts into summer 
about the middle of May, but it reverts more slowly to winter 
through a partial autumn. Summer is very depressing, from its 
frequent spells of misty rain and the prolonged presence for 
many days of unbroken, low clouds. Winteris marked by long 
periods of beautifully clear days, which are usually of intense 
cold. Strong gales occur irregularly through the year. While 
most frequent in autumn, yet fierce winter storms are not un- 
common, which, with their terrible accompaniments of blinding 
clouds of snow and temperatures considerably below zero, are 
wisely dreaded, as even the hardy natives sometimes perish 
therein. The harbor closes as a rule by October 15, and rarely 
opens before June 10. The breaking up of the Yukon ice about 


- the Ist of June is usually followed by several fogey days. Very 


light rains or snow are frequent and continued. The precijsita- 
tions scarcely reach 18 inches annually, of which the greater part 
falls from July toSeptember. Snow falls often in summer, some- 
times in notable amounts. Rain or snow falls three days out 
of five from August to October, but only one out of four from 
January to March. 


136 CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF ALASKA 


At Nulato, 60° 40’ N., 158° 13’ W., the summer consists largely 
of warm, hazy days, free from high winds or much rain. The 
Yukon closes about October 20 and opens late in May. At 
Ikogmut mission, 61° 47’ N., 161° W., the river closes about No- 
vember 4 and breaks up about May 23, but in 1849 it remained 
closed until June 5. 

Mr A. J. Henry gives in the Monthly Weather Review, August, 
1897, other temperature means for short periods. The lowest 
monthly means are as follows: Anvik, 62° 37’ N., 160° W., De- 
cember, —2.1°; Tuklukyet, 65° 10’ N., 152° 45’ W., January, 
—11.1°; Belle Isle (a short distance up the Yukon from Circle 
City), 65° 30’ N., 142° 38’ W., January, —15.8°; Camp Colonna, 
about 64° 45’ N., 141° W., February, —15.38°; Camp Davidson, 
about 67° 30’. N.,141° W., January, —17.4°; Fort Reliance, 64° 
10’ N., 189° 25’ W., January, —28.7°. 

The most important temperature observations in the Klondike 
regions are those made at Dawson from August, 1895, to Novem- 
ber, 1896, by Mr William Ogilvie, whose scientific standing and 
ability are guarantees of their worth. While they do not give 
all the mean temperatures, yet they record the minimum and 
much information of value. In July only the temperature did 
not sink below freezing. During June, July, and August, 1896, 
the temperature rose on 29 days above 70° and thrice above 80°. 
The extreme severity of the winter is indicated by the fact that 
from December 1, 1895, to February 1, 1896, the temperature 
fell below zero every day. On 28 days it fell lower than —40° ; 
on 14 days, lower than —50°, and on nine days lower than —60°. 
The mean temperature for January, 1896, was —40.7°, and for 
February, —35.4°. Bright weather is the rule. From October 
1, 1895, to the 1st of May following, snow fell only on one day in 
seven. In June, 1896, however, it rained on 12 days and the 
temperature rose above 80°. The Yukon broke up on May 17 
and ran thickly with ice until the 23d, when the first boat came 
down the river. Except for two weeks, the Yukon was free from 
ice until October 29; it was frozen solid November 5. 

The temperature observations at Fort Reliance, adjacent to 
Dawson, in 1880-’81, communicated to THe NarionaL GEo- 
GRAPHIC MAGAZINE of November, 1897, by Mr E. W. Nelson, con- 
firm the severity of the winter climate. The Yukon was frozen 
from November 2 to May 14. The mean temperatures for De- 
cember, January, and February were —31°, —7°, and —29° re- 
spectively, and on 35 days the thermometer registered between 


A YUKON PIONEER, MIKE LEBARGE 137 


—40° and —66°. Snow fell but one day in February and 25 
days were perfectly clear. 

With the middle of May summer comes at once, the Yukon 
breaks up, the snow vanishes as if by magic, and vegetation 
develops with astonishing rapidity until opening September 
brings sharp frosts almost daily. 

By methods familiar to meteorologists the temperature means 
for the three coldest months—December, January, and February 
—have been calculated for all the points hereafter named, except 
for St Michael, which is definitely known. St Michael, mouth of 
Yukon, 3.3°; Anvik, 62° 37’ N., 160° W., —1.2°; Circle City, 
—10.2°, and Dawson, 64° 05’ N.’ 188° W., —24°. Any single 
winter may be considerably warmer or colder than is here cal- 
culated, but the means are practically correct and afford a good 
idea of all intervening points in the valley of the Yukon, and 
therefore have a definite value for all who seek to wrest from 
rugged and inhospitable Nature the golden hoards of Alaska. 


A YUKON PIONEER, MIKE LEBARGE 


The first white men to explore the Yukon between the Russian 
settlements and the Hudson Bay post called Fort Yukon were 
Frank Ketchum, of St Johns, New Brunswick, and Michel Le- 
barge, of Chateauguay, Quebec. After the death of the lamented 
Kennicott, at Nulato, in May, 1866, the expedition which he had 
planned and which was only waiting for the ice to pass out of 
the river to make a start, was loyally and successfully carried 
out by his chosen and faithful companions. ‘They ascended the 
river from Nulato to Fort Yukon, and then returned, crossing the 
portage to St Michael to make their report to the commander-in- 
chief of the Telegraph expedition, Col. Chas. S. Bulkeley, at that 
port. The following year the party was augmented by Wm. H. 
Dalland Frederick Whymper, who winteredat Nulato. Ketchum 
and Lebarge undertook a remarkable journey over the frozen 
river to Fort Yukon in March, accompanied by two Indians. 
They arrived safely at their destination just as the ice was break- 
ing up, and after the freshet was over took birch canoes at Fort 
Yukon and continued their explorations to the junction of the 
Lewes and the Pelly at the site of old Fort Selkirk. Returning, 
they joined Dall and Whymper at Fort Yukon, the second half 
of the party having made the journey to that point in canoes. 

10 


138 A YUKON PIONEER, MIKE LEBARGE 


The united party then descended the river to the sea and reached 
St Michael in safety, thus making the first continuous trip from 
the headwaters to the sea. 

Michel Lebarge was born in Chateauguay in 1837, of Canadian 
parents of French origin. In May, 1865, he started for Califor- 
nia, on the steamer Golden Rule, by the Nicaragua route. On 
the same vessel were Kennicott and his companions on their way 


to join the expedition of the Western Union Telegraph Company 
for the exploration of Russian America. The crossing of Nica- 
ragua was accompanied by a number of lively incidents, includ- 
ing the loss of asteamer on the San Juan river; and the excellent 
qualities displayed by Lebarge in trying circumstances attracted 
the attention of Kennicott and led to the engagement of the young 
Canadian in the corps of northern explorers. After the disband- 
ing of the Telegraph expedition, in which the courage, ingenuity, 
and companionable characteristics of Lebarge had made him a 
universal favorite and cemented an enduring friendship with his 
American comrades, in 1868 he engaged in the fur trade in the 
Yukon region with a number of associates, under the name of 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 139 


the Pioneer American Fur Co., and in 1871 entered the service 
of the Alaska Commercial Company, from which he retired, with 
a modest competency, in 1875. He is now living in his native 
town in the Province of Quebec. An indefatigable traveler, a 
delightful companion en route or by the camp fire, full of expe- 
dients whatever befell, tactful and adroit in his dealing with the 
natives, generous and helpful to the inexperienced—in short, a 
capital voyageur of the best type—no one who knew him in those 
days but thinks of him always with admiration and affection. 


‘His services to geography are commemorated by Lake Lebarge, 


on the direct route to the Klondike, and Lebarge river, an afflu- 
ent of the Yukon from the north below Fort Yukon. The name 
Lebarge has been variously spelled; the form in use during the 
expedition has been adopted as here written by the U.S. Board 
on Geographic Names. Frank Ketchum lies under the green turf 
of an Unalaska hillside. May his faithful companion and our 


good friend survive for many happy years. 
Wn. H. DAtt. 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES* 


By SamMurEL FRANKLIN Emmons, 


U. S. Geological Survey 
INTRODUCTION 


Alaska was first visited by a Russian expedition under Bering 
in 1741. In 1799 the territory was granted to a Russo-American 
fur company. by the Emperor Paul VIII, and in 1839 the charter 
was renewed for twenty-four years. In 1867 it was ceded to the 
United States for a money payment of $7,200,000. The first 
mining excitement in the interior was in the Cassiar mining 
district in British Columbia around Dease lake, near the head 
of the Stikine river, from 1871 to 1887. Later, prospectors found 
their way into the more northern regions and down the valley 
of the Yukon into American territory, where they discovered 
valuable placers on Birch creek, Mission creek, and Fortymile 
creek, small southern tributaries of the Yukon. In the autumn 

*This paper, published with the permission of the Director of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, is an abstract of a pamphlet prepared by his direction to accompany a map of 
Alaska, and giving such information, compiled from data in the possession of the Sur- 


vey, as it was thought would prove useful to the traveter or prospector who might visit 
that region. 


140 ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


of 1896 still richer discoveries were made a short distance east 
of the boundary, along the Klondike river, and a great rush of 
miners to these now famous diggings set in the following spring. 
Accurate data with regard to the geography of Alaska it is as 
yet difficult to obtain. The immediate coast-line and the many 
islands which border it have been mapped by the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey, and the course of the great Yukon 
river, comparable in size to the Mississippi, was determined by 
the Western Union Telegraph Company’s expedition in 1867 
and by an expedition in 1869 under Lieut. C. W. Raymond, of 
the United States Engineers. What other information has been 
obtained with regard to the interior is derived from route and 
sketch maps made by individual explorers, who generally fol- 
lowed the valleys of the larger streams. Vast tracts of mountain 
land between these streams are yet practically unknown. 
Ketchum and Lebarge, of the Western Union Telegraph ex- 
pedition, were apparently the first white men to traverse the 
entire length of the Yukon river. They traveled on ice and 
snow from St Michael to Fort Yukon in the winter of 1866-67, 
and in the following summer made their way to Fort Selkirk 
and back, joining on their return W. H. Dall, who had charge 
of the scientific work of the expedition, and who, with Frederick 
Whymper, had ascended to that point by water. In later years 
scientific explorations of the interior have been made by mem- 
bers of the Canadian and of the United States Geological Sur- 
veys. In 1887 Dawson and McConnell, of the Canadian Survey, 
ascended the Stikine to the Liard, the former going northwest- 
ward by the Frances and Pelly to Fort Selkirk, the latter descend- 
ing the Liard to the Mackenzie and the following season crossing 
from the Mackenzie to Fort Yukon by the Porcupine river and 
ascending the Yukon to its southwestern sources. William Ogil- 
vie, of the same corps, entered the Yukon district in 1887 and 
has been there most of the time since, engaged in route and 
boundary surveys. In 1889 I. C. Russell, of the United States 
Geological Survey, in company with a boundary party of the 
Coast Survey, ascended the Yukon river from its mouth to the 
head of boat navigation, coming out over the Chilkoot pass. In 
1890, under the auspices of the National Geographic Society, 
Itussell explored the Mt St Klas region from Yakutat bay. In 
1891 C. W. Hayes, of the United States Geological Survey, ac- 
companied Schwatka’s expedition up the White, across Scoloi 
pass, and down the Copper river. In thesummer of 1895 G. F. 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 141 


Becker and W. H. Dall, under orders of the Director of the 
United States Geological Survey, made examinations of the 
coastal regions with reference to gold and coal, and in 1896 J. E. 
Spurr, assisted by H. B. Goodrich and F. C. Schrader, made a 
reconnaissance of the gold-bearing rocks of the Yukon district. 
It is from the reports of these later explorers that the data con- 
tained in the following pages have been compiled. 


GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 


Alaska has an area of 580,107 square miles. Itis roughly quad- 
rangular in outline, with a panhandle extension in the southeast 
along the coast and a peninsula stretching out into the ocean on 
the southwest, which continues in the chain of the Aleutian 
islands that separate Bering sea from the Pacific ocean. Its 
eastern boundary is formed by the 141st meridian of longitude 
west from Greenwich, and the westernmost portion of its main- 
land, Cape Prince of Wales, is on the 168th meridian, or within 
54 miles of the easternmost point of Asia. In latitude it extends 
from 54° 40’, the southern point of Prince of Wales island, to 
Point Barrow, in 71° 23’ north latitude, far within the Arctic 
circle. Its greatest extent in a north-south line is thus 1,100 
miles, and from east to west 800 miles. 

The coast-line is much broken by arms of the sea, reaching far 
inland, either as open bays, as sounds or submerged river val- 
leys, or as fiord-likeinlets. The coast abounds in islands, which 
cover an aggregate area of 31,205 square miles and which as a 
rule are very mountainous. The chain of the Aleutian islands, 
reaching nearly 1,500 miles into the Pacific ocean, is largely of 
eruptive origin and contains many volcanic craters, some of 
which are yetactive. They rise very abruptly from the sea, often 
to an elevation of several thousand feet, one on Unimak island 
reaching a height of 8,955 feet. 

The Alexander archipelago and the adjoining coast strip, the 
best-known and most frequented part of the Territory, resemble 
the submerged portion of a narrow and precipitous mountain 
system. The archipelago consists of 1,100 islands, the largest 
and most southern of which is Prince of Walesisland. It is in- 
tersected by deep and relatively narrow waterways, which often 
run far inland and bear evidence of previous occupation by gla- 
ciers. In some cases, as at Glacier bay, enormous living glaciers 
are found at their head. The islands themselves are steep-sided, 
and rise to an average elevation of 2,500 feet. On the seaward 


142 ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


side of Baranof island, one of the outer tier, on which Sitka is 
situated, is a volcanic crater, called Mount Edgecumbe, 2,855 feet 
high. Further northwestward, forming part of the same moun- 
tain line, the St Hlas range, which follows the immediate coast, 
contains many high mountains, and culminates to the north in 
Mount St Elias at an elevation of 18,024 feet. Mount Logan, 
further inland, is supposed to be still higher, and explorers report 
that far in the interior, between Copper river and the Lower 
Yukon, there is a group of mountains;extending in the same 
eeneral direction, of equal or perhaps even greater elevation, the 
highest point of which has been designated Mount McKinley. 
A second line of elevation is supposed to extend southwestward 
from near the head of Copper river, following the coast-line in 
the direction of the Alaskan peninsula. 

The rivers entering into the waters of the Alexander archi- 
pelago are generally short, and only two, the Stikine and the 
Taku, are known to head beyond the crest of the mountains im- 
mediately adjoining the coast. The Chilkat river is a consider- 
able and rapid stream, entering the head of Lynn canal from the 
northwest; it is probably less than 100 miles in length. The 
next river northward is the Alsek, about which little is known, 
but it is supposed to head on the east side of the St Elias range, 
in the vicinity of Mount Logan. 

Copper river is a larger stream than any of those thus far men- 
tioned, and heads in a mountainous country, containing several 
high peaks with an estimated elevation of 12,000 to 18,000 feet, 
and little known, except by the Indians. Rolled masses of native 
copper, of which their knives were made, were obtained some- 
where in this region. A northwestern branch of this stream is 
said to head between the Sushitna and the Tanana rivers, pos- 
sibly in the lake which on the map is represented as being 
drained by the Sushitna. The Sushitna also is an important 
stream, emptying into the head of Cook inlet, very wide and diffi- 
cult of navigation near its mouth owing to the great rise and fall 
of the tide. Its sources are in a high mountainous region, a main 
northwestern branch being supposed to head near Mount Mc- 
Kinley. 

The next large river, the Kuskokwim, is the second largest in 
the Territory, its length being estimated at over 600 miles. It 
drains a mountainous region difficult of access. The Russians 
ascended it in boats as far as the Redoubt Kolmakof or crossed 
from the Yukon by a portage near Oknagamut. The currents 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 143 


of the lower stream are rapid. A winter route was also used 
from Fort Alexander up the Nushagak and down the Chulitna ; 
in summer the morasses along this route may not be passable. 

Beyond Norton sound, into which empties the great Yukon, 
that drains the whole interior region, the principal streams of 
known importance are the Kowak and the Noatak, which flow 
into Kotzebue sound. The Colville river, which empties into 
the Arctic ocean, is supposed to head in the same general region 
as the two just mentioned. 

The Yukon river has an estimated length of 2,000 miles, of 
which three-fourths is continuously navigable for river steamers. 
It empties into Norton sound through a wide delta in four prin- 
cipal mouths 50 to 64 miles in length. For about a hundred 
miles above the delta it has a general northwest course, then 
bends at right angles and has a southwest direction up to the 
bend at Fort Yukon, just within the Arctic circle. Here it re- 
ceives the waters of the Porcupine, a stream having the same 
general southwest course and heading near the mouth of the 
Mackenzie river. Fort Yukon is distant in a direct line about 
650 miles from the mouth of the river. Above this point the 
general direction of the river is again northwest, but a short 
distance east of the international boundary it turns to a north- 
south course, which it maintains for nearly a hundred miles, 
through the Upper Ramparts. It is at the bend below this north- 
running stretch that the Klondike river enters from the east, 
above which, and more or less parallel, are the Indian and Stew- 
art rivers, all famous as draining a region phenomenally rich in 
gold. Near the upper end of this north-south course the White 
river enters in the same direction from the south. Above this 
the Yukon resumes its northwest course and maintains it to Fort 
Selkirk, which is near the head of navigation. At Fort Selkirk 
it splits into two main branches: the Pelly, which drains the 
Rocky Mountain regions to the northeast, and the Lewes, which 
in several branches drains the region to the southwest and the 
many lakes on the eastern side of the Coast ranges. 

The principal tributaries of the Yukon from Fort Selkirk to 
Fort Yukon are, on the south side, in descending order, White, 
Sixtymile, Fortymile, Mission, Seventymile, and Charlie rivers, 
and on the north, from Dawson at the mouth of the Klondike 
downward, the Chandindu, Tatondu, Tahkandit, and Kandik 
rivers. From Fort Yukon to the open country near the mouth 
of the river the longer streams coming from the southeast are 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


144 


IWUIZDAY AT S 


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ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 145 


Birch creek, Beaver, Tanana, and Nowikakat rivers; from the 
north come the Dall, Tozikakat, Melozikakat, and Koyukuk 
rivers, the latter one of the largest tributaries and said to be 500 
to 600 miles in length. 

The Yukon is generally a broad and muddy stream, flowing 
with a current of 3 to 9 miles an hour. Occasionally it runs in 
a narrow, rocky canyon cut through lava, or across low moun- 
tain ranges, and such stretches are locally called “‘ ramparts.” 
For the most part, however, its valley is wide, and the stream 
often spreads out into many channels with low wooded islands 
between, the whole covering a width said to reach 10 miles in 
places. Dry spruce is practically the only fuel available for 
steamers along the Yukon, and the supply is limited and diffi- 
cult to obtain. Although the river is frozen up during eight 
months of the year, from October to June, its importance as a 
means of transporting supples can hardly be overestimated. In 
the early years, when the connection between the upper and 
lower portions of the river was not absolutely known, the Hud- 
son bay fur-traders were in the habit of taking their peltry from 
Fort Selkirk down to the mouth of the Porcupine and up that 
stream to the Mackenzie, preferrmg to make this long and cir- 
cuitous journey rather than encounter the difficulties of a more 
direct route across the mountains to the eastward. 

The international boundary between American and Canadian 
territory has no relation to the physical structure of the interior 
region; hence in this description that portion of British Colum- 
bia which les opposite the Alexander archipelago and the coastal 
strip of American territory southeast of Mount St Elias will be 
considered as part of the general province of Alaska. The known 
portions of the interior region, which lie mainly south of the 
Arctic circle, belong to the drainage system of the Yukon river. 
This stream, with its various tributaries, drains the northwestern 
portion of the cordilleran system included between the coast 
and the Mackenzie river valley, which are about 700 miles 
apart and approximately parallel. The Mackenzie river flows 
from Great Slave lake into the Arctic ocean. To one tracing 
the broader features of physical structure northwestward from 
the United States through British Columbia, it would seem that 
the mountainous region between the Yukon and the Mackenzie 
represents the Rocky mountains proper, and the Alexander ar- 
chipelago and adjoining coast slopes the Coast ranges. The basin 
of the Upper Yukon (the river above the great bend) would then 


146 ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


be the representative of the Great Basin region in the United 
States, since north of the 49th parallel the uplift of the Sierra 
Nevada has merged with that of the Coast ranges into one gen- 
eral system. 

The Coast range proper is a broad elevated belt with many 
scattered peaks, but not differentiated into continuous ranges. 
Oceanward it presents an abrupt, rugged front, cut by fiord-lke 
valleys. To the east is a plateau-like region which descends 
eradually to the north from an elevation of 5,000 feet in the 
upper lake region to 3,000 feet in the lower Lewes and Pelly 
river valleys. The river valleys in this stretch often lie 2,000 
to 2,500 feet below the general plateau level. 

In the interior region the soil is frozen for a large portion of 
the year, so that there is comparatively little rock decay. Where 
there is no timber the surface is generally covered with an abun- 
dant growth of moss. This, wherever the surface material is 
sufficiently compact to become impervious to water by freezing, 
produces large areas of swampy tracts, even on sloping ground, 
which, except in the glaciated regions or when cut through by 
large streams, obscure the rock surface and render difficult the 
work of the prospector. 

The northwestern continental ice-sheet, or cordilleran glacier 
of Dawson, which centered in British Columbia between latitudes 
55° and 59° N., did not extend in this interior region north of 
the 62d parallel, hence the greater part of the Yukon basin has 
not been glaciated, except by local glaciers. This fact has been 
readily recognized by the geologists who have visited the region in 
recent times, and indeed is evident, on inspection of the maps, by 
the abundance of lakes above this line and their absence below it. 

The Yukon or all-water route—This route is by ocean steamer 
from Seattle or San Francisco to St Michael, near the mouth of 
the Yukon; thence by river steamboat up the Yukon to Dawson. 
The length of this route is about 4,000 miles, it being nearly 2,700 
from Seattle to St Michael, and about 1,800 up the Yukon to 
Dawson. ‘Those taking this route aim to leave St Michael early 
in July, in order to avoid the delays in upstream progress caused 
by sand-bars at low stages of water later in the season. The 
time from Seattle to St Michael is about twenty days, and that 
feom St Michael to Dawson the same, making about forty days 
for the trip. Under favorable weather and circumstances it 
may be made in less time. Though this route is the one over 
which commercial companies operating in the Yukon country 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 147 


transport their goods, it is seldom used by miners who wish to 
enter in the spring, since at that season it takes several weeks 
longer to make the trip by this route than it does to make it by 
some of the trails mentioned below. It is, however, highly ad- 
vantageous for persons unfitted to rough it on the trails. 

The Skagway or White Pass route—From Seattle to Skagway, a 
distance of 1,115 miles, the route is by ocean steamer northward 
along the coast, and finally up Lynn canal. It is practically a 
still-water route, being protected from the swells of the ocean by 
an almost continuous barrier of densely wooded islands. The 
trip requires about three and one-half days. Skagway is located 
on the east side of Dyea inlet,a branch of Lynnecanal. Its popu- 
lation, which is much increased by people who have been unable 
to get across the trail, is said to be about 8,000. Dyea is situated 
four miles north of Skagway, west of the mouth of Dyea river 
and at the head of Dyea inlet. The rise and fall of the tide in 
this inlet is about 24 feet. At Skagway steamers find good an- 
chorage within half a mile of the beach, to which freight is taken 
in lighters at high tide, which are unloaded when the tide recedes. 
Several newly built wharves are said to be now in practical use, 
and the facilities for landing cargoes are greatly superior to those 
at Dyea. [from Skagway the trail leads northeastward up the 
valley of the Skagway river. crossing the mountains at White 
pass and running thence northward to the head of Lake Ben- 
nett, whose waters flow into the Yukon. The summit of White 
pass is 2,400 feet above sea-level, and its distance from Skagway 
is 18miles. For the first four or five miles there is a good wagon 
road, which crosses the river several times by ford. At high 
stages of water, however, freight must be packed across on foot 
bridges. Beyond this are long stretches of very miry and rocky 
ground, where a loaded man will sink knee-deep in the mud. 
There are also several steep and rough ascents, of which Porcu- 
pine hill is the sharpest. The last two miles before reaching the 
summit is a steady, hard climb, but presents no cliffs or preci- 
pices. Many horses have been killed or have died on this trail. 
Seventy-five to 100 pounds make a good load for the ordinary 
packer. From the summit to Lake Bennett, 17 miles, the trail 
improves, although still bad. It is for the most part gradually 
downhill, over an undulating, rocky surface. The timber-line is 
reached again at The Meadows, about five miles beyond the pass, 
which is the ordinary camping-place. The trail passes the two 
small lakes known as Summit and Middle lakes, on which fer- 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


148 


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L681 40 TTVI—SSVd ALIHM FO LINWAS 


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ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 149 


riage may be secured when the water is not frozen. Midway 
- between the latter and Lake Lindeman, about three miles before 
reaching Lake Bennett, the Canadian custom-house officials have 
put up a large log cabin, which is used as a place of shelter by 
those crossing the trail. Atthis pointa trail branches off to the 
right down to Tooshhie lake; but as there are seven miles of im- 
passable river between Tooshhieand Tagish lakes,travelers bound 
for the Yukon are warned from taking this route. At the head 
of Lake Bennett the Skagway joins the Chilkoot trail. The Sk: o- 
way trail is somewhat longer than that over the Chilkoot pass, 
but the pass is much lower. It requires, however, considerable 
improvement in bad and swampy places. This route has been 
recently recommended by the United States Quartermaster’s De- 
partment of Puget sound. 

The Dyea or Chilkoot Pass route. —This trail has been used by the 
Indians for generations, and until a year ago was practically the 
only route followed by miners and prospectors who entered the 
interior. It is the shortest route to the headwaters of the Yukon. 

Dyea (or Taiya) is the Indian word, meaning pack or load. 
Owing to the extensive shoals at the head of Dyea inlet the con- 
ditions for anchorage and discharging cargoes from ocean vessels 
are less favorable than at Skagway. They are either unloaded 
_by means of lighters or put upon a rocky point about a mile 
from the beach, whence they are hauled off in wagons. Dyea 
trail runs northeastward up the Dyea river and across the Chil- 
koot pass, at an elevation of 3,500 feet, to the head of Lake 
Lindeman, a total distance of 283 miles. The summit is 13 
miles from Dyea, the first 62 miles following a comparatively 
open valley, in which there is a good wagon road. Owing to 
the windings of the stream within the walls of the valley the 
river must be crossed several times—by fords in summer, by fer- 
ries in spring when the water is deep. The trail then enters a 
narrow canyon with steep, rocky walls, which it follows to Sheep 
camp, at timber line, 42 miles furtheron. Through the canyon 
the trail is rouzher, but horses have been successfully used for 
several years in packing to Sheep camp. Good camping places 
are found all along the route from Dyea to Sheep camp, and at 
several points refreshments may be obtained. Sheep camp is 
the last camping place on the west side of the range, as from 
there on there is no timber or fuel until Deep lake, on the other 
slope, 12 miles distant, is reached. From Sheep camp to Scales, 
where packs are weighed by the Canadian authorities, a distance 


150 ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


of 3? miles, the rise is about 1,800 feet. The trail is free from 
mud, and traveling is not difficult, though in places the ground 
is covered with bowlders. From Scales to the summit of the 
pass the ground rises 1,000 feet in a distance of about half a mile, 
and masses of broken rock or talus make the climb very dificult, 
and impossible for pack animals. The building of an aerial or 
wire tramway, with buckets carrying 400 pounds of freight, has 
been contemplated for this portion of the route. From the sum- 
mit of Chilkoot pass to Lake Lindeman, a distance of 153 miles, 
the trail descends first very steeply to a small lake called Crater 
lake, and thence more gradually along the drainageway of a 
chain of lakes known as Long, Canyon, and Deep lakes, which 
are connected with one another and finally with Lake Lindeman 
by small streams. Till late in spring the whole of this drain- 
ageway is frozen over, and one travels from the summit to Lake 
Lindeman by sled. On either side of the pass, especially on the 
south, snow sometimes accumulates to a depth of 50 or 60 feet, 
forming a sort of névé of limited extent. Late in the season, 
when the drainage is open, a ferry sometimes plies on Long lake, 
a distance of four miles. From the foot of Lake Lindeman there 
is portage past the rapids to the head of Lake Bennett, where 
the Dyea and Skagway trails meet. 

From the head of Lake Bennett to Dawson, 548 miles, there 
is a continuous waterway through lakes and rivers, which may 
be followed in summer by boat and in winter on the ice. Long 
stretches are navigable by light-draught steamers. Boats may 
be procured or built at the head of the lake, but in some respects 
the most advantageous method is to start early enough to travel 
on the ice as far as the foot of Lake Lebarge, where timber for 
boat-building is abundant, as in this way the dangerous passage 
of the White Horse rapids is avoided. Lake Bennett is 26 miles 
in length. narrow and canyon-like in form, and deep at the 
lower end. Fifteen miles below the bend, where the southwest 
arm comes in, strong winds often prevail, producing a rough sea 
that is dangerous for boats, and parties are often storm-bound 
there for several days. A sluggish stream, 23 miles long and 
often not more than three feet deep, known as Caribou crossing, 
extends from the foot of Lake Bennett to Tagish lake. Thence 
there is clear sailing 19 miles down Tagish lake and five miles 
along a river deep enough for ordinary river steamers to Marsh 
or Mud lake. Marsh lake is 19 miles long and empties into 
Fiftymile river, whose current averages three to four miles an 


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ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


152 ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


hour. About 25 miles down, the river enters Miles canyon, a 
chasm about 100 feet wide and five-eighths of a mile long, be- 
tween perpendicular walls of basalt 80 to 100 feet high. The 
swift, turbulent current carries a boat through this canyon in 
about three minutes. For a fair-sized boat, not too heavily 
loaded, which is kept under steerageway by one or more good 
oarsmen and follows the middle of the stream, so as not to be 
dashed against the steep rocks on either side, the passage is quite 
practicable. At the foot of the canyon one must keep to the 
left until the heavy swells are passed, then turn sharply to the 
right and land on the east or right bank. A safer course, which 
is followed by many, is to portage one’s load along the right 
side of the canyon, over a hill about 200 feet high, and run the 
boat through empty. 

Three-eighths of a mile below this canyon are rapids about 
half a mile long, which, though very rough, are not dangerous. 
A half-mile below these are the White Horse rapids, the most 
dangerous on the whole river. They are about one-third of a 
mile long and are confined between low basaltic walls. Near 
their foot the walls close together, forming a chasm only 30 yards 
wide, while the bed of the stream drops suddenly, so that the 
river rushes wildly through, leaping and foaming in a cataract. 
Many boats have passed successfully through, but others have 
been swamped, with loss of outfits and sometimes of life. The 
safer plan is to portage around the rapids and let the boat down 
by line. The portage is on the west shore, but on either side a 
tramway could be constructed without great difficulty. 

Lake Lebarge, which is 60 miles below the White Horse 
rapids, ig 31 miles long and easily navigable by steamers. 
There is abundant good timber at its foot. The river below 
Lake Lebarge, as far as Fort Selkirk, is known as the Lewes, 
and is also navigable for 160 miles, down to the Five Finger 
rapids. Here a rock of conglomerate rises up from the river 
bottom, forming several islands and backing up the river a 
foot or two, so as to produce a strong swell below. Steep cliffs 
of the same rock on either bank render a portage at this point 
impracticable. With proper steerageway and care, however, an 
ordinary boat may run the rapids safely. The right or east side 
is followed by most Yukon travelers, but Ogilvie, of the Canadian 
Survey, from actual experience pronounces the channel along the 
west bank as also passable. For six miles below the Five Fin- 
ger rapids the current is swift, and then occur the Rink rapids, 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 153 


which extend halfway across the river from the western bank, 
producing a decided riffle. On the east side, however, the water 
is comparatively smooth and safe. Below this the river is prac- 
tically free from rapids and navigation is unimpeded. Fort Sel- 
kirk, where the Pelly and Lewes unite to form the Yukon, is 65 
miles below. Thence it is about 95 miles to the mouth of White 
river, 10 miles further to the mouth of the Stewart, thence 22 
miles to Sixtymile river, and 45 miles further to Dawson, at the 
mouth of the Klondike. 

Dalton or Chilkat Pass route.—This is an overland route follow- 
ing a direct course, more or less independent of waterways, from 
the head of Chilkat inlet to Fort Selkirk. It has been used by 
J. Dalton, a trader, for some time as a pack-train route and for 
driving in cattle, but little is definitely known of its geography. 
It ascends first the Chilkat and Klahoela rivers, crossing the pass 
in 45 miles at an elevation of 3,000 feet and thence descending 
into the drainage of the Tahkeena river at Lake Arkell. From 
Lake Arkell the trail is said to pass over an undulating plain, 
well timbered in the valleys and with grass on the slopes. The 
distances from the head of the inlet are given as 75 miles to the 
watershed and 100 miles to Dalton’s trading-post; from there 
to the Pelly the distance is 200 miles, or 300 miles in all to the 
Pelly, and 350 to 400 to Fort Selkirk. 

The Stikine route-—By this route one travels by boat from Fort 
Wrangell 150 miles up the Stikine river to Telegraph creek, and 
thence, a little to the west of north, 150 miles to the head of Tes- 
lin lake. The ascent of the Stikine river is tedious and some- 
times dangerous, the current being swift and rapids numerous. 
It is, however, the route that was followed in former days by 
miners going to the Cassiar district. From Telegraph creek to 
Teslin lake the trail is said to pass through a gently undulating 
and well-timbered country which presents no obstacles to the 
building of a railroad. Lake Teslin is said to be about 80 miles 
long and bounded on both sides by high mountains. From its 
foot down to the Lewes runs the Teslin river, which is navigable 
except for two small rapids, one near its head, the other further 
down. In its lower course the Teslin spreads out into many 
channels, occupying a total width of two or more miles. This 
route appears promising, but is as yet only prospective. 

The Taku route—This route ascends the Taku inlet and river 
and crosses directly to Lake Teslin or Aklen, a distance of 185 
miles from Juneau. Thence it is identical with the Stikine route. 

u 


154 ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


By this route one travels by steamer from Juneau 18 miles up 
the Taku inlet to the foot of a large glacier, which is often very 
dangerous to boats, even at a distance of several miles, by rea- 
son of the ice masses that break off from it; then by boat 60 
miles up the Taku river to the head of canoe navigation. The 
portage which follows is for the first 20 miles through the canyon- 
like valley of an eastern branch, then for 50 miles in broad val- 
leys of the upper Taku, 3,500 to 5,000 feet above sea-level. For 
the last 15 miles the route is in the densely wooded valleys of 
Teslin lake, among many small ponds. ‘This route is said to be 
not impracticable for a railroad, and a charter for one has al- 
ready been granted by the Canadian government. Its merits, 
however, have not yet been thoroughly tested. Both this and 
the Stikine route have the undoubted advantage of avoiding the 
dangerous White Horse rapids. 

The Copper River route-—This, the only land route within 
American territory, would strike inland from near the mouth of 
the Copper river and follow a general northeasterly course to- 
ward the Klondike, thus crossing a great mountain range whose 
rough topography and many glaciers that fill the valleys and 
passes render general travel difficult. Orca, the only settlement 
on the coast near by, which is 50 miles beyond the mouth of 
Copper river and 700 miles from Sitka, had in 1897 a population 
of 22 whites; it is the first post-office west of Sitka. According 
to reports of natives, confirmed by Lieutenant Allen, who crossed 
over to the Tanana in 1885, the better way is to start inland 
from Valdes inlet, on Prince William sound, and, crossing the 
Valdes glacier, strike Copper river 180 miles above its mouth, 
thus avoiding the gorge and the most dangerous rapids. From 
the Copper River basin an advisable route would seem to be over 
the Scoloi pass and down White river; but from observations 
made by Hayes it appears that the pass, which has an elevation 
of over 5,000 feet, is occupied by a glacier 300 to 400 feet thick, 
and that White river abounds in rapids too rough for a loaded 
boat. I. C. Russell, who visited the Mount St Elias region in 
1890 and 1891, reports a mountainous region to the northward 
occupied by huge glaciers. This region is to be explored during 
the coming summer by parties sent out by the War Department. 


GEOLOGICAL SKETCH 
Original or Vein Deposits 


At present, so far as known, it is only in the coastal region that 
deep mining is being carried on in gold-bearing veins. Here it 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 155 


has become a well-established industry, and many large quartz 
mills are running on the ore extracted from these veins. The 
principal deposits of southeast Alaska are found in a belt some- 
what over 100 miles in length on the seaward slope of the main- 
land, reaching from Sumdum on the southeast past Juneau to 
Berners bay near Seward on the northwest. This belt may be 
also considered to include the deposits on Admiralty and other 
interior islands. A second belt, further west, is represented by 
the deposits on the western side of Baranof island, not far from 
Sitka. The ores, though not always exceptionally rich, are 
worked at a good profit because of the natural facilities of the 
revion for cheap reduction. The most notable instance of this 
is the great Alaska-Treadwell mine, which has extracted over 
seven million dollars’ worth of gold from an ore carrying $3.20 
a ton, which is worked at an average cost of $1.85. Such condi- 
tions can not be expected to obtain in the interior. 

These deposits occur in metamorphic slates, diabases, and 
granites, all similar to the rocks of the auriferous belt of Cali- 
fornia, and probably, like those, they are of post-Jurassic age. 
Owing to the dense covering of living and fallen forest trees in 
this region, prospecting is extremely difficult, and it is probable 
that future exploration will prove the extent of these gold belts 
to be much greater than at present appears. The gold-bearing 
beach sands from Lituya bay to Yakutat bay, along the west foot 
of the St Elias range, and the placers at the head of Cook inlet, 
around Turnagain arm and on the Kaknu river, may have been 
derived from the wearing down of rocks of similar age and com- 
position in the St Elias range and on the Kenai peninsula. 

At Uyak bay, on Kadiak island, gold deposits in slates are 
being worked, and the gold-bearing beach sands of the western 
end of that island and at Portage bay and the Ayakulik river on 
the neighboring mainland are apparently derived from meta- 
morphic slates associated with granite, so that it is possible that 
these more recent gold-bearing rocks extend that far westward. 
On Unga island, of the Shumagin group, still further west, gold 
occurs in eruptive andesites of Tertiary age, and mines have been 
opened on these deposits, the most important of which is the. 
Apollo, one of the most successful in the province. As the Alaska 
peninsula and the Aleutian islands are largely made up of recent 
eruptive rocks, this isan important indication, showing the pos- 
sibility of the occurrence of valuable deposits in such roeks. 

In the Yukon basin the gold, so far as known at present, is de- 


156 ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


rived from a much older series of rocks, for the gold-bearing 
slates of the coastal region have not yet been recognized there. 
While the exact age of these gold-bearing rocks has not yet been 
determined, they are known to be older than the limestones sup- 
posed to represent the Carboniferous and Devonian formations 
of the cordilleran system ; hence they are probably pre-Paleozoic, 
and in part are possibly as old as the Archean. The grounds 
for assuming this derivation are that these rocks contain abun- 
dant auriferous quartz veins, and that the richest placers thus far 
discovered are so situated that they must have been derived from 
them. These rocks are classified by Spurr as follows, commenc- 
ing at the base: 

Basal granite-schist—This, so far as known, is the fundamental 
rock formation of the region. The granite has characteristically 
a somewhat schistose or gneissic structure, thus showing evidence 
of having been subjected to dynamic action or intense compres- 
sion, and it may pass into a gneiss, or even a mica-schist, where 
this action has been most energetic. On the other hand, it is 
sometimes massive, Showing no parallel structure planes, and 
then is with difficulty distinguishable from the massive younger 
granites, which are also of frequent occurrence in the region in 
the form of dikes and intrusive masses cutting across older rocks. 
As distinguished from the granites of the coastal region, which 
are intrusive, these older granites are generally of reddish color 
and crumbly nature, while the later ones are dark gray from the 
abundance of hornblende as a constituent mineral. 

Birch Creek series.—Resting unon the fundamental granite is 
a series of rocks, roughly estimated as possibly 25,000 feet in 
thickness, named the Birch creek series, from the place of their 
typical occurrence. ‘They consist mainly of quartzitic rocks, 
generally thin-bedded or schistose, so that they pass into mica- 
schists; in some places they contain carbonaceous matter and 
develop graphitic schists. There are also bands which probably: 
originated as intrusive rocks, but which by compression have 
become schistose like the other members. These rocks have 
abundant quartz veins; they are generally parallel to the schis- 
tosity or bedding, small and not persistent, but some cross the 
bedding and are then wider. ‘They carry gold with abundant 
pyrites, and sometimes galena. They are often broken and 
faulted. 

Fortymile series.—Younger than the Birch creek series, but in 
general closely associated therewith, is another thick series of 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 157 


rocks, called the Fortymile series, because of their development 
on Fortymile creek. They are characterized by alternations of 
beds of marble, from a few inches up to 50 feet in thickness, 
with quartzitic and other schists, which may be micaceous, horn- 
blendic, or garnetiferous, and sometimes graphitic. ‘They are 
traversed by abundant dikes of eruptive rock, mostly granites 
and diorites. Two sets of quartz veins are developed in these 
rocks: (1) an older set, which are generally parallel to the 
schistosity or lamination, like those in the Birch creek series, 
and like them are broken by later movements and carry pyrite 
and occasionally galena; (2) aset of larger veins, which form an 
apparent transition from dikes of aplite, a rock consisting of 
quartz and feldspar. They cut across the bedding and are not 
disturbed by later rock movements, hence are younger in age. 

Rampart series— This still later series is primarily distin- 
guished from the preceding by the darker color of its rocks, 
which are dark green when fresh and become a dark red by 
weathering. They consist largely of basic eruptive materials, 
beds of diabase and tuffaceous sediments, with hard green shales 
and some limestones containing glauconite, or green silicate of 
iron. They also contain novaculites, or fine-grained quartzitic 
slates, and jasperoids, or iron-stained quartzose rocks. Serpen- 
tine and chlorite, noticeable by their softness and green color, 
are frequent alteration products. These rocks also contain a 
few quartz and calcite veins, which are generally developed 
along shear zones, or places where by rock movement and com- 
pression a series of closely appressed parallel fractures are devel- 
oped. ‘The basic character of these rocks and their large content 
of pyrite seem favorable to the concentration of ore deposits ; 
they present, moreover, certain analogies, both in composition 
and in geologic position, with the copper-bearing rocks of Lake 
Superior. But the observed veins are younger than the joints 
and shear planes, which were probably produced by the rock 
movements that crushed the veins of the older series, and assays 
of their ores have as yet shown but insignificant amounts of gold 
and silver. These veins, as well as those in the granite, are, 
moreover, much less abundant than those in the Birch creek 
and Tortymile series; hence it is thought that the latter are 
probably the principal source of gold in the placers. 

The younger rock series noted are, briefly, the following: 

Tahkandit series.—This consists of limestones, sometimes white 
and crystalline, generally green or black, alternating with shales. 


158 ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


In certain localities, notably on the Tahkandit river, it has con- 
elomerates carrying greenish pebbles supposed to be derived 
from the rocks of the Rampart series. In the beds of this series 
have been found fossils of Carboniferous age and plants of De- 
vonian aspect. 

Mission Creek series.—Later than the Tahkandit series, but, like 
it, not very well defined, is the Mission creek series, consisting 
of shales and thin-bedded limestones with gray sandstones. Lo- 
cally there are thin beds of impure lignite and at the base a con- 
elomerate (‘cement rock ” of the miners) containing pebbles not 
completely rounded derived from older rocks in the neighbor- 
hood, which sometimes carries gold. The beds of this series are 
sometimes altered and sharply upturned and folded, but gener- 
ally have a rather fresh appearance. In the neighborhood of 
shear zones they are impregnated with pyrite and carry small 
quartz veins. The limited exploration of these rocks has devel- 
oped no important deposits of mineral. The age of the beds is 
as yet uncertain, but they are in part as late as Cretaceous. 

Kenai series—Next above the Mission creek rocks, and not 
always readily distinguishable from them, is a great thickness 
of rather loosely consolidated conglomerates, shales, and sand- 
stones, generally greenish in color, which are the coal-bearing 
rocks of the region ; they everywhere contain plant remains and 
rest unconformably upon the older rocks. They have, however, 
been folded to a certain extent, and stand upturned at angeles of 
20° to 60°. They are supposed to be of Kocene-Tertiary age. 

Later Tertiary beds.—Other and more recent Tertiary beds have 
been observed generally in the more open country of the Lower 
Yukon, which have lhttle economic importance, though they 
sometimes contain thin hgniticseams. They are variously known 
from the localities where they have been observed, as the Nulato 
sandstones and the Twelvemile and Porcupine beds, the two 
last named being assumed to belong to the same series. 

The more recent formations, silts and gravels, will be consid- 
ered under the heading “ Detrital or placer deposits.” 


DISTRIBUTION OF GOLD-BEARING ROCK FORMATIONS 


The most definite facts with regard to the occurrence of the 
gold-bearing formations, the Birch creek, Fortymile, and Ram- 
part series described above, were obtained by the reconnaissance 
made by members of the United States Geological Survey in the 
summer of 1896, under the charge of J. E. Spurr, in the Amer- 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 159 


ican portion of the Yukon district, and the exposures of these 
rocks as shown on the maps of his report have been indicated 
in colors on the accompanying map. Data gathered by earlier 
geologists, notably those of the Canadian Survey and of C. W. 
Hayes and I. C. Russell, of the United States Geological Survey, 
have provided suggestions as to the extent of these rocks in out- 
side areas, but the reader need only bear in mind the enormous 
area, the difficulties of exploration, and the want of accurate 
maps of the region, to realize that generalization must as yet be 
very tentative and lable to future change. 

As shown by the map, the belt in which these rocks have 
been found extends about 500 miles in a general northwest- 
southeast direction. but there are indications that the actual 
extent of these exposures may be twice as great. 

The best-known exposures of these rocks occur along the north- 
eastern flanks of a broad belt of fundamental granites and crys- 
talline schists, which apparently form the central nucleus or 
backbone upon which they rest. This belt is known in a gen- 
eral way to extend up the Tanana river from near its mouth 
southeastward across the White river below the Donjek. Inthe 
latter region C. W. Hayes reports quartzites and limestones re- 
sembling the Birch creek and Fortymile series on the southern 
flanks of the granite, but the width of the belt, and whether 
there is any considerable extent of the gold-bearing formations 
along its southern flanks, is as yet unknown. It may not im- 
probably extend into the high range south of Tanana, of which 
Mount McKinley is the culminating point and in which the 
Kuskokwim and Sushitna rivers of western Alaska take their 
rise, for from the reports of Moravian missionaries and of the 
traveler Dickey it appears that gold occurs in the sands of each 
ofthese streams. To the westward the granite backbone appears 
to pitch gently downward, as its surface area narrows, and no 
exposures are known west of the Yukon river. It is probably 
not a continuous mass of granite on the surface, but contains 
smaller areas of the later rocks folded in with it. East of the 
international boundary the area in which the granite occurs ap- 
parently widens, but its exposures are less continuous, the over- 
lying rocks not yet having been worn away. One granitic axis 
appears to extend eastward from the Fortymile district through 
the Klondike rezion in a nearly east-west direction, which is 
that of the prevailing strike of the sedimentary rocks. The 
Canadian geologists report a second granite axis on the Dease 


s 


160 ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


river just below Dease lake. which may belong to the older 
granites, though they do not make the same distinction that 
Spurr does between the older granites and the later intrusive 
rocks. 

Rocks of the various gold-bearing series above the granite are 
reported at the following localities: Their first appearance, to 
one ascending the Yukon from the sea, is near the mouth of the 
Nowikakat. From here up to the Tanana river, rocks of the 
Birch creek series outcrop frequently along the river, when not 
concealed by Tertiary sandstones and conglomerates, and the 
range of low mountains on the north side and parallel to the 
river is probably formed of these and Fortymile rocks. About 
three miles above the mouth of the Tanana, granite is exposed 
on an island in the Yukon, and 12 miles higher calcareous 
quartzitic schists of the Fortymile series appear under the Ter- 
tiary conglomerates. From the mouth of the Tanana up to 
Fort Hamlin, at the lower end of the Yukon flats, the river 
runs in a canyon-like channel, known as the Lower Ramparts, 
cut through a low range of mountains, which consist principally 
of the dark greenish and reddish rocks of the Rampart series, ex- 
cept where these are buried under Tertiary conglomerates. The 
latter rocks occur immediately above the exposures of Fortymile 
rocks, and again from Mynook creek up beyond the mouth of 
Hess creek. Higher up on these streams the Rampart rocks come 
to the surface, and the Fortymile rocks are supposed to be un- 
covered at their very heads. Between the two areas of Tertiary 
rocks the Rampart rocks occupy a belt 15 to 20 miles wide along 
the river, and are cut by great dikes of intrusive granite. 

From Fort Hamlin up to near Circle City, a distance, neglect- 
ing curves, of about 200 miles, the river flows through a perfectly 
flat region covered by fine silts and gravels, known as the Yukon 
flats, in which no outcrops of solid rock have been observed. In 
the Birch creek district, around the headwaters of Birch creek 
and southwest of Circle City, the Birch creek series occupy a 
broad area; their general strike is east and west, curving at 
either end to the northward, and the prevailing dip is between 
5° and 30° tothe south. There is, however, evidence of a north- 
ern dip as well, and the Fortymile schists and marbles rest upon 
them along the trail to Circle City. Marbles, probably belong- 
ing to the Fortymile series, are also reported in the hills between 
Birch creek and the Tanana to the southward. 

At the crossing of Birch creek by the trail from Circle City and 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 161 


along the Yukon river for 30 or 40 miles above the Yukon flats, 
rocks with the characteristic dark coloring of the Rampart series 
are exposed. From these up to the mouth of Mission creek rocks 
of the Tahkandit, Mission creek, and Kenai series occupy the 
banks of the river. On Mission creek itself only these later for- 
mations are found, but the gold in the gravels is supposed to come 
from the conglomerates (“cement rock”) of the Mission creek 
series, which contain pebbles of the older rocks. On American 
creek, the main branch of Mission creek which comes in from the 
south, the dark rocks, shales, limestones, and tuffaceous beds 
which form the bed-rock are supposed to belong to the Rampart 
series, which also occur along the Yukon river from five to ten 
miles above Mission creek to within 25 miles of the mouth of 
Fortymile creek. Above this to some distance above Fortymile 
creek the river runs in beds of the Mission creek series. 

It is in the Fortymile district and the adjoining mining district, 
on tributaries of Sixtymile creek,that the relations of the different 
gold-bearing series are best seen. Here there is an east-west axis 
or backbone running parallel to the upper part of Fortymile 
creek and along the divide between it and Sixtymile creek, with 
quartzite schists of the Birch creek series resting immediately on 
it, both to the north and to the south. Above these, on either 
side, are the marbles and alternating schists of the Fortymile 
series. Fortymile creek below the forks runs for a considerable 
part of its course along the junction between these two series, on 
the northern flank of the anticline. Dikes of various eruptive 
rocks, including intrusive granite, are very abundant, especially 
on the South fork. On the upper part of this fork are green tuffs 
and slates of the Rampart series, overlain unconformably by con- 
eglomerates, sandstones, and coaly shales of the Mission creek 
series. Both the South fork and Sixtymile creek are supposed 
to head in a backbone of granite around Sixtymile butte, which 
is surrounded by quartzite schists of the Birch creek series. 
These regions lie partly in American, partly in Canadian territory. 

The Canadian area has not been studied by American geol- 
ogists, except in wayside observation along such routes of travel 
as necessarily lay through it. The Canadian geologists, on the 
other hand, did not in their earlier and published observations 
recognize any subdivisions in the older rocks such as have been 
made by Spurr. Hence it is not possible to attempt even a prox- 
imate outline of the Canadian gold-bearing rock formations. 
General geological data and local discoveries of gold-bearing 


162 ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


gravels indicate that the gold-bearing area is very large, and may 
be roughly defined as reaching from Dease river to the bound- 
ary, with a width of 200 to 3800 miles or more. The recent enor- 
mously rich discoveries have, however, been confined to a more 
limited area around the Klondike and Stewart river districts, 
over which it has been possible to extend, with a reasonable de- 
gree of probability, the colors indicated on the map for adjoin- 
ing American areas. Thus it is assumed that the east-west uplift 
of fundamental granite and overlying rocks extends eastward 
into the Klondike district, and that a second uplift in a south- 
easterly direction extends from upper Fortymile creek toward 
the valley of Stewart river. } 

Spurr noted outcrops of the schistose quartzites of the Birch 
creek series for a large part of the distance from the mouth of 
Fortymile creek up to the junction of the Pelly and the Lewes 
at Fort Selkirk ; also granites at various points, in some cases 
schistose like the fundamental granite, in others fresh and mass- 
ive like intrusive granite. There were also occasional belts of 
marble belonging to the Fortymile series, notably one five or six 
miles above the mouth of Sixtymile creek, not far from that of 
Stewart river. These observations afford a rough section across 
the belt of crystalline schists mentioned by the Canadian geol- 
ogists as stretching eastward and southeastward along the upper 
Pelly and adjoining streams and across to the Frances river. 
Along the eastern edge of the crystalline belt they also recognized 
rocks of a general greenish color, made up largely of altered vol- 
canic rocks, which would answer to the description of the Ram-. 
part series. Similar rocks were also noted at various points on 
the Lewes above its junction with the Pelly, notably in the Sem- 
inow hills near the Big Salmon river, which may represent the 
development of the Rampart series on the south flanks of the 
crystalline belt. 


PLACER OR DETRITAL DEPOSITS 


The extraordinarily rich placer deposits of the gulches tribu- 
tary to the Klondike river above Dawson, and of similar gulches 
of the nearby Indian creek and Stewart river, have been so re- 
cently opened that no detailed geological description of these 
localities has yet been received. In his report, however, Spurr 
had shown that the strike of the gold-bearing rocks in the Forty- 
mile district and the exposures observed along the Yukon indi- 
cated that their gold must have been derived from the same 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 163 


gold-bearing formations that had furnished the richest placers 
in the districts visited by him. A brief statement of the prom- 
inent characteristics of these districts as given by him will there- 
fore probably be of value. 

The hills surrounding the gulches of the Little Mynook and 
Hunter creeks, on the Lower Yukon, are formed of rocks of the 
Rampart series. The bed-rocks are of diabase, tuffs, impure 
shales, and quartzites, and in the bottoms of the gulches there 
is from 10 to 20 feet of gravel. The gravel consists in part of 
angular fragments of rocks that form the walls of the gulch, in 
part of waterworn pebbles of Birch creek schist, schistose granite, 
and otherrocks. The goldis generally in rounded, bean-shaped 
erains and nuggets, and less frequently in unworn particles. 
This points to a two-fold origin of the gold, as derived in part 
from the rocks immediately about and in-part from distant and 
older rocks, which may have been worn down, possibly along an 
old seashore, into terrace gravels, and then by subsequent erosion 
brought into the present stream beds. Further exploration in the 
hills to the south may disclose the true source of these pebbles 
and of the gold that accompanies them. On American creek, 
in the Mission creek district, the gold-bearing placers are also 
derived from rocks of the Rampart series—quartzitic schists, ser- 
pentines, and chloritic rocks—and the gold is said by Spurr to 
have been derived mainly from the schistose zones in the bed- 
rock. 

The richest gravels have been found in the Birch creek and 
Fortymile districts. In the entire Birch creek district, which 
les south of Circle City, and on Miller, Glacier, Poker, and Davis 
creeks of the Fortymile district, near the international boundary, 
the bed-rocks are always the quartzite-schists of the Birch creek 
series, containing veins of quartz. The gravels rest, as a rule, 
directly on the schist, though in some eases, as on Harrison and 
Hagle creeks, in the Birch creek district, there is clay beneath 
the gravels, and the gold, as a rule, does not extend into the bed- 
rock, but occurs chiefly at the top of the clay. Generally, how- 
ever, the schist is rotted and reddened from oxidation for a few 
inches to several feet below the surface, and in this part the gold 
has settled into the cracks and joints. The pay gravels lie 
mostly next the bed-rock,in an average thickness of perhaps 
two feet, though sometimes up to ten feet, while the overlying 
gravels average eight or ten feet, with a maximum of 25 feet. In 
the gravels the schist is in quite large, flat fragments, and the 


i64 ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


quartz is in bowlders of varying size. The schist fragments lie 
flat, and are mixed with sand, showing that the sorting action 
of running water has not been carried far. In the concentrates 
from the sluice-boxes the heavier minerals associated with the 
gold—galena, magnetite, limonite, hornblende, and garnet—are 
in each case such as are found in the neighboring schists, and 
the nuggets of gold often have pieces of quartz still adhering to 
them. All these facts are evidence that the gold is derived from 
rocks in the vicinity and is not brought from a great distance, 
perhaps by glaciers, as some erroneously suppose. 

The rocks of the Fortymile series in the Fortymile district, as 
already stated, form the west bank of Fortymile creek, and south 
of the South fork cross the divide between Franklin gulch and 
Napoleon creek, where they are overlain by green slates of the 
Rampart series, which in turn are overlain by conglomerates of 
the Mission creek series. In Franklin creek the bed-rocks are 
marbles interbedded with mica and hornblende schists; the 
gravel contains fragments of marble, quartzite, mica-schists, and 
vein quartz. Atone pointa quartz vein is found in the bed-rock, 
and below it native silver has been found in the gravels, which 
apparently came from this vein. It is the schistose rocks that 
mostly carry the gold, as the marbles do not show much evidence 
of veins. In this gulch are two levels; the higher one, at the head 
of the gulch, had not been worked, while the pay gold had been 
found mainly at the lower level, near the mouth of the gulch. 

Chicken creek, so called because its gold occurs in grains the 
size of chicken feed, drains a wide area toward the Ketchumstock 
hills to the southwest, and the actual source of the gold is less 
readily defined. The gravel contains fragments of granite, quart- 
zite, schist, and marble. 

On Napoleon creek conglomerate forms the bed-rock near the 
mouth. Thegravels contain fragments of quartzite, vein quartz, 
hornblende-granite, and various eruptive rocks, and the source 
of the gold is assumed to be the conglomerate, which is made up 
of fragments of the older rocks, for the rocks higher up the gulch 
above the conglomerates have not been found to carry much gold. 

The most trustworthy reports from the Klondike region indi- 
cate that the exceptionally rich placer gravels thus far found 
occur in side valleys entering the main Klondike valley from 
the south, such as Bonanza, Eldorado, and Hunker creeks, and 
in some gulches across the divide tributary to Indian or Stewart 
rivers. No gold in paying quantities had been found on the 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 165 


Klondike itself. The placer deposit generally consists of 10 to 
15 feet of frozen muck and decayed vegetation at the surface, 
then a gravel bed that rarely pays; below that a clay selvage, 
under which is pay dirt, from one to five feet in thickness, rest- 
ing on the upturned edges of the schist, from which it is separated 
by a clay selvage. ‘The pay streak or bottom of the old channel 
is usually very regular and straight, not following the bends of 
the present stream; it is said to average 60 cents to the pan, 
and may yield $1 to $3. Only very exceptionally rich gravel 
can be worked at all under present conditions. 

Other detrital deposits—Besides the placer gravels above de- 
scribed, there are other detrital deposits that may carry gold, 
some of which are known to occur in the Yukon district, but 
have not as vet been extensively worked. In the larger streams 
accumulations of gravel and sand are made in places of slack- 
ening current, such as the inner side of curves, or at points where 
considerable coarse material is brought into the main stream by 
more rapid tributaries ; such accumulations are called ‘ bars,” 
and often contain much gold. In some cases the entire mass of 
sand and gravel ina river bed contains enough gold to be worked 
at a profit by mechanical processes. There must necessarily be 
a large amount of gold in the bars of the Yukon and its tribu- 
taries, but whether they are rich enough to be profitably worked 
under existing conditions has not yet been proved. 

Another common form of detrital deposit is the fine “ silts,” 
which often cover wide areas. The most notable instance is what 
is called the Yukon flats, which extend for a hundred miles or 
more above and below the great bend of the river at Fort Yukon 
and a considerable distance up the Porcupine, thus covering an 
area perhaps 100 by 200 miles in extent. Similar flats, but of 
more moderate dimensions, occur at various points along the 
lower course of the river, generally in the concave sides of curves. 
These silts are being deposited at the present day in the annual 
floods when the river waters cover such wide areas that their 
movement becomes as sluggish as those of a lake. There are, 
however, similar beds of silt of like appearance and constitution 
at altitudes of several hundred feet above the present stream, 
which are of widespread occurrence not only in the lower Yukon 
country but in the plateau region of British Columbia. The 
latter have been designated white silts by Dr Dawson, who con- 
siders that they were laid down in fiords connecting with the 
sea, their material being furnished by the grinding of the re- 


166 ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


treating cordilleran glacier. These ancient silts and the benches 
or terraces that fringe the mountains all over the interior of 
Alaska up to 5,000 feet above the present sea-level point to a 
comparatively recent submergence of the country to this amount. 
The American geologists are inclined, however, to attribute a 
lacustrine origin to part at least of these silts. The absence of 
marine fossils in them is admitted by Dr Dawson to be negative 
evidence against their marine origin. From an economic point 
of view, these silts are of little importance, however, as the gold 
contained in them would be so finely divided that it probably 
could not be extracted at a profit. 

It is otherwise, however, with the terrace gravels, which are also 
very widespread throughout the interior. When these occur at 
moderate heights above the present streams and evidently rep- 
resent earlier stages in the cutting down of their valleys, they 
may naturally be expected and indeed are often found to con- 
tain considerable gold, which it may pay to extract. In the 
Cassiar mining district quite a large proportion of the gold was 
derived from terrace gravels. The higher terraces, which are 
not confined to present valleys, but cross divides and sometimes 
form plateaus, must have been worn down or redistributed by 
broader bodies of water, which would be less likely to concen- 
trate the gold than river waters. They have already been ob- 
served at 1,500 feet elevation, and if the hypothesis of submer- 
gence expressed above is correct, should be found up to 3,000 
feet; they are probably of little economic importance. 

Ancient river gravels that have been protected from erosion 
by a covering of recent lava have not yet been noted in the 
Yukon valley, though recent flows of basaltic lava occur at vari- 
ous points from the lake region of the Lewes river down to St 
Michael island, 60 miles north of the mouth of the Yukon. In 
the Upper Stikine valley such an old river channel, in which 
auriferous gravels had been protected by a recent flow of basalt, 
is cut through by the modern stream and has caused a notable 
enrichment of its bars immediately below. Itis a question, how- 
ever, whether modern erosion in the Yukon valley is sufficiently 
deep and active to expose such channelsif they do exist there. 

Another source of gold, which occupies an intermediate posi- 
tion between original and detrital deposits, is what is generally 
known as fossil placers or conglomerate beds, within a geological 
rock formation which is made up of material resulting from the 
wearing down, generally on an old shore line, of older gold-bear- 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 167 


ing rocks. Such conglomerates have been observed in both the 
Mission creek and Kenai series of beds, and if future study shows 
them to have been formed under favorable conditions they may 
prove to bean important source of gold. According to MrSpurr’s 
observation, the modern placers of Napoleon creek in the Forty- 
mile district, have been enriched by gold derived from the basal 
conglomerate of the Mission creek series, which is made up of 
materials derived from the Birch creek, Fortymile, and Ram- 
part series. 


PROBABLE EXTENT OF GOLD-BEARING DEPOSITS 


In a new country gold is first sought in the stream gravels, and 
thence traced up to its source. Very fine gold may be carried 
long distances by river waters ; hence it is only when it becomes 
relatively coarse, or at any rate carries coarse particles, that the 
source may be considered necessarily near at hand. Fine gold 
is found in almost all the rivers of Alaska, even the silts of the 
Yukon yield it in places. Gold has been found along the whole 
length of the Lewes, the Teslin, the Big Salmon, the Pelly, the 
Stewart, and the Selwyn, and on the Yukon river almost con- 
tinuously from the junction of the Lewes and Pelly downward. 
Still further east, Frances and Dease rivers, the main branches 
of Liard river, which flows into the Mackenzie, carry gold. In 
the Cassiar district, on the Dease river, gold was discovered as 
early as $861. ‘The district was actively worked as a placer camp 
from 1878 to 1887, during which time it yielded about five mil- 
hon dollars’ worth of gold dust. These upper regions are dis- 
tant about 1,000 miles in a straight line from the known outcrops 
of gold-bearing rocks in the Rampart mountains on the Lower 
Yukon, and are within areas either in which exposures of the 
gold-bearing rocks as defined above are actually known to exist 
or in which the similar lithological character of rocks described 
renders it probable that in some part of the area they may be 
exposed. 

There is also some evidence of the extension of rocks of the 
gold-bearing series to the northwest of the Lower Yukon, though 
it is as yet impossible to determine whether the primitive gold- 
bearing rocks of the Birch creek and Fortymile series there come 
to the surface, or whether it is simply the fossil placers or gold- 
bearing conglomerates of-later formations, where made up of 
fragments of these older rocks, that have furnished the gold of 
modern streams. 


168 ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


In this region gold has been found extensively along the 
Koyukuk, and most abundantly, as already mentioned, where 
the valley cuts through conglomerates supposed to belong to the 
Kenai series. This is at the forks, about 300 miles above the 
mouth, below which the country is low and swampy ; above 
the forks the mountains close in and the sides of the valleys be- 
come precipitous. The gold in the bars is said to be coarse, sug- 
gesting nearness to the source, and has yielded as much as $100 
per day by use of the rocker. Prospectors are said to have ex- 
plored to considerable distances above the forks, up to 500 miles 
from the mouth, and to have recognized rocks similar to those 
of the Birch creek and Fortymile districts. This, if true, is 1m- 
portant as an indication of still further extensions of the area of 
exposures of the older gold-bearing rocks. 

Further east, at the head of Dall river, low, broken hills, ap- 
parently composed of schists and quartzose rocks, extend north- 
eastward to the Romanzof mountains. The latter are snow- 
covered in summer, and form the northern boundary of a low 
plain that lies to the north of Porcupine river ; these mountains 
are likewise said to be made up of metamorphic schist and 
quartzites. 

Still further northwest, in the country to the northeast of 
Kotzebue sound, gold has been reported from the Kowak and 
Noatak rivers. It is possible that the older series of rocks is ex- 
posed in the mountains of this region, but more probable that 
the gold is derived from the conglomerates of the Mission creek 
series, which, as already shown, afford gold on Napoleon creek 
and in the Mission creek district. 

Gold is also reported by prospectors from a belt of country 
which is generally parallel to the known gold belt, but set off to 
the southwest and which corresponds to the supposed south- 
western flank of the granite backbone. Such discoveries have 
been reported from Fish creek, which flows into Norton sound 
north of St Michael, and from the upper Kuskokwim river, which 
flows into Bering sea. On the Sushitna river, which flows into 
Cook inlet, W. A. Dickey reports colors of fine gold in the sands 
all along the stream, and platinum on the upper river, where 
veins of white quartz carrying gold, silver, and copper were found 
in slates associated with granite and porphyry. Gold and copper 
haye been reported by various persons from the region about the 
sources of the Copper and White rivers. It is thus evident that 
the elevated region along the heads of these various streams, and 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 169 


between them and the waters of the Tanana, possesses great pos- 
sibilities in the way of mineral development, but from all ac- 
counts it is a region exceptionally difficult of access, and it may 
well be questioned whether it is advisable to attempt its explora- 
tion until facilities for travel and obtaining supplies in the Yukon 
region have been increased, as they will be in the near future. 

More accessible is the region immediately north of the Tanana 
river known as the Tanana hills and Ketchumstock hills, which 
from reports appears to be mainly a granite region, but in which 
it is likely that outliers or patches of the gold-bearing schists 
will be found inclosed within the granite area. 

Late reports by prospectors in the Tanana region state that the 
river has slack water, navigable for steamers 150 to 200 miles above 
its mouth; above that the current is swift. Mountains border the 
river on the north side from the mouth up, on the south they are 
far distant. Colors are found in all the creeks; those heading 
toward Fortymile and Seventymile offer best promises, but no 
important prospects have been found. Toward Circle City the 
creeks do not freeze up, and a hot spring was found in one of 
the gulches. 

In the mountain region to the northeast of the Yukon river 
immediately above the bend, such observations as have been 
made do not offer much promise of exposures of the older gold- 
bearing schists. Older limestones occur there, but, though 1m- 
portant gold deposits are known to occur in limestones, in the 
Yukon country the general rule appears to prevail that gold is 
concentrated mainly in the siliceous rocks. It may well be, how- 
ever, that in the conglomerate or cement deposits of the coal- 
bearing formations that are known to occur in this northeastern 
region there are portions sufficiently rich in gold to make pay- 
ing placers by their wearing down. In searching for such places 
the prospector should study the character of the pebbles that 
make up the conglomerate; it is only when these include frag- 
ments of the gold-bearing rocks and occasionally of vein quartz 
that they are likely to be productive. 

For the region east of the international boundary, Spurr had 
already pointed out, as a result of his observations in the sum- 
mer of 1896, that the Klondike and Indian creek regions were 
likely to show rich placers, because the schists of the Birch 
creek series, and to some extent the marbles of the Fortymile 
series, formed the bed-rock. 


George M. Dawson reports bars of fairly coarse gold on the 
12 


170 ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 


Pelly all the way up to Hoole river. Just below the mouth of 
the McMillan the river has cut a canyon through gray granite 
hills, below which are dark crystalline schists with east-west 
strike and northerly dip, associated with which are alternating 
marbles and chloritic schists, probably of the Fortymile series. 
Granite occurs again near the junction with the Lewes. Of the 
valley of the McMillan nothing was known. The Pelly above 
the detour or bend had a similar series of quartzite schists, with 
interbedded limestones on the north, while the Glenlyon hills to 
the south were of granites. Above these are sandstones sup- 
posed to belong to the coal-bearing series and dipping 45° S. 
Still higher up in Hoole canyon are marbles again, associated 
with schists and volcanic rocks, possibly of the Rampart series. 
Still further northeast, in the middle canyon of the Frances 
river, Dawson found marbles again, while in the Tootsha range 
to the east were seen granites and schists with abundant quartz 
veins. 

All along the summit of the Coast range the prevailing rocks 
are granites, cut by later porphyry dikes. They form a belt 20 
to 80 miles wide, and are generally of the hornblende or intru- 
sive type. On the Dyea and Skagway trails they extend down 
on the northeast side to the mid-length of Lake Bennett. In 
the range of hills between Miles canyon and the Teslin river are 
diabasic or dark eruptive rocks and limestones, which may be- 
long to the Rampart series, though Dawson considers the lime- 
stones to be probably Carboniferous. 

Along the region of Rink and Five Finger rapids, below the 
Big Salmon, are infolded masses of Cretaceous rocks (Kenai?) 
with conglomerate at the base, overlain in places by lavas. Be- 
low these are greenish eruptive rocks, and then near the mouth 
of the Pelly is granite again, succeeded below the Pelly by basalt 
flows. Twenty-five miles below the Pelly granitic rocks again 
appear, and are succeeded by crystalline schists of various kinds, 
which constitute the prevailing rock down nearly to Fortymile. 


COAL AND LIGNITE 


Coastal Region 


The coal of Alaska so far examined, whether in the interior or 
on the seacoast south of Bering strait, is of Eocene or early Ter- 
tiary age and belongs without exception to varieties of lignite, 
brown coal, or glance coal. North of Bering strait, in the vicin- 


ALASKA AND ITS MINERAL RESOURCES 171 


ity of Cape Lisburne, is a coal field of considerable extent con- 
taining a fuel which is believed to be of greater geological age, 
perhaps similar to that so extensively mined at Nanaimo and 
other points in British Columbia. As rocks of Carboniferous age 
occur in close proximity to this coal, it was long supposed to 
belong to the Paleozoic coal measures, like that of Pennsylvania, 
butan examination of the fossil plants actually associated with 
it has shown this opinion to be erroneous. 

The various coals of Alaska occur in beds interstratified with 
sandstone, shale, conglomerate, and clay, these rocks usually con. 
taining numerous fossil plants, leaves, cones, and amber derived 
from the fossilization of resin from the ancient coniferous forests. 
The geological formation containing the coal and leaf-bearing 
shales is called the Kenai formation, and is usually covered by 
beds of sandstone containing fossil oysters and other shells be- 
longing to the Miocene or middle Tertiary. 

hike all Tertiary coals, the Alaska mineral is hght in propor- 
tion to its bulk, burns rapidly with little smoke, and has a ten- 
dency to break up into small pieces under the action of the 
weather. The glance coal is brilliant and clean to handle, like 
anthracite, for which it is often mistaken, but which, bulk for 
bulk, is considerably heavier. The brown coal gives a brown 
instead of a black streak when scratched, has the appearance of 
fossil wood, and in drying splits up into chip-like pieces. The 
coal-bearing strata are comparatively widespread both along 
the coast and in the interior, but as yet but few beds have been 
actually worked. 

In the Alexander archipelago, on Admiralty island, coal seams 
and leaf-bearing shales crop out at a number of points along the 
shores of Kootznahoo inlet, and a mine has been opened from 
which considerable non-coking coal has been extracted at the 
head of Davis creek, near Killisnoo village, about 40 miles north- 
east of Sitka. 

Coal or coal-bearing strata are also reported on Prince of 
Wales island, near Kasahan bay ; on Lindenberg peninsula of 
Kupreanof island ; on the northeast and also on the west side 
of Kuiu island ; on the southern point and in Seymour canal, on 
the western side of Admiralty island ; at Whale bay, on Baranof 
island, 23 miles southeast of Sitka, and at various points on 
Chichagof island, northwest of that place. Similar occurrences 
are reported at Lituya and Yakutat bays, on the southwest flanks 
of the St Elias range. 


172 THE CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF ALASKA 


The most important known coal field is on the east shore of 
Cook inlet, on the Kenai peninsula. Here the coal beds cover 
an area of 70 by 30 miles and rise in high bluffs 2,000 feet above 
the sea. At Kachemak bay, where is the only good harbor, there 
are six or seven seams, the thickest of which is four feet thick. 
Several shiploads of the coal, which is of fair average quality, 
have been taken out. 

Along either shore of the Alaskan peninsula and on islands 
adjoining them and in the Aleutian chain for some distance be- 
yond Unalaska coal strata are reported, and have been worked or 
opened at Amalik harbor, Unga island, and Chignik bay, on the 
south shore, and at Herendeen bay, on the north shore of the 
peninsula. 

North of the Yukon, coal beds are reported at several points 
along Norton sound, on the Kowak river, which empties into 
Kotzebue sound, and on the banks of a river entering into Wain- 
wright inlet, on the Arctic ocean. The Cape Lisburne coal field 
extends in a general way from Cape Lisburne to Cape Beaufort, 
a distance of 25 miles; this coal has been extensively used by 
steam whalers. 

In the interior, coal strata have been observed at or near An- 
dreafski, Kaltag, Nulato, and Melozikakat, on the Lower Yukon. 
Three seams have been mined on the right bank of the Yukon 
in the Lower Ramparts at Coal creek, and coal has been taken 
from Coal creek, which enters the Yukon from the north. There 
is some evidence of a considerable development of coal-bearing 
strata extending in either direction from this point nearly parallel 
with the Yukon river and not far north of it. Although these 
coals are rather light, their proximity to the gold fields promises 
to render them of considerable industrial importance. 


THE CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF ALASKA 
By Hon. Grorecr C. Perkins, U.S. 8. 


A bill making provision for the civil government of Alaska is‘ 
now before Congress and may become a law, but pending its 
passage the political organization of the Territory is as follows: 

The executive head of the territorial government is the goy- 
ernor, appointed by the President. The code of laws of the Ter- 
ritory is that which was in force in the State of Oregon on May ' 


THE CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF ALASKA 173 


17, 1884, so far as the same may be applicable and not in con- 
flict with the provisions of the act providing a civil government 
for Alaska or with the laws of the United States. There isa 
difficulty, however, in the machinery to enforce these laws, as 
there is only one judge, who holds court at Sitka and Wrangell, 
in the narrow strip along the coast known as the Panhandle. 
He is, however, authorized and directed to hold such special 
sessions as may be necessary at such times and places as he may 
deem expedient. There are nine commissioners for the Terri- 
tory, who, under the act of May 17, 1884, exercise all the duties 
and powers, civil and criminal, now conferred on justices of the 
peace under the general laws of the State of Oregon. Commis- 
sioners are stationed at Unalaska, Kadiak, Circle City, Dyea, St 
Michael, Unga, Sitka, Juneau, and Wrangell. These commis- 
sioners have also probate and habeas corpus jurisdiction, and are 
notaries public and recorders of deeds. There are a marshal 
and ten deputy marshals, the latter residing at the places men- 
tioned above and Douglas City. They have the powers of con- 
stables under the laws of the State of Oregon. There is one 
district attorney for the district court and one assistant. 

The salaries of these officials are as follows: 

Governor, $3,000; district attorney, $2,500; marshal, $2,500 ; 
district judge, $3,000; clerk, $2,500; commissioners, $1,000, 
with the usual fees of U.S. commissioners and justices of the 
peace for Oregon and such fees for recording instruments as are 
allowed by the laws of the same State; deputy marshals, $750, 
with the usual fees of constables in Oregon. 

Under the Interior Department there are twenty-one Indian 
police. Under the Treasury Department there are four special 
agents stationed at the Pribilof, or Seal, islands, in Bering sea, 
whose duty is to protect the seals from poachers and to see that 
the specified number of skins to be taken each year is not ex- 
ceeded. They are stationed at the Pribilof islands. There is 
also an inspector for the protection of the salmon fisheries of 
Alaska, with one assistant, whose headquarters are at Sitka, but 
whose duties take them to the various streams along the coast 
which the salmon frequent, and on which there are canneries. 
The customs service includes a collector of customs and two 
deputies at Sitka, and deputies at Juneau, Mary island, Kadiak, 
Karluk, Cook inlet, Unga, Unalaska, St Michael, Circle City, and 
Dyea. 

Under the Interior Department there is a general agent of edu- 


174 THE CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF ALASKA 


cation in Alaska, with an assistant general agent and a superin- 
tendent for each of the two educational districts. There are 
twenty-three teachers and an enrollment of 1,267 pupils in 20 
day-schools. These schools, with about 20 mission schools and 
homes conducted by the various missionary organizations of the 
United States, the most efficient of which is the industrial school 
at Sitka, with a few schools of the Russo-Greek Church, sup- 
ported by the Russian government, constitute the educational 
facilities of Alaska. In Sitka, Juneau, and Douglas separate 
schools are maintained for white and native children. During 
1896 a school-house was erected near the Treadwell gold mine 
on Douglas island, and in 1897 a new school-house was built at 
Hoonah, Chichagof island. In September, 1896, a school was 
opened at Circle City. 

The government maintains five herds of reindeer in the terri- 
tory, namely, one at Cape Prince of Wales, numbering 253, one 
at Cape Nome, numbering 218, one at the Swedish mission at 
Golovin bay, and one at the St. James’ Episcopal station near 
by, numbering together 206, and the central government herd 
at the Teller station, numbering 423, making a total of 1,100. 

There is a prohibition against bringing liquor into the Terri- 
tory, but it is evaded by smugglers from Canada and the United 
States, and at every settlement the numerous saloons seen are 
evidences of the extent of the smuggling operations. 

Annette island, in southeastern Alaska, has been set aside as 
a reservation for the Metlakatla Indians, who emigrated from 
British Columbia, and to whom the island was assigned by the 
act of March 3,1891. The Secretary of the Interior recommends 
that citizenship be extended to them. 

The great necessity to commerce, in consequence of the rush 
of gold-seekers to Alaska, of more exact information regarding 
channels, etc., along the coast, has led the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey to send out two parties for the purpose of surveying the 
channels of entrance to the Yukon river and the navigability of 
the Copper river. The head of Cook’s inlet will also be exam- 
ined. The Geological Survey has also sent men into the Alaska 
field, for the purpose of examining and reporting upon the mnin- 
eral resources of the Territory. 

A military reservation has been established by the Govern- 
ment at St Michael, in Bering sea, embracing a territory within 
a hundred miles’ radius from the port of St Michael. It takes in 
a portion of the Alaskan mainland, including the delta of the 


aaa + 


THE CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF ALASKA 175 


Yukon. The policy of the Government is to lease for a nominal 
sum sufficient area and water frontage for commercial, manu- 
facturing, and shipbuilding purposes. The Government has 
also a military station near Circle City and another on the Copper 
river. 

Special legislation relating to Alaska has, up to the present 
time, had reference simply to the narrow strip along the south- 
ern coast, known, as stated above, as the Panhandle, and to the 
Pribilof and Aleutian islands. Its provisions are not sufficiently 
flexible to permit of its extension to the interior by executive 
action. There is, however, one exception, wherein the Secretary 
of the Treasury is authorized to extend the customs laws through- 
out the Territory. 

The laws of the United States relating to mining claims and 
the rights incident thereto were put in force in Alaska by the 
act of 1884 and the act of March 8, 1891. 

The laws relating to lands and titles are as follows: 


The mineral land laws of the United States. 


Townsite laws which provide for the incorporation of townsites and 
acquirement of title thereto from the United States government to 
the townsite trustees. 


The law providing for trade and manufactures, giving each qualified 
person 160 acres of land in a square and compact form. Applica- 
_tions for townsites and for trade and manufacturing purposes are 
to be made to the marshal and clerk at Sitka. The coal-land reg- 
ulations are distinct from the mineral regulations or laws, and the 
jurisdiction of neither coal laws nor public-land laws extends to 
Alaska, the territory being expressly excluded by the laws them- 
selves from their operations. The act approved May 17, 1884, pro- 
viding for civil government in Alaska, has this language as to mines 
and mining privileges: 

‘‘The laws of the United States relating to mining claims and 
rights incidental thereto shall, on and after the passage of this act, 
be in full force and effect in said district of Alaska, subject to such 

regulations as may be made by the Secretary of the Interior and 

approved by the President, and parties who have located mines or 
mining privileges there, under the United States laws applicable 
to the “public domain, or have occupied or improved or exercised 
acts of ownership over such claims, shall not be disturbed therein, 
but shall be allowed to perfect title by payments provided for.’’ 


There is still more general authority. 


The act of July 4, 1866, says: 

‘All valuable mineral deposits in lands belonging to the United 
States, both surveyed and unsurveyed, are hereby declared to be 
free and open to exploration and purchase, and lands in which 
they are found to occupation and purchase by citizens of the United 
States, and by those who have declared an intention to become 
such, under the rules prescribed by law and according to local cus- 
toms or rules of miners in the several mining districts, so far as the 
same are applicable and not inconsistent with the laws of the United 
States.” 


176 THE CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF ALASKA 


The patenting of mineral lands in Alaska is not a new thing, 
for that work has been going on all the time. 

In 1897 a surveyor-general was specifically provided for by 
the act of June 24 and an additional land office authorized, but 
the latter could not be opened, as no appropriation was made 
for salaries. 

By the bill now before Congress, and which will undoubtedly 
become a law, the homestead land laws are extended over Alaska, 
subject to such regulations as may be made by the Secretary of 
the Interior. 

The bill provides: 


That no indemnity, deficiency, or lieu lands pertaining to any land 
grant outside of Alaska shall be located within that Territory. 

That no entry shall be allowed extending more than forty rods along 
the shore of any navigable water, and along such shore a space of at least 
forty rods shall be reserved from entry between such claims. 

That nothing within the act shall be so construed as to authorize entries 
to be made or title acquired to the shore of any navigable waters within 
the Territory. 

That no homestead shall exceed forty acres, unless it be located on 
meadow land or land chiefly valuable for grazing or agricultural] purposes, 
of which 160 acres may be entered as a homestead under the general land 
laws of the United States. 

That any citizen, association, or corporation may purchase, for purposes 
of trade, manufacture, or other productive industry, not exceeding forty 
acres, at $2.50 per acre, such tract not to include mineral or coal lands. 

That a right of way 100 feet wide may be granted to duly organized 
railroad companies, which are also given the right to take from unoccu- 
pied public lands adjacent such material as may be necessary in construc- 
tion, and to purchase not to exceed forty acres of land for terminal facili- 
ties and twenty acres for stations, at $1.25 per acre, but the act cannot be 
construed to give such companies the ownership or use of minerals or coal 
within the right of way or terminal and station grounds. 

That all charges for transportation shall be fixed subject to the approval 
of the Secretary of the Interior. 

That rights of way, 100 feet broad, may be granted for wagon roads, 
wire-rope, aerial, or other tramways on similar terms. 

All affidavits, proofs, and other papers in relation to lands which may 
have been or may hereafter be taken and sworn to anywhere in the 
United States shall be accepted. 

The Secretary of the Interior may cause to be appraised and sold the 
timber on the public lands, in such quantities as he may prescribe, to be 
used in the Territory, but not for export purposes. 

The President is authorized to divide the Territory into two or more 
land districts, and to appoint a register and receiver for each district. 


A bill making further provision for the civil government of 


THE CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF ALASKA 177 


the Territory has been presented to Congress and is now under 
consideration. It may be amended before final adoption. It 
makes the following provisions: 


The temporary seat of government will be at Sitka, but there will be 
no legislative assembly and no delegate to Congress. 

The governor will be appointed and will have such powers as pertain 
to the governor of a Territory. 

A district court is established, with civil and criminal jurisdiction, and 
three district judges are provided, one presiding in each of the three di- 
visions into which the district is divided. One will preside in Sitka, one 
at St Michael, and one at Circle City. At least two terms of court shall 
be held yearly at Sitka and one in each of the other divisions. Special 
terms may be held, if necessary. The jurisdiction of each division shall 
extend over the entire district, but the court may change the place of 
trial from one division to another in certain cases. 

The respective judges shall appoint and at pleasure remove commis- 
sioners for the district, who shall have the powers and jurisdiction of 
commissioners of the United States circuit courts. They shall also have 
the power and exercise the duties of justices of the peace; shall have 
jurisdiction in all testamentary and probate matters; shall have power 
to grant writs of habeas corpus; shall have the power of notaries public; 
and shall have, when acting as justices of the peace, jurisdiction in suits, 
not affecting titles, where the value involved is not over $1,000. 

_ Three clerks shall be appointed, one for each of the three divisions of 
the court. There shall also be three district attorneys. 

There shall be a marshal, who shall appoint a chief deputy marshal 
for each division. 

The governor, with a salary of $4,000; attorneys, $4,000; judges, 
$6,000; clerks, $2,500, and marshal, $4,000, shall be appointed by the 
President, and shall hold office for four years. 

The commissioners shall receive double the usual fees of United States 
commissioners and of justices of the peace in Oregon; the chief deputy 
and deputy marshals, double the usual fees of constables and deputy 
marshals in Oregon. 

The judges of the district shall divide it into three recording divisions, 
and each court may establish in its division one or more recording dis- 
tricts, in which a commissioner shall act as recorder, while the clerk of 
the court shall be ex officio recorder in any part of the district not so 
established. 

Notices of location of mining claims shall be filed for record within 90 
days from the date of discovery, and shall be recorded in the recording 
district wherein the claim is situated. 

The President is empowered to establish or discontinue land districts, 
and to appoint a register and receiver for each district so established. 

The United States mining laws shall continue applicable to the Terri- 
tory. j 

Natives of the Dominion of Canada shall be accorded the same mining 


178 AGRICULTURE IN ALASKA 


rights and privileges as are given to Americans in British Columbia and 
the Northwest Territory. 

Nothing in the act. shall be construed to put in force the general land 
laws of the United States. ~ 

The general laws of the State of Oregon in foree January 1, 1894, are 
declared to be the law in the Territory. 


SOME OF THE CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITIES OF 
AGRICULTURE IN ALASKA 


By Wauter H. Evans, Pu.D., 
Botanist, Office of Experiment Stations, U. S. Department of Agriculture 


During the summer of 1897 the Secretary of Agriculture, 
acting under authority from Congress, commissioned Dr Shel- 
don Jackson, of the U. S. Bureau of Education; Mr Benton 
Killin, one of the regents of the Oregon Agricultural College, 
and the writer to investigate the agricultural conditions and 
possibilities of Alaska. The report of this commission has been 
made to Congress, and it has been issued as Bulletin 48 of the 
Office of Experiment Stations of the Department of Agriculture. 
Dr Jackson made a preliminary report on the Yukon valley, 
while the other commissioners reported their observations along 
the coast from Dixon entrance to Unalaska. The following 
account consists in the main of an abstract of the fuller report. 

From the information gained it appears that successful at- 
tempts have been made at a number of places along the Yukon 
river to raise hardy vegetables. Potatoes, turnips, cabbage, 
cauliflower, radishes, lettuce, peas, etc., have been cultivated to 
considerable extent, some of them having been grown as far 
north as Circle City and Dawson. Berries abound in the inte- 
rior, as they do along the coast, and grasses suitable for grazing 
and hay were met with nearly everywhere. Specimens of good 
hay grasses more than six feet tall were secured from the vicinity 
of Circle City. 

Mr William Ogilvie, who is connected with the Land Survey 
of the Dominion of Canada, estimates the agricultural area of 
the upper Yukon at about 460,000 acres. It is possible that 
the growing of vegetables could be considerably extended in this 
region. 

As the observations of the writer were confined to the coast 
region, that portion of Alaska will be considered more in detail. 


AGRICULTURE IN ALASKA 179 


Considered from an agricultural standpoint, the coast region 
is divided by a wide stretch of mountains, embracing the St Elias 
and Fairweather ranges, into two rather characteristic regions, a 
timbered and atreeless region. The southeast or wooded region 
embraces the great Alexandrian archipelago, which consists of 
more than 1,000 islands, and the mainland as faras Juneau. The 
second or southwestern region, much of which is barren of trees, 
extends from Cook inlet along the Alaskan peninsula westward, 
including the Aleutian archipelago, Kadiak, and the neighbor- 
ing islands, the Shumagin group, and numerous other smaller 
islands. The northern and northeastern part of this region con- 
tains some timber, but in general the region is characterized by 
its remarkable wealth of grasses. Toward the western portion of 
this area the arborescent flora disappears entirely or is repre- 
sented by a few small, stunted shrubs, mostly willows. 

Without entering into a general discussion of the meteorology 
of Alaska, attention may be called to two important facts: First, 
that the sum of effective temperatures for certain points in the 
coast region, although somewhat low, surpasses the effective tem- 
peratures of several localities in Europe of known agricultural 
capabilities ; and, second, that although the total annual precipi- 
tation is large, there is only one point at which as much as one- 
third of it falls during the summer months. The summer rain- 
fallat Wrangell, Pyramid Harbor, and Killisnoo is less than that 
at Indianapolis, Ind., Raleigh, N. C., or Washington, D. C. 

The soils of Alaska to a great extent are of vegetable origin 
and to a considerable degree resemble what are called the rice 
lands of the Soath or the peat formations of Europe and else- 
where. In some places in southeastern Alaska there are deep 
deposits of this rich-looking soil overlying slate or conglomerate 
bed rock, with often a deposit of gravel intervening. Sometimes 
there is an impervious stratum of clay underlying the black soil. 
Where the soil lies directly on bed rock or is underlain with clay, 
the drainage is usually poor and the land more or less marshy. 

Samples of what appeared to be average soils were collected 
at various places and transmitted to the Division of Soils of the 
Department of Agriculture. In commenting upon the charac- 
ter of the samples analyzed, Professor Milton Whitney says: 


The organic content of many of these soils is very much higher than in 
any of the agricultural lands of the States. They correspond very nearly 
with the rice lands and peat formations. The black soils of the plains 
and the famous Red River Valley soils of the Northwest contain from 8 


180 AGRICULTURE IN ALASKA 


to 10 per cent of organic matter, but seldom more. If these soils are so 
situated as to be well drained, they should be capable of producing enor- 
mous crops, and with an abundant and well-distributed rainfall they 
would be adapted to almost any kind of crop suited to the general climatic 
conditions of that portion of the country. 


In several places complaints were heard of a decided acidity 
of the soil, but no definite information could be secured relating 
to it. In one place the addition of a large amount of lime to a 
small plat had corrected the evil complained of. 

Peat formations are of considerable extent in southeastern 
Alaska. In the southwestern portion of the country volcanic 
material adds to the fertility and porosity of the soil in many 
places. In the Cook Inlet region the drainage is usually good, 
the soil overlying deep deposits of gravel. Another character- 
istic soil formation is that which is so conspicuously illustrated 
by the tide flats of the Copper and Stikine rivers. These places 
are more or less marshy and are subject to overflow at high tides. 
Where protected from the encroachment of the sea and suffi- 
ciently drained they are generally considered as very productive 
soils. 

In the southeastern portion of Alaska the Sitkan spruce (Picea 
sitchensis) and the hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) abound, now one 
and then the other predominating. They grow from tidewater 
to timber line, an elevation varying from 2,000 to 4,000 feet, and 
in some places the trees attain considerable size. Specimens of 
the Sitkan spruce were seen that were at least 8 feet in diameter 
and probably more than 200 feet high. Logs of this species were 
seen at the Wrangell saw-mill that approximated 100 feet in 
length, with an average diameter of more than 4 feet. At differ- 
ent places in the southeastern region the so-called red and yellow 
cedar (Thuja gigantea and Chamecyparis nootkatensis) abound, 
usually at some little elevation from the sea, although trees of 
considerable size were seen almost at sea level. Seldom do these 
trees occur in such abundance as to wholly exclude other species. 
Another spruce (Tsuga patton) was observed, but not in great 
abundance. But a single species of pine (Pinus contorta) was 
seen, and that was almost invariably found on the flats or on the 
edgeof bogs. Two species of alder (Alnus oregona and A. viridis) 
were common along the streams and on the mountain sides 
where snowslides have swept away the dense growth of moss 
and conifers. Willows are common, but seldom were they seen 
to attain the dignity of trees. 


AGRICULTURE IN ALASKA 181 


In the north and northeastern portion of what has been desig- 
nated the southwestern part of the coast region some spruce 
(Picea sitchensis) and cottonwood (Populus balsamea) occur, the 
trees frequently attaining a considerable size. Considerable 
birch (Betula papyrifera) and perhaps another species occur in 
the upper part of the Cook Inlet region, but elsewhere the forests 
of the southwestern coast are very insignificant. 

Local demands for lumber and fuel are the principal uses to 
which the timber is put, and with almost entire exemption from 
forest fires, the supply, if properly regulated, will be sufficient 
for all needs of Alaskans for a long time to come. 

Next to the timber, perhaps the grasses of Alaska are among 
the most valuable of the plant products. In all parts of the 
country they flourish to an extraordinary degree. In south- 
eastern Alaska, wherever the timber is cut away and the under- 
growth of the shrubs kept down, a dense growth of grass soon 
takes place, to the exclusion of all other plants. Of the common 
grasses timothy (Phleum pratense), Alaska red top (Deschampsia 
cespitosa and D. bottnica), blue grass (Poa pratensis), orchard 
grass (Dactylis glomer ata), wild barley (Hordeum boreale), Calama- 
grostis aleutica, and wild rye (Elymus mollis and other species) 
are the most widely distributed, and are probably the most 
valuable for pasture and hay. Timothy, orchard grass, and 
blue grass have become thoroughly established and grow to 
great size. One of the most common native grasses is the Alas- 
kan red top. It is a prominent factor in nearly all grass mix- 
tures, and frequently exceeds a man in height. Specimens at 
Sitka, July 5, were a little more than 4 feet in height and just 
heading. Onenand grass more than 3 feet high was seen as early 
as June 20. In the western part of Alaska, valley and hillside 
as far as 1,000 feet or more elevation were green with grass 
during the time spent in that region. 

The most common hay grasses at Kadiak are Poa pratensis, 
Deschampsia cespitosa, and Hordeum boreale, with some wild tim- 
othy (Phleum alpinum). Calamagrostis langsdorfii was the most 
abundant hay grass observed in Cook inlet. At Unalaska the 
common pasture and hay grasses appear to be Trisetwm subspi- 
catum and Calamagrostis aleutica. 

White clover was seen in many of the small meadows and 
door-yards, from which places it seems to be rapidly spreading. 
Some red clover was also seen, but its adaptability to Alaskan 
conditions can neither be affirmed nor denied, since apparently 


182 AGRICULTURE IN ALASKA 


no thorough attempt has been made to introduce it. In a few 
places alfalfa was also seen that was beginning to seed in 
August. 

On the tide flats dense growths of sedges are common, and in 
some places a very common vetch (Vicia gigantea) occurs, and 
if utilized it would add considerable to the feeding value of the 
marsh hay. 

The nutritious character of the Alaskan grasses was not only 
shown by their analyses, but also by the sleek and fat cattle 
seen during the summer. Aside from pasturage, but little use 
is made of the grasses. The amount of hay that is made is 
wholly inadequate, and much more could undoubtedly be had 
if more care be given the subject. 

The abundance of berries in Alaska has been a subject of re- 
mark by every one who has written concerning this country. 
So far as could be learned, but little attention has been given to 
their cultivation, but the few attempts that have been made seem 
to promise favorably. Hardly any berries are cultivated, except 
a few strawberries, currants, and raspberries, and of these both 
wild and cultivated forms were seen growing, and the adapta- 
bility of the wild plants to domestication was very evident. The 
wild strawberry was seen under cultivation at Wrangell, and 
specimens of Rubus stellatus, known as dewberry, “ Morong ” and 
‘“ Knesheneka,” were seen growing in a garden at Sitka, and it 
seems probable that more could be done in this line. 

The flavor of most Alaskan berries was found to be excellent, 
and some of them might be worthy of introduction into the States. 

Of the berries which have widest distribution may be men- 
tioned the salmon berry (Rubus spectabilis), two kinds of cran- 
berries, the high-bush (Viburnum pauciflorwm) and the little cran- 
berry (Vaccinium vitis-idxa), the red and black currant (Ribes 
rubrum and hk. laxiflorum), crowberries (Empetrum nigrum), 
huckleberries (Vaccinium uliginosum and its variety mucrona- 
tum), raspberries (Rubus strigosus), elderberries (Sambucus race- 
mosa), bunchberries (Cornus canadensis and C. suecica), and the 
“ Molka” or baked apple berry (Rubus chamemorus). Of less 
general distribution are strawberries (Fragaria chiloensis), dew- 
berries (Rubus stellatus), thimbleberries (R. parviflorus), salalber- 
ries (Gaultheria shallon), bog cranberries (Vaccinium oxycoccus), 
wine or bear berries (Arctostaphylus alpina), etc. These berries 
are used in many ways by the native and white population, and 
in addition to the consumption of fresh berries many are stored | 


AGRICULTURE IN ALASKA 183 


up in various ways for winter use. The white population pre- 
serve, can, and make jelly of the different kinds, while among 
the natives the principal method of preserving them is in seal 
oil, a vessel filled with berries preserved in this way forming a 
gift that is usually highly prized. 

Numerous miscellaneous plants are used for food. Among 
the more common are the Labrador or Hudson Bay tea (Ledum 
grenlandicum) ; wild rice or “‘koo,”’ the underground bulbs of 
which are dried, powdered, and made into a sort of cake; wild 
peas are employed to some extent, and several species of mush- 
rooms are collected for use. Quite a number of plants are used 
as pot herbs, and the medicinal value of others is recognized. 

Cultivated areas in Alaska are, with the exception of one or 
two notable instances, confined to kitchen gardens, in which are 
grown many of the hardier vegetables of our own gardens, such 
as lettuce, radishes, carrots, parsnips, potatoes, onions, peas, snap 
beans,celery, turnips, cauliflower, cabbage, rhubarb, horse-radish, 
etc.,in most places the local supply of radishes, lettuce, turnips, 
and carrots being about equal to the demand. 

It is a subject of dispute whether or not potatoes mature in 
Alaska. Under the methods of culture adopted in Alaska it is 
very probable that adry starchy potato is not secured, as potato 
tops seen late in the fall were still quite green. In Cook inlet 
and on Kadiak island, as well as elsewhere, the natives grow a 
small round potato, the original stock of which is said to have 
come from Russia or Siberia, and so far as could be learned it 
is the same now as it was fifty or one hundred years ago. No 
trouble was reported in securing sufficiently mature tubers so 
that the seed could be kept over from one season to another. 
Among some specimens of vegetables sent to the Department of 
Agriculture by Mr Frederick Sargent, of Kadiak, were some po- 
tatoes, specimens of which weighed a pound each. No doubt 
these were larger than the average, but it certainly disposes of 
the stock idea “that potatoes will not grow larger than walnuts 
in Alaska.” 

Complaints were heard in some places that cabbage and cauli- 
flower would not head. There occasionally appears to be some 
ground for this, but 16-pound cabbages from Killisnoo and 24- 
pound cauliflowers from Wrangell would rather indicate that in 
some places these plants do well. Local conditions may cause 
failures of these crops, just as seems to be the case with several 
others. Localities were visited where it was said that onions 


184 AGRICULTURE IN ALASKA 


would not grow; others where beets could not be raised; but 
both of these vegetables were seen in flourishing conditions else- 
where. Ina few places where attempts have been made to grow 
peas and snap beans the efforts have been apparently quite suc- 
cessful. When the peas are gathered at frequent intervals, the 
vines are said to bear for an extra long period. Specimens of a 
so-called dwarf pea were seen at Wrangell that had grown to a 
height of 3 feet. Whether this was due to a mistake in the va- 
riety or to the climate and soil cannot be determined. During 
the past summer cucumbers are reported to have been grown at 
Tyoonock, but none were seen when that place was visited. 

But little appears to have been done in attempting to grow 
cereals throughout the whole country. It is reported that dur- 
ing the Russian régime spasmodic attempts were made to do 
something in the line of promoting agriculture, but it appears 
that nothing of a permanent nature was accomplshed. At 
Yakutat, on the site of the old town, an agricultural colony was 
established, and at various places in Cook inlet the same was 
attempted. It is claimed that during Russian occupation oats, 
rye, barley, and buckwheat were grown to a considerable extent, 
but if this is true there are now no traces of the fields where the 
grain was formerly cultivated. 

The few cereals seen growing were for the most part self-seeded 
from hay, feed, etc. At Wood island and Kadiak mature oats 
were seen August 22 that had evidently grown from seed scat- 
tered from feed or packing. A few specimens of barley were seen 
at one of the places that were about 15 inches high, headed but 
not ripe. Their origin was probably due to the same causes as 
that of the oats. 

At Tyoonock a limited experiment was made during the last 
summer with spring-sown wheat, rye, and barley, and on the last 
day of July the barley and rye were about 15 to 18 inches high 
and fully headed out. The wheat had made a fine growth, but 
showed no tendency to head. At Sitka, in 1896, a small plat of 
wheat was ripened in fairly good condition, and in 1897, at the 
same place, a plat of flax was sown, and on September 4 the 
plants averaged about 30 inches in height and were in full bloom, 
the earlier capsules containing almost mature seed. 

About the only real farm in the country is on an island be- 
tween Juneau and Sitka, near the village of Killisnoo. It con- 
sists of about 40 acres under cultivation, and has been under 
cultivation for about three years. The equipment of stock con- 


AGRICULTURE IN ALASKA 185 


sists of a team of horses, 6 head of cattle, and about 30 hogs, 
Part of the land was tide land, and dikes have been built to keep 
out the sea. Turnips, peas, cabbage, potatoes, Swedish turnips, 
beets, etc., are now grown extensively. The crop for this year 
consisted of about 7 tons of potatoes, 20 tons of Swedish turnips, 
several tons each of beets, carrots, parsnips, and a large quantity 
of peas. Two silos are maintained at this place, and the owner 
is able to carry his stock through the winter in very good con- 
dition. He supplies some milk and meat as well as vegetables 
to the village of Killisnoo, where there is a fish-oil and guano 
factory,and also to the steamers touching there during the season. 

For the most part the same methods of cultivation are pursued 
throughout nearly the entire country. The generally neglected 
appearance of gardens is everywhere apparent. It is not con- 
fined to the garden of the native, but too often that of the white 
man is as poorly cared for. Often a vast amount of labor is ex- 
pended in planting the crop; but once planted, it is allowed to 
care for itself. The result is a large and luxuriant crop of weeds. 

Bedding up the soil is practiced nearly everywhere. On the 
lighter and better drained soils it 1s not as necessary as on the 
heavy, poorly drained ones. Usually the beds are formed about 
3 or 4 feet wide and raised as high above the general level as ean 
be economically done. Most crops are planted in rows across 
the beds, the distance separating the individual plants varying 
according to the crop. Close planting seems to be the rule with 
nearly every crop. The attempt seems to be to secure the largest 
possible harvest from a limited area by planting a large amount 
of seed. Potatoes are not infrequently planted 6 inches apart 
in rows separated not more than a foot. The result of such plant- 
ing is a thick growth of vines that covers the ground to such an 
extent that the sun’s rays never reach the ground. Such methods 
can hardly fail to produce a yield of very inferior tubers. 

At present stock-raising is carried on toa very limited extent, 
mileh cows being the most common farm animal seen. At 
nearly every village there were seen some cows, pigs, and poul- 
try, while horses are kept at a few of the larger places. The 
team at the Killisnoo farm is probably the only team in Alaska 
employed in agriculture, the other horses being used for team- 
ing around the towns and packing around mining camps. At 
several places dairies are maintained, supplies of milk and a 
small quantity of butter being furnished most of the year. At 
Kadiak some years ago an attempt was made to introduce 

13 


186 AGRICULTURE IN ALASKA 


sheep. Quite a number were placed on a small island, and, as 
they had come from a much warmer and a drier region, many 
died during the winter in consequence of being poorly fed and 
not provided with shelter. 

Pigs are reported to thrive exceedingly well in most parts of 
Alaska, but when allowed to run at large their flesh is liable to 
acquire a fishy flavor. The same objection is raised against 
the flesh of fowls, since their diet in winter consists almost 
entirely of fish refuse. 


The prevailing conception of Alaska as a region wholly given 
up to glaciers and mountains is strikingly at variance with the 
facts. In 1894 the director of the Geological Survey estimated 
the tillable land in southeastern and southwestern Alaska as 
embracing between 4,000 and 5,000 square miles, or from 
2,500,000 to 3,200,000 acres, an area about equal to that of the 
State of Connecticut. If the grazing lands be added to the 
above estimate, the acreage would be greatly extended. 

The agriculturist of Alaska will have some serious problems 
to consider. The more important are the clearing and draining 
of the land, lack of markets, and transportation facilities. 

In southeastern Alaska, with the exception of the tide flats, 
land must first be cleared of the dense forest growth, and in 
some places the deep moss will also have to be removed. The 
spruce stumps must be dug out, as they are very slow in rotting, 
and not infrequently produce large second-growth timber. In 
addition to clearing, the land must be thoroughly drained and 
protected against seepage from above. This ditching and re- 
moval of stumps is very laborious, and estimates of $200 per 
acre were given as a probable cost of preparing the soil for cul- 
tivation. This cost seems well nigh prohibitive for agricultural 
purposes. However, the same process had to be followed else- 
where. A report issued by the experiment station at Pullman, 
Washington, states the cost of clearing muck lands of cedar and 
alder stumps at the Puyallup substation to be $122.80 per acre. 
No definite information has been obtainable as to the cost of 
clearing farm land elsewhere, but wherever practiced the process 
is expensive. In the southwestern portion of the country the 
expense of clearing away the stumps will not be required, nor 
is draining necessary to the same extent as in the other region. 

The agricultural possibilities of Alaska can be estimated only 
from the rather meager evidence of limited experiment, and by 


jai 


THE METLA K ATLA MISSION IN DANGER 187 


comparing what has been accomplished in regions having some- 
what similar conditions. Agriculture as it exists in Alaska has 
been described in the previous pages. It is not expected that 
this country will ever rival the Mississippi valley in its product- 
iveness, but it does seem probable that agriculture and horti- 
culture could be extended so as to supply local demands for 
many products. When the climatic conditions, topography, 
soils, etc., of Norway, Iceland, the Orkney islands, as well as 
Scotland, Sweden, and Finland, are compared with those of 
Alaska, it seems probable that what has been accomplished in 
Kuropean stations could also be done in this country, if properly 
undertaken. It is well established that many agricultural pro- 
ducts flourish in parts of northern Europe having approximately 
the same temperature during the growing season as we find to 
exist in portions of Alaska, and if temperature is the controlling 
factor in plant distribution there would seem no reason why the 
same varieties of plants would not succeed in both countries if 
properly introduced and cultivated. Rye, oats, and barley are 
grown in sufficient abundance in the north of Europe, not only 
to supply local demands, but also to some extent for export. 

Comparing Alaskan data, secured from agricultural experi- 
ments that have not always been conducted in the best manner, 
with the results secured from other regions having a somewhat 
comparable climate, it seems safe to say that the coast region of 
Alaska possesses agricultural possibilities of no little importance, 
and with an enlightened native population and a permanent 
white one it seems possible that the demand for many of the 
agricultural products could be supplied. 


THE METLAKATLA MISSION IN DANGER 


The history of missions from the earliest epoch has been a 
struggle, not only against the natural obstacles of the situation, 
but against the indifference or criticism of opponents in the 
rear. It is not’difficult to criticise, “ For John came neither 
eating nor drinking, and they say, He hath adevil. The Son of 
Man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man 
eluttonous, and a winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners.” 

There are two modes of mission work among the Indians: 
one which draws its sinews of war from friends in the churches 
and sends out salaried missionaries, who devote themselves to 


188 THE METLAKATLA MISSION IN DANGER 


teaching and the work of conversion. The teachers often lack 
in practicality what they make up in devotion to the ideal. 
Nevertheless it would be folly to deny that these missions have 
done much good in their way, and will continue to do so. Of 
them the scoffer says: ‘“‘ The missionaries live at their ease and 
do nothing for it but teach dogmas which the Indian cannot 
understand, and train girls to be good housewives, who, when 
their education is completed, will be sold by their heathen rel- 
atives to some miner or trader. When the mission is closed for 
want of funds or otherwise, the converts relapse into evil ways, 
and in a little while their last state is worse than their first.” 
That there have been instances justifying to some degree this 
harsh view, every one familiar with Indian missions will admit. 

The other method is to fit the Indians to provide for them- 
selves and for the mission by industrial training, self-denial, and 
hard work, shielding them in the early stages as we shield our 
own children from contact with evil men and things until, stim- 
ulated both by their own material interests and by the truths 
of the gospel. in the course of time and growth they shall be able 
to stand alone, men among men, to fight the battles of life. This 
is the method of Hampton and Carlisle, whose most conspic- 
uous exponent on the uncivilized frontier is the Rey. Wilham 
Dunean, of Metlakatla. Annette island, Alaska. This gentleman 
has given forty years of his life to the work among the Tsimsian 
Indians, first at Metlakatla, on the British Columbia side of the 
line. Through a most injudicious exercise of religious narrow- 
mindedness, well known, but of which there is insufficient space 
to speak here, the Indians were obliged to abandon their homes, 
church, and school and much other property and move over into 
American territory at Annette island to obtain freedom of re- 
ligious worship. Here, several years later, Congress granted 
them the use of the island, and, in confidence that they were at 
last safe from interference, under Duncan’s direction they went 
heartily to work. His plan was, in brief, to keep the colony 
together and free from undesirable elements, liquor and vice ; to 
teach them to utilize the resources of the region to support 
themselves and their families by work; to buiid good houses 
and maintain family life as known to civilization, and to teach 
the English branches and manual training to the young people. 

In pursuance of this ideal, Mr Duncan put his own means and 
contributions of friends into the outfit of a salmon cannery which 
has been worked by the Indians, as well as a saw-mill and other 


AGRICULTURE IN THE YUKON VALLEY 189 


correlated facilities. The success has been complete. The colony 
has maintained itself, some of the Indians have become share- 
holders, and the canning business has yielded a good profit. The 
evidence of this is overwhelming and includes the testimony of 
almost every disinterested person who has visited the colony. 
Even the scoffers admit that as a business enterprise the mission 
isa great success. Its very success has become a source of danger. 
Business competition is nowhere sharper than in Alaska, because 
the ordinary safeguards of public opinion and well enforced law 
are not available in restraint of greed and sharp practice. Most 
of the canneries are included in a trust, and outsiders have scant 
consideration and must fight for their interests unceasingly and 
at great disadvantage. Nothing which might hurt the sensitive 
feelings of the trust can be found in the published reports of the 
official salmon inspectors ; yet it is the common opinion that the 
law is violated systematically, except during the visits of the 
inspectors for a few hours during the whole season. 

Like all the AlJaskan islands, Annette island contains a few 
quartz veins. There is good reason to think that none of them 
is of any great value, and no development work, such as is re- 
quired by law, has been done on any of them. Under the reser- 
vation of Congress the prospectors could not acquire any rights, 
at any rate. But an attempt is now being made to induce Con- 
eress to bolster up a speculation in these undeveloped leads by 
rescinding the reservation act, so as to cut off from the colony 
its waterworks, its mill and cannery, and to a large extent its 
fishery rights, and thus leave the people without resources and 
open to the vices of the mining camp and rumseller, to the in- 
evitable destruction of all that has been hitherto accomplished. 

The bare statement of the facts carries its own commentary. 
The friends of justice, and of the Indian’s right to work out his 
salvation, and eventually to take his place among the citizens 
of our common country, should make themselves heard before 
it is too late. Wm. H. Dart. 


AGRICUETURE IN THE YUKON: VAELEY 


In a brief preliminary report on the agricultural and horti- 
cultural conditions in the Yukon valley, Dr Sheldon Jackson 
mentions having found at the Roman Catholic mission at Kos- 
erefski, 338 miles from the mouth of the river, and at the Protest- 


190 ESKIMO GEOGRAPHIC NAMES 


ant Episcopal mission at Anvik, 17 miles higher up the stream, 
gardens producing potatoes (7 or 8 inches long and 3 inches in 
diameter’, turnips weighing 10 pounds, cauliflower, radishes, 
cabbage, lettuce, carrots, beets, and peas, while strawberries, 
blackberries, raspberries, and other well-known small fruits 
were growing wild in the immediate vicinity. At Circle City, 
1,322 miles up the river, and at Fort Cudahy, 1,522 miles up, 
many favorite varieties of garden truck seemed to be thriving. 
Dr Jackson sums up his statement in the following words: 
“While Alaska will never be an agricultural state in the same 
sense in which that term is understood in the Mississippi valley, 
yet it has agricultural capacities much in advance of the public 
sentiment of the country.” 


ON ESKIMO GEOGRAPHIC NAMES ENDING IN MIUT 


Mr Charles Hallock, in his article on the Kuskokwim river, 
in THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE for March, 1898, enu- 
merates a number of names of Eskimo settlements on the river, 
all ending in mute, and explains (on p. 88) that “ mute means 
village.” This is not really a translation of the affix, although 
words with this termination appear to be very generally used as 
village names in that part of Alaska—at least, by white men. 
Strictly speaking, such names are not applicable to the village 
itself, but to the inhabitants of the village, for the termination, 
which properly should be written miut, is simply the plural of 
the well-known Iéskimo enclitic affix mio, “‘ he who dwells,” or 
“that which belongs” Gn any place), which is found wherever 
any dialect of the Eskimo language is spoken. In Greenland 
these names are applied only to the inhabitants of single village 
sites, as, for example. NGngmiut, “the people of Godthaab ;”’ 
but in the central region and in northwestern Alaska they are 
applied sometimes to more extended regions, and thus serve as 
a kind of tribal name. For instance, the Point Barrow Eskimos 
call the people of the Mackenzie delta collectively Kupangmiun, 
‘the people who live on the great river.” 

This termination should always be written miut (or miwn in 
the northwestern clialects), but appears in the writings of differ- 
ent explorers in several incorrect forms, such as mute, mut, meut, 


or neun. 
JOHN MurpbocuH, 
Boston Public Library. 


GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


Geographical and Statistical Notes on Mexico. By Matias Romero. Pp. 
xiv + 286. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. 


The modest title conveys an inadequate idea of the scope of this book, 
which is a compendium of useful and interesting data as to the resources 
and commercial progress of our sister Republic. The high official position 
of Sefior Romero has procured for him data inaccessible to most writers, 
while his long diplomatic service in the United States has enabled him 
to select wisely the statistical matter herein presented. He treats clearly, 
from original sources, mining, railways, revenues and expenditures, for- 
eign trade in general, and especially the commercial relations between 
Mexico and the United States, the data in many cases extending to 1897. 
The volume closes with an interesting article on ‘‘The Drainage of the 
Valley of Mexico,” a problem that for 500 vears baflled the local engi- 
neers, but which, now finally resolved, will be practically completed in 
June, 1898. 

The subject of railways occupies the most space, as is proper, they con- 
stituting the most potent factor in the late astonishing development of 
Mexico. Sefior Romero’s account of the mining industries will command 
attention, not only from the interesting manner in which it is presented, 
but also from the pr dominating part played by silver in late years. Mex- 
ico has coined silver to the value of $3,530,000,000, and has used one-fourth 
as much more in the arts, etc. 

The coinage during the colonial period (1537-1821) averaged annually 
$7,500,000, during the independence (1822-73) $15,600,000, and under 
the republic $24,700,000. It is estimated that the annual output of silver 
in Mexico will ultimately reach $100,000,000. 

The commercial relations between Mexico and the United States are 
treated fully, and the statistical tables illustrate forcibly the steadily in- 
creasing trend of Mexican trade toward this country. In 1872-73, the 
first regular report of the Mexican statistical bureau, the imports from the 
United States were valued at $6,430,000, in 1896-’97 they amounted to 
$23,535,000, consisting principally of shanin eve anne of metal, wood, and 
cotton, and raw cotton, although corn figured largely, owing to the failure 
of the crop in Mexico. In the same years Mexico exported to the United 
States $16,430,000 (1872-73), and $30,714,000 (189697). The increase in 
exports is almost entirely in merchandise, the principal articles being 
copper, coffee, and fibers. 

The excellencies of Mexican climates scarcely appear in the meager 
meteorological data presented, and the value of the table on page 89 is 
impaired by the misprint of 1869 for the correct year, 1896. It is much 
to be regretted that’so valuable a publication has no general map. 

ENS Vile Gra 
191 


192 GHOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


Map of Alaska, showing known Gold-bearing Rocks, with Descriptive Text con- 
taining Sketches of the Geography, Geology, Gold Deposits and Routes to the 
Gold Fields. U.S. Geological Survey. Pp. 44. Washington. 1898. 

A Report to Congress on Agriculture in Alaska, including Reports by Walter 
H. Evans, Benton Killin, and Sheldon Jackson. U.S. Department 
of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations. Bulletin No. 48. 
Pp. iv + 36, with map and illustrations. Washington. 1898.° 

Rand, McNally & Co.’s New 18 X 24 Map of Alaska, showing also British 
Columbia, with portions of Northwest Territories, ete. Chicago and 
New York: Rand, McNally & Company. 1897. 

Rand, McNally & Co.’s Official Map of Alaska, including The Klondike Dis- 
trict and Adjacent Gold Fields, showing various routes to the mines. 
24 < 36, cloth. Chicago and New York: Rand, McNally & Co. 1897. 


Golden Alaska. An Up-to-Date Guide. Klondike District. Yukon Valley. 
By Ernest Ingersoll. Pp. v + 160, with maps and illustrations. Chi- 
cago and New York: Rand, McNally & Company. 1897. 

The Golden North. By C. R. Tuttle. Pp. x + 307, with maps. Chicago 
and New York: Rand, McNally & Company. 1897. 


Nothing could be more timely or, for their purpose, more valuable than 
the reports on Alaska recently published by the U. S. Geological Survey 
and the U. S. Department of Agriculture, the one on the mineral re- 
sources of the Territory and the other on its agricultural capabilities. 
While there is still much awaiting demonstration in both these fields of 
investigation, enough is definitely known to prove of the utmost utility 
to those who are seeking their fortune in the new Eldorado. The prin- 
cipal authors of both reports have rendered the readers of THz NaTronat 
GrocraPuic MaGaztne the service of summarizing the results of their in- 
vestigations for this number, but the reports themselves should be care- 
fully studied by all prospective visitors to the region described. 

The reputation of the well-known firm of Rand, McNally & Co. is fully 
maintained in their recent publications on Alaska and the Klondike. 
Their ‘18 by 24 map” shows in considerable detail the whole of Alaska 
and the western portion of the Dominion of Canada, and notwithstand- 
ing the small scale on which it is drawn, it is clear and distinct in every 
particular. The ‘“‘ official map,’’ while twice the size of the foregoing, 
embraces a much smaller area, with the result that the different geo- 
graphical features of the attractive region it represents stand out with a 
distinctness that leaves nothing to be desired. Mr Ernest Ingersoll’s 
‘“ Golden Alaska’’ contains much useful information for intending set- 
tlers, but is hardly up to the author’s usual standard in its literary style. 
Mr Tuttle’s ‘‘The Golden North” is a somewhat more ambitious and 
more serious work and not so obviously designed to meet a merely tem- 
porary want. While the two publications necessarily cover to some ex- 
tent the same ground, each has its place, and the two books are really 


complementary to each other. 
J. H. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


CHESAPEAKE & OHIO RY. 


HE F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 
solid between Cincinnati and New York, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
system. It has every modern convenience and appliance, and the dining-car service has no superior if 
it has an equal. ‘The road-bed is literally hewed out of the eternal rocks; it is ballasted with stone 
from one end to the other; the greater portion is laid with one-hundred-pound steel rails, and although 
curves are numerous in the mountain section, the ride is as smooth as over a Western prairie. 

One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
mountains are just low enough to be clad with verdure to the very top, and in the early spring every 
variety of green known to the mixer of colors can be seen, while the tones in autumn take on all the 
range from brown to scarlet. i 

These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the Kast and the West. 


H. W. FULLER, Gen/. Pass. Agent, Washington, D. C. 


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General Passenger Agent, St. Paul, Minn. 


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PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES - - - j 

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volume. ‘Ihe hearty co-operation extended by the workers in this promising field of investigation, as 
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ROBERT A. GRANNISS, Vice-President. 


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ISAAC F. LLOYD, Second Vice-President. _ EMORY McCLINTOCK, As 
WILLIAM J. EASTON, Secretary. 


JUDD & DETWEILER, PRINTERS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 


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es | nee Ba oe To ee ‘ 
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‘ xt <r \ | WS) y , a y 

DE OF THE UNITED STATES WITH CUBA. ® / THE EDITOR, 

Meee pO Nie ae K SR aL ECP } / pe 

AIN CHARLES D,. SIGSBEE| U.S. N.J>~_/, HENRY GANNETT. 

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National Geographic Society a 


ORGANIZED, JANUARY, 1888 


PRESIDENT 
ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL 


Vics-PRESIDENTS 


MARCUS BAKER ; A. W. GREELY 

WILLIAM H. DALL : C. HART MERRIAM 

G. K. GILBERT HERBERT G. OGDEN 
TREASURER 


HENRY GANNETT 


RECORDING SECRETARY CORRESPONDING SECRETARY i 
F. H. NEWELL ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE 
MANAGERS 
CHARLES J. BELL EVERETT HAYDEN 
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F. V. COVILLE ~ W J McGEE 
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SECRETARY’S OFFICE 
Room 55, Ohio Bank Building, Twelfth and G Sts. N.W., Washington 


The National Geographic Society, the object, of which is the increase and diffusion 
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Donations for the founding of Prize Medals and Scholarships are 
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NAT. GEOG. MAG. VOL. IX, 1898, PL. 5 


CAPTAIN U. S. NAVY 


National Geographic Magazine 


Vou. 1X MAY, 1898 No. 5 


CUBA 


By Roperr 7. Hint, 


United States Geological Survey 
SITUATION AND GEOGRAPHIC RELATIONS 


Cuba is the westernmost and largest of the four islands known 
as the Great Antilles. These, with the Virgin islands at their 
eastern end, stretch east and west for over 1,350 miles, and con- 
stitute a distinct geographic province—distinct in relief, geologic 
formation, and history from the other West India islands and 
the adjacent mainlands. 

In their climate and vegetation, as in their topographic fea- 
tures or geologic history, the Antilles have no affinities with 
conditions with which we are familiar in the United States. 
Their whole aspect is tropical, yet they possess so many unique 
individual features, differing from those of other tropical lands, 
that they belong in a class entirely by themselves. The causes 
of this individuality are involved in a peculiar geologic history, 
which can be dwelt upon here only to the extent of stating that 
it has produced certain peculiarities of configuration and given 
origin to formations which weather into soils of unusual pro- 
ductiveness. 

Collectively the Great Antilles consist of a disconnected chain 
of mountains (the Antillean system) protruding above the sea 
and having an east-west trend directly transverse to that of the 
axial continental Cordilleras. The highest peaks of this system 
in Haiti, Cuba, and Jamaica are 11,000, 9,000, and 7,000 feet 
respectively. These mountains of deformation are irregularly 

14 


194 CUBA 


flanked below 2,000 feet by horizontal benches or terraces, which 
are the result of regional elevations and base-leveling after the 
last period of mountain-making in Miocene time. The Antil- 
lean uplift may be compared to an inverted, elongated canoe, 
the highest and central part of which is in the region adjacent 
to the Windward passage. Thus it is that the higher peaks 
occur in Haiti, eastern Cuba, and eastern Jamaica, while the 
arching crest line descends toward the western part of the two 
latter islands and, on the east, toward Porto Rico. The higher 
mountains are composed of non-calcareous clay conglomerate 
and igneous rock, the debris of unknown lands of pre-Tertiary 
time, which, with the exception of a few restricted points, were 
buried, during a profound subsidence in early Tertiary time, be- 
neath a vast accumulation of calcareous oceanic sediments now 
composing the white limestones which constitute the chief for- 
mations of the islands, and which were, together with the pre- 
ceding formations, elevated into their present position at the 
close of the Tertiary period.* The mountains above 2,000 feet are 
composed of the older non-calcareous formations and the border- 
ing plateaus of limestone, resulting in two distinct and contrast- 
ing types of soil throughout the Antilles. 


STRATEGIC AND COMMERCIAL POSITION 


In area, in natural resources, in the number and character of 
its inhabitants, in position as regards proximity to the American 
and Mexican seaboards, strategically Cuba is by far the most im- 
portant of the Great Antilles. It is very near the center of the 
great American Mediterranean, separating the Gulf of Mexico 
from the Caribbean sea, and in close proximity.to our southern 


*The general geology of the island, while not discussed in this article, is well shown 
in many of the illustrations. It may be briefly stated as consisting of an older base- 
ment of pre-Tertiary sedimentary rocks, in which Cretaceous and probably Jurassie 
fossils have been found. Above this there are, first, littoral beds composed of terrig- 
enous material, and then a great thickness of white limestones consisting of organ- 
ically derived oceanic material, as distinguished from true reef rock of late Eocene 
and Oligocene age. The island was reclaimed from the sea and assumed its present 
relief by a great mountain-making movement in late Tertiary time, succeeding the 
deposition of these limestones. In later epochs, Pliocene and Pleistocene, the island 
underwent a series of epeirogenic subsidences and elevations which affected the 
coastal borders, producing the wave-cut cliffs and a margin of elevated reef rock which 
borders the coast in many places, as can be recognized in the illustrations of the cities 
of Habana and Baracoa. So far as its history is known, the island has never been con- 
nected with the American mainland, although such has frequently been asserted to be 
the case. Thesé assertions have been based upon the erroneous identification of cer- 
tain vertebrate animal remains. There are no traces in the animal life of Cuba, past or 
present, which justify this conclusion. Some of the crystalline rocks may be ancient, 
but most of them are mid-Tertiary in age. 


QYyhit 9YZ UO APISDD OLLOT 7f2) 247 UO fi.ta}}0qQ BLOYS 


GQUVMLOO DNIMOOT “MOAUVH VNVAVH OL AONVUL 


196 CUBA 


seaboard, the coast of Mexico, the Bahamas, Haiti, Jamaica, 
Central America, the Isthmus, and the coast of South America. 

The island commands three important maritime gateways: 
the Straits of Florida, leading from the Atlantic ocean into the 
Gulf of Mexico; the Windward passage, leading from the At- 
lantie into the Caribbean sea, and the Yucatan channel, con- 
necting the Caribbean sea and the Gulf. The first and last of 
these completely command the Gulf of Mexico. It is less than 
962 miles from Key West to the north coast of Cuba. From the 
east end of the island, Haiti and Jamaica are visible,.54 and 85 
miles distant respectively. From the western cape (San Anto- 
nio) to Yucatan the distance is 150 miles. 


OUTLINE, DIMENSIONS, AND AREA 


The outline of the island, commonly compared by the Span- 
iards to that of a bird’s tongue, also resembles a great, hammer- 
headed shark, the head of which forms the straight, south coast 
of the east end of the island, while the body extends to the west- 
ward in asinuous curve. This analogy is made still more strik- 
ing by two long, fin-like strings of cays or islets, which extend 
backward along the opposite coasts, parallel to the main body of 
the island. 

The longer axis of the island extends from the 74th to the 
85th meridian, while its latitude, between 19° 40’ and 23° 337, 
embraces early four degrees. Its length, following an axial 
line drawn through its center from Cape Mayci to Cape San An- 
tonio, is 730 miles. Its width varies from 90 miles in the east 
to less than 20 miles in the longitude of Habana. Cape Mayci, 
on the east, lies directly south of New York, while Cape San . 
Antonio is situated south of Cincinnati. 

At the outset the reader should dispossess his mind of any 
preconceived idea that the island of Cuba is in any sense a phys- 
ical unit. On the contrary, it presents a diversity of topographic, 
climatic, and cultural features which, as distributed, divide the 
island into at least three distinct natural provinces, which for 
convenience may be termed the Hastern, Central, and Western. 

No accurate trigonometric surveys have been made of the 
island and its bordering islets, including 570 cays adjacent to 
the north coast and 730 to the south, or of the Isle of Pines, a 
large andimportant dependency. Nearly all existing geographic 
data have been based upon a large map compiled by Pichardo, 


CUBA 197 


engraved in Barcelona, which was a compilation of local surveys 
of various and doubtful degrees of accuracy. 

The area of the main island has been estimated at from 40,000 
to 43,000 square miles, that of the Isle of Pines at 1,214, and that 
of the cays at 1,850. Some of the larger cays, like Romano, are 
140 square miles in extent. Reclus estimates the total at 45,883 
square miles, an area about equal to that of the state of New York 
and nearly one-fourth the size of Spain. 


CONFIGURATION 


The distinct types of relief include regions of high mountains, 
low hills, dissected plateaus, level plains, intermontane valleys, 
and coastal swamps. In general, however, with the exception 
ofa strip of the south-central coast, the island as a whole stands 


) 
es, OS 


ConFIGURATION.—1. Bench of elevated coral reef. 2. Later terraces bordering the island. 


3. Cuchilla terraces. 4. Older and higher levels. 5. Mountains of deformation. 


well above the sea, is thoroughly drained, and presents a rugged 
aspect when viewed from thesea. About one-fourth of the total 
area 1s mountainous, three-fifths are rolling plain, valleys, and 
gentle arable slopes, and the remainder is swampy. 


THE COAST 


The coast line of Cuba is very extensive, measuring, without 
its meanderings, nearly 2,200 miles. On Pichardo’s map the 
coast line, measured with all its embayments and including 
the islets, is over 6,800 miles. On all sides except the south- 
central the coast is abrupt, except where indented by pouch- 
like harbors, and stands above the sea as if the waters of the 
latter were rapidly planing away what had once been a more 
extensive land. In many places the immediate coast line is a 
narrow bench of elevated reef rock a few yards in width and 


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CUBA 199 


standing about 20 feet above the sea, between the bluffs and the 
water. The coast border on the north presents a low cliff topog- 
raphy, with a horizontal sky line from Matanzas westward, grad- 
ually decreasing from 500 feet at Matanzas to 100 feet in the 
west. The coast of the east end is abrupt and rugged, present- 
ing both on the north and south sides a series of remarkable 
terraces, representing successive pauses or stages in the elevation 
of the island above the sea, and constituting one of the most 
striking features anywhere to be seen. West of Guantanamo to 
Cape Cruz the precipitous Sierra Maestra rises immediately back 
of these terraces. From Cape Cruz to Cape San Antonio, with the 
exception of a brief stretch between Trinidad and Cienfuegos, 
the coast is generally low and marshy. 

‘The cays adjacent to the middle third of the island, on both 
the north and south sides (the famous Jardines of Columbus), 
are mostly small coral or mangrove islets which have grown up 
from shallow, submerged platforms surrounding those parts of 
the island and in places form barriers to the mainland. They 
are mainly uninhabited, owing to the scarcity of potable waters, 
but constitute a formidable obstacle to navigation, except when 
guided by skillful pilotage. 


THE INTERIOR 


The interior of the island of Cuba has not been sufficiently 
surveyed to accurately map the nature of the soil or the relief 
of the surface. The various commissions named in times past 
by the Captains General to make reconnaissances avow in their 
reports that the lack of habitation in the greater part of the ter- 
ritory, the impenetrability of the forests, the insurmountable 
Cordilleras, and the scarcity of means and time have prevented 
them from carrying out successfully the mapping of the diverse 
ramifications of the mountains, the tracing out of their salients 
and valleys, and the determination of their extent, altitude, and 
geologic structure. It seems that their observations did not ex- 
tend east of the 70th meridian, where the most interesting part 
of the island, from a scientific point of view,is found. Further- 
more, the results of such investigations as were made were but 
impertectly published in fragments. 


MOUNTAINS 


The higher eminences are true mountains of deformation, 
composed of disturbed sedimentary rocks with igneous intru- 


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CUBA 


sions. The mountains of this 
class do not constitute a con- 
tinuous axial backbone to the 
island, as popularly supposed, 
but occur in three distinct and 
independent groups, known as 
the eastern, western, and cen- 
tral, respectively, the trends of 
which overlap each other en 
echelon. The highest of these 
is the narrow, precipitous, east- 
ern range, known as the Sierra 
Maestra, which dominates the 
straight east-and-west coast of 
Santiago de Cuba>and_culmi- 
nates in the Pico del Turquino, 
which rises directly from the 
sea to a height variously esti- 
mated at from 8,600 to 9,000 
feet. a Gran Piedra, in this 
range, hear Santiago, is 5,200 
feet high. This master range 
extends through 22 degrees of 
longitude, from Guantanamo 
to Cape Cruz, and constitutes 
an independent feature topo- 
eraphically different from the 
rest of Cuba. Geographically 
it belongs to a class with the 
Blue mountains of Jamaica 
and the higher summits of 
Haiti, collectively constituting 
the master ranges of the Great 
Antilles, which have been 
thrown up directly at right 
angles to the trends of the con- 
tinental Cordilleras and ata far 
more recent period of time. 
These mountains are composed 
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Kocene age, intruded by ancient mid-Tertiary igneous rocks, the 
debris of which makes a clay and gravel soil—one of the two 
contrasting types which constitute the greatest wealth of the 
island. 

The Sierra Maestra crest closely parallels the adjacent sea- 
coast, toward which its slopes descend precipitously. Inland, 
toward the north, the slope is gentler, the eroded ridges leading 
gradually down to the valley of the Cauto, the deep indentation 
of which nearly separates these mountains from the region to the 
north. The second group of mountains, the Sierra de los Or- 
ganos, is found in the extreme western province of Pinar del Rio, 
extending northeast and southwest between Mariel, near Habana, 
and Cape San Antonio. This range consists of lower ridges of 
geologic formation different from those of the Sierra Maestra. 
Its summits culminate in the Pan de Guajaibon, west of Habana, 
which has an altitude of 2,532 feet. Its rocks are composed of 
deformed sedimentaries of supposed Paleozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, 
and Tertiary age, the uplift of which may have been cumulative, 
but culminated during the close of the last-mentioned period. 
The Organos are covered with a growth of pine and flanked on 
either side by many beautiful slopes and valleys, those on the 
south constituting the famous Vuelta Abajo tobacco lands. 

While the Sierra Organos proper cease just west of Habana, 
the strike of their uplift, accompanied by the same character of 
igneous protrusions flanked: by Tertiary limestones, although 
void of the older rocks, is traceable by a series of low discon- 
nected hills, in a gently curved line passing throughout the cen- 
tral plain of the island and to the north of the third or central 
group of Trinidad into the western part of the province of Puerto 
Principe. Thus, in a manner, this line of uplift, varying in in- 
tensity from the sharp ridges of the west to low flattened folds 
in the middle provinces, constitutes the nearest resemblance to 
an axial backbone of the body of the sinuous outline of the island, 
while the Sierra Maestra constitutes the head. The principal 
components of these interrupted summits of low relief dotting 
the plains of Habana, Matanzas, Santa Clara, and Puerto Prin- 
cipe are as follows: Almost due south of Habana, commencing 
east of the village of Santiago, is a range of low, timbered hills, 
surrounded by plains, including the Tetas de Managua, the Arcas 
de Canasi, Lomas de Camoa, the Escallera de Jarucg (which is 
visible from a great distance), and the Pan de Matanzas. Along 
the north coast between Habana and Matanzas there are many 


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204 CUBA 


of these hills, which, as remarked by Humboldt, afford some of 
the most beautiful scenic prospects in the world. The occurrence 
of these lower timbered summits in a region which is generally 
level plain has afforded a safe retreat for bands of insurgents, 
who make them a base for frequent incursions upon the out- 
skirts of Habana and Matanzas. 

For a brief interval these hills die out in eastern Matanzas, but 
upon crossing into Santa Clara, and from thence on into Santiago 
deCuba,they reappear as longcrest lines and flat-topped plateaus. 
following a line near and parallel with the north coast, including 
the Sierras Zatibonico and Cubitas. The last-named ridge has 
been an impregnable insurgent stronghold during the present rey- 
olution and was for a time the seat of the insurgent government. 

The third group of high mountains occupies a limited area 
between Cienfuegos and Santo Espiritu, on the south side of the 
central portion of the island, and to the northward of the city of 
Trinidad, and entirely south of the axial group above described. 
These are less angular than the eminences of the Sierra Maestra 
and consist of central summits with radiating slopes, the highest 
of which is El Potrerillo, 2 900 feet. They are composed of semi- 
crystalline limestones and shales which have been doubtfully 
considered of Paleozoic origin, flanked by highly disturbed Cre- 
taceous and Tertiary beds. Interspersed between these moun- 
tains are numerous fertile valleys, giving to this part of Cuba a 
diversified landscape. 


THE LIMESTONE PLAINS 


The three dominant groups of mountains above described 
are topographic irregularities surviving from earlier epochs or 
pushed up with the great sheets of Tertiary limestone which in 
all the intermediate and coastal areas comprise the dominant 
formation of the island. This limestone crust, gently warped 
and undulated in many directions, has great variation in alti- 
tude. Its maximum elevation is in the extreme east, and 
gradually decreases to the center of the island, rising again to 
the west. In the eastern and northern parts of the province of 
Santiago de Cuba it constitutes an elevated plateau, attaining a 
height of nearly 1,800 feet and embeds the base of the Sierra 
Maestra. Here it is so dissected by drainage that it gives a 
most rugged relief to the district which it occupies, and presents 
on the seaward side a remarkable series of terraced cliffs, repre- 


CUBA 


senting successive elevations of the island in 
Pliocene, Pleistocene, and recent time. This 
topography is surmounted by extensive flat- 
topped summits like the Mesa Toar and the 
Junki (anvil) of Baracoa (alt. 1,827 feet), bor- 
dered by numerous sharp, knife-edged salients, 
known as cuchillas. Similar remnantal flat 
tops occur at rare intervals as far west as Ma- 
tanzas, the most conspicuous of which are the 
Sierra Matahambre and the Pan de Matanzas 
(alt. 1,200 feet). To the westward, in the proy- 
inces of Matanzas and Habana, the arch of the 
plateau, which follows the northern side, de- 
scends nearer and nearer sea-level, and develops 
a longer but gentle slope toward the south coast, 
hence presenting a cliff topography to the north 
sea and gradually merging, as the great central 
plain of Cuba, into the Caribbean, producing 
‘the extensive cienega or swamp known as the 
Zapata on the coast opposite Matanzas. — 

Through Puerto Principe and Santa Clara, 
except where broken by the central mountains 
of Trinidad, this limestone stretch forms two 
wide coastal belts, each about a third the width 
of the island, separated by a central axial strip. 
West of Santa Clara these two belts unite into 
the broad plains of Matanzas and Habana, where 
they. constitute the central sugar region of 
Cuba—the Vuelta Arriba—and again diverge 
west of the latter city along either side of the 
central mountains of Pinar del Rio, where it con- 
stitutes the Vuelta Abajo. These limestone dis- 
tricts weather into fertile calcareous soils, red 
and black in color, and of a quality and depth 
unequaled in the world, and their extent in the 
level region is an almost continuous field of 
sugar-cane. At two places throughout the 
length of the island there are depressions cross- 
ing it where the divide is reduced to less than 
500 feet. The first of these is between Moron 
and the south coast, in Puerto Principe, and the 
second between Habana and Batabano. 


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1. Elevated reef a. Sea-level 
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4. Radiolarian beds, probably Vicks- c. Bench 
burg Eocene d, e. Mountains 
VALLEYS 


In the more rugged eastern provinces there are many valleys 
of wide extent and great fertility. These are numerous also in 
Santa Clara and Puerto Principe. The most extensive of them, 
however, is that of the Rio Cauto in Santiago de Cuba. It is 
situated in a protected position between rugged eminences on 
the north and south and threaded by a navigable river. This 
valley is densely populated and has been one of the great strong- 
holds of the present uprising. 

By provinces the relief may be summarized as follows: San- 
tiago de Cuba is predominantly a mountainous region of high 
relief, especially along the coasts, with many interior valleys. 
Puerto Principe and Villa Clara are broken regions of low moun- 
tain relief, diversified by extensive valleys. Matanzas and Ha- 
bana are vast stretches of level cultivated plain, with only a few 
hills of relief. Pinar del Rio is centrally mountainous, with 
fertile coastward slopes. 


\ 


DRAINAGE 


The drainage of Cuba is abundant, varying in character in 
different parts of the island. Considering the limited catch- 
ment areas, these streams are remarkably copious in volume. 
In the plains of the central and western provinces the streams 
flow from the central axis toward the corresponding coast and 
have opalescent waters, like those of the limestone springs of 
Texas and Florida. These streams run through widely sloping 
valleys, with only slightly indented streamways, and are remark- 
ably free from lateral ramifications. Canyons are not developed 
until they reach the abrupt plateau edge of the north coast. 


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208 CUBA 


Many of the southward-flowing streams of this portion of the 
island do not reach the sea directly, but disperse into vast 
clenegas and swamps. Several of the stream valleys, like that of 
the Yumuri of Matanzas, are accompanied by some of the most 
restful and beautiful landscapes in the world. The Rio Armen- 
daris, which nearly encircles Habana on the southward, affords 
that city an abundant supply of water. In this and other por- 
tions of the island where the limestone formation prevails, as in 
all the white limestone areas of the tropics, a large portion of 
the drainage is subterranean, accompanied by many remarkable 
caverns. The rivers Cuyajabos, Pedernales, Guanajay, Copel- 
lanias, San Antonio, and others along the south slope of Pinar 
del Rio disappear in limestone caverns, where they continue 
their seaward course. The falls of Rosario in this province are 
of great beauty, as also is an immense natural bridge. 

In the province of Santiago and part of Puerto Principe the 
drainage is morecomplicated. The limestone plateaus of north. 
and east Santiago de Cuba give rise to many rivers, the most re- 
markable of which are the Cabanas, the Yamanigacy, and the 
Moa, which in descending the escarpments of the high levels of 
the Toar disappear beneath the surface and reappear on a lower 
terrace, over the edge of which they are precipitated in cascades 
of 300 feet to the coast. Other streams of this region, such as the 
Yumuri of the east, find outlet through sharply cut canyons in- 
denting the limestone cliffs of the back coast border. The cen- 
tral portion of this province is dominated by the Rio Cauto and 
its ramifications. This is the longest river on the island, and 


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MOUTH OF THE YUMURI OF THE EAST, NEAR BARACOA, SHOWING ELEVATED TERRACES 


3 
e Pe 
“ 
aS 


NAT.GEOG. MAG. 


VOL.1X,1898,PL.6. 


BANCOS DE LOS 
de AROINES Y JARDINILLOS 
ae, = 


YSLE DE PINOS 


ANS ae 


Cow B A 


COMPILED FROM BEST KNOWN AUTHORITIES 
BY ROBERT T. HILL 
SCALE Cit Zo ne SMILES 


1898 


HS.SELOEN,DEL. 


Vai ae 
“AWENA ESPERANZA 


MANZANI 


A A NR NN AER SA i i 


po alr ain od et eenty 


CUBA 209 


flows in a westerly direction for a distance of 150 miles, drain- 
ing the wideand fertile valley to which its nameisapphed. This 
stream is navigable for small boats for a considerable distance 
(80 to 100 miles), but its mouth has been obstructed by bars. 


FLORA 


The surface of the island is clad in a voluptuous floral mantle, 
which, from its abundance and beauty, first caused Cuba to be 
designated the Pearl of the Antilles. In addition to those intro- 
duced from abroad, over 3,350 native plants have been catalogued. 
Humboldt said, “ We might believe the entire island was origi- 
nally a forest of palms, wild limes, and orange trees.” The flora 
includes nearly all the characteristic forms of the other West 
Indies, the southern part of Florida, and the Central American 
seaboard. Nearly all the large trees of the Mexican Tierra Ca- 
lente, so remarkable for their size, foliage, and fragrance, reap- 
pear in western Cuba. Over 80 species of palm, including the 
famous royal palm (Oreodoxa regia), occur, while the pine tree, 
elsewhere characteristic of the temperate zone and the high alti- 
tudes of the tropics, is found associated with palms and mahog- 
anies in the province of Pinar del Rio and the Isle of Pines, 
both of which take their names from this tree. 

Among other woods are the lignum vite, granadilla, the cocoa 
wood, out of which reed instruments are made, mahogany, and 
Cedrela odorata, which is used for cigar boxes and linings of 
cabinet work. 

Although 3800 years of cultivation have exterminated the for- 
ests from the sugar lands of the center and west, it is estimated 
that in the hills of those districts and the mountains of the east 
nearly 15,000,000 acres of uncleared forest remain. 

Rich and nutritious grasses are found throughout the island, 
affording excellent forage for stock. The pineapples, manioc, 
sweet potato, and Indian corn are indigenous to the island. 
When the flora of Cuba is studied geographically, it will doubt- 
less be divided into several subdivisions. 


CLIMATE 


Climatologic records are not available, except for Habana, and 
these are not applicable to the whole island, where it is but nat- 
ural to suppose that the altitudes and position of the high moun- 
tains produce great variations in precipitation and humidity, 

15 


MATANZAS 


PALMS ON SUGAR ESTATE 


OF 


AVENUE 


CUBA 211 


such as are observable in adjacent islands. The Sierra Maestra 
probably presents conditions of temperature very nearly the 
same as the Blue mountains of Jamaica, where the thermometer 
at times falls almost to thé freezing point. 

Everywhere the rains are most abundant in summer, from 
May to October—the rainy season. As a rule, the rains, brought 
by the trade winds, are heavier and more frequent on the slopes 
of the eastern end. At Habana the annual rainfall is 40 inches, 
of which 28 inches fall in the wet season. ‘This rainfallis not ex- 
cessive, being no greater than that of our eastern states. The 
air at this place is usually charged with 85 per cent of moisture, 
which under the tropical sun largely induces the rich mantle of 
vegetation. ‘The average number of rainy days in the year is 
102. There is but one record of snow having fallen in Cuba, 
namely, in 1856. 

At Habana, in July and August, the warmest months, the 
mean temperature is 82° Fah., fluctuating between a maximum 
of 88° and a minimum of 76° ; in the cooler months of Decem- 
ber and January the thermometer, averages 72°, the maximum 
being 78°, the minimum 58°; the mean temperature of the year 
at Habana, on a mean of seven years, is 77°; but in the inte- 
rior, at elevations of over 300 feet above the sea, the thermom- 
eter occasionally falls to the freezing point in winter, hoar frost 
is not-uncommon, and during north winds thin ice may form. 
The prevailing wind is the easterly trade breeze, but from No- 
vember to February cool north winds (los nortes, or “ north- 
ers ’’)—the southern attenuation of our own cold waves—rarely 
lasting more than forty-eight hours, are experienced in the west- 
ern portion of the island, to which they add a third seasonal 
change. From 10 to 12 o'clock are the hottest hours of the day ; 
after noon a refreshing breeze (la virazon) sets in from the sea. 
In Santiago de Cuba the average is 80°; that of the hottest 
month is 84° and that of the coldest 73°. R 

The whole island is more or less subject to hurricanes, often 
of great ferocity. The hurricane of 1846 leveled nearly 2,000 
houses in Habana and sank or wrecked over 300 vessels. In 
1896 the banana plantations of the east were similarly destroyed. 
EKarthquakes are seldom felt in the western districts, but are 
frequent in the eastern. 

All in all, the climate of Cuba is much more salubrious than 
it has been painted. The winter months are delightful—in fact, 
ideal—while the summer months are more endurable than in 


212 CUBA 


most of our own territory. The current impressions of insalu- 
brity have arisen from an erroneous confusion of bad sanitation 
with the weather. While it is true that sickness follows the 
seasons, the former would;be greatly allayed—almost abated— 
if public hygiene received proper official consideration. 


AGRICULTURE 


The principal products of Cuba in time of peace are agricultural, 
and consist of sugar-cane, tobacco, coffee, bananas, corn, oranges, 
and pines, in the order named. The raising of sugar-cane over- 
whelmingly preponderates and heretofore has been the mainstay 
of the island. This industry originated.in 1523, when a loan of: 
4,000 piastres to each person wishing to engage in it was made 
by King Philip I. The whole of the vast central plain and much 
of the region from the Cauto westward to Pinar del Rio, except 
where broken by hills, is one continuous field of cane, which 
yielded in 1892-95 1,054,214 tons, valued at $80,000,000, besides . 
giving employment to large commercial and transportation in- 
terests. The sugar plantations vary in extent from 100 to 1,000 
acres, and employ an average of one man to two acres. 

The Cuban sugar lands are all upland soils, quite different 
from the lowlands of Louisiana, and excel in fertility those of 
all the other West Indies, the cane requiring to be planted only - 
once in seven years, instead of every year, asin Antigua. ‘The 
machinery of the estates up to the outbreak of the present revo- 
lution was the finest and most modern in the world. According 
to statistics elsewhere presented, this industry has been almost 
destroyed within the last three years. 

Tobacco, while secondary to sugar, is far more profitable in 
proportion to acreage. This product grows well in all parts of the 
island, but the chief seat of its cultivation is along the southern 
slopes of the Cordillera de las Organos, in Pinar del Rio=the 
famous Vuelta Abajo region, which produces the finest article in 
the world. Good tobaccos are also exported from Trinidad, 
Cienfuegos, and Santiago. ; 

In addition to the growth of the leaf, there are dozens of large 
cigar factories in Habana, giving employment to thousands of 
people of both sexes and all ages. In 1893 6,160,000 pounds 
of leaf tobacco and 154,210,000 cigars were exported. Large 
exports of baled tobacco are also made from the east end of the 
island, most of which is sent to the United States. 


Vand TVULINAD — NIVId TVOIdAL 


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214 CUBA 


Coffee was once extensively exported, but the trees have been 
mostly cut down and replaced with sugar-cane, in consequence 
of the greater profitableness of that product. The mountain 
sides and hill lands of the east are especially favorable for coffee, 
and a quality as excellent as that of the famous Blue mountain 
coffee of Jamaica can be readily grown. If the island should 
ever pass from Spanish hands, this will become a large and 
flourishing industry. ‘There is still a considerable quantity of 
coffee grown, but it is nearly all consumed locally. 

At the beginning of the present revolution the growing of 
bananas was a large and important industry,.chiefly in the 
vicinity of Nuevitas and Baracoa, at the eastern end of the 
island. During the season, from February to December, an 
average of a ship load a day was exported from Baracoa. This 
fruit was the largest and finest. received in the United States. 
It was grown upon mesas and plateaus, and let down over the 
precipitous cliffs by wire trolleys. 

Capt. John S. Hart, of Philadelphia, who had large invest- 
ments in this business and was one of the largest importers of 
the fruit into the United States, finding his business destroyed 
by the outbreak of the revolution, promptly turned his ships 
SO filibusters, and after landing many cargoes of arms and 
ammunition was eventually tried and convicted in a United 
States court, and is now confined in the Eastern penitentiary, 
at Philadelphia. : 

Oranges of delicious flavor grow spontaneously in all parts of 
the island. No attention is paid to their culture for exporta- 
tion, however. Pineapples are grown and exported in western 
Cuba and the Isle of Pines: If the island belonged to the 
United States, it would undoubtedly become one of the greatest 
fruit-growing countries. Mahogany and logwood are also ex- 
ported in small quantities. 

In the provinces of Santa Clara, Puerto Principe, and Santiago 
the cattle industry, owing to the fertile grazing lands, reaches 
large proportions, the product being large and fine animals of 
Spanish stock. Horses are also bred in all parts of the island. 
The Cuban horse is a stout pony descended from Andalusian 
stock, with the build of a cob and a peculiar pacing gait which 
renders it an exceptionally easy riding animal. Goats and sheep 
do not flourish in Cuba, the wool of the latter changing into a 
stiff hair like that of the former. Poultry flourishes everywhere 
and was abundant in all markets. 


CUBA 215 


In addition to the large estates of the planters, the island pos- 
sesses many small farms of less than 100 acres, devoted to pro- 
ducts for which there is a demand in the local markets. In 1895 
there were over 100,000 farms, ranches, and plantations, valued 
at $20,000,000. 


MINERALS 


The mineral resources of the island are iron ores, asphaltum, 
manganese, copper, and salt. A little gold and silver were mined 
in past centuries, but never in large quantities. The silver mines 
of Santa Clara yielded in 1827 140 ounces to the ton, but were 
soon worked out. The iron mines situated in the mountains a 
few miles east of Santiago de Cuba are of importance. The pro- 
duction of the Juragua Iron Company in 1890 was 562,068 tons, 
and constituted one-fourth of the total importation of iron ores 
into the United States for the same period. These mines were 
owned by an American company, which had invested extensive 
capital in them, but the production has been almost destroyed 
by the present revolution. The ores are mineralogically peculiar, 
being the result of replacement in limestone. They are mixed 
brown and red hematite (turgite). 

Asphaltum (chapatote) of unusual richness occurs in several 
parts of the island, in the beds of late Cretaceous and early Eocene 
age. At Villa Clara occurs an unusually large deposit of this 
material, which for forty years has supphed the material for 
making the illuminating gas of the city. American investors 
bought these mines the year preceding the revolution, and their 
investment up to date, which would otherwise have been profit- 
able, has proved a total loss. 

Copper of extraordinary richness has been worked on the lee- 
ward side of the Sierra Maestra range, 12 miles from Santiago de 
Cuba. In former years these mines yielded as high as 50 tons 
perday. Current report asserts that they are still very valuable, 
but are awaiting the return of peace and development. Salt of 
great purity is found in the cays adjacent to the north coast. 

No manufacturing industries except those of tobacco and 
sugar have been encouraged, the persistent policy of Spain hav- 
ing been to promote the importation of manufactured articles 
from the mother country. In the writer’s travels over the island 
only a single industrial establishment was seen, namely, a mill 
at Baracoa for extracting oil from cocoanuts and making soap. 


216 CUBA 


HARBORS 


The narrowness of the island and the abundance of good har- 
bors make nearly all parts of it convenient to maritime trans- 
portation. Perhaps no country in the world is so blessed with 
harbors. Not only are they very numerous, but many of them 
are excellent and afford convenient outlets for the products of 


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GEOLOGY OF MATA BAY, A TYPICAL HARBOR 


1. Elevated reef-rock forming entrance to harbor 
2. Yellow beds of Bowden formation 
3. Hard white limestones (Vicksburg) 


CUBA 217 


the island and easy access for oceanic and coastal transportation. 
These harbors are nearly all pouch-shaped inlets indenting the 
coast, with narrow outlets pointed by elevated reef rock and 
capable of accommodating large numbers of vessels. ‘They are 
so conveniently situated as regards different portions of the 
island that the trade of Cuba may be said literally to pass out at 
a hundred gates. The chief of these harbors are Habana, Ma- 
tanzas, Nuevitas, Gibara, Nipe, and Baracoa, on the north coast, 
and Guantanamo, Santiago de Cuba, Manzanillo, Trinidad, and 
Cienfuegos, on the south. ‘The last mentioned is said to be one 
of the finest harbors in the world. Habana, Cienfuegos, and 
Santiago are regularly visited by American and Spanish steam- 
ers, while coastal steamers circumnavigate the island, touching 
at the minor ports, which are also sought by many tramps and 
sailing vessels in search of cargoes. 


SHIPPING 


The shipping trade, both foreign and coastal, is extensive, the 
American tonnage alone amounting to 1,000,000 per annum. 
About 1,200 ocean vessels, steam and sail, annually clear from 
Habana, while the sugar crop finds an outlet at all the principal 
ports. Lines of steamers coast the island, the north coast being 
served by lines from Habana and the south by lines from Bata- 
bano, the southern entrepot of Habana. The tonnage of Ha- 
bana and eight other ports for 1894 amounted to 3,538,539 tons, 
carried by 31,181 vessels. 


RAILWAYS 


The railways aggregate less than 1,000 miles of line, and con- 
sist principally of the united system of Habana, extending 
through the tobacco and sugar districts of the west and center, 
and connecting the capital with Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Bata- 
bano, Cienfuegos, and Sagua, the system terminating at Santa 
Clara, 150 miles east of Habana. The entire half of the island 
east of Cienfuegos and Sagua is dependent upon water com- 
munication, although several short local lines extend interior- 
ward from Nuevitas, Remedios, and Santiago. 

There were about 2,810 miles of telegraph line in 1895, includ- 
ing nearly 1,000 miles of cable, connecting the cities of the south 
coast and the Isle of Pines with Habana, via Batabano. 


218 CUBA 


HIGHWAYS 


Good highways are both short and few. In past centuries a. 
few good roads were established of the class called Camino el Rey 
(the King’s highway), leading from Habana into Pinar del Rio 
and from a few interior cities to their entrepots. Aside from these 
roads, which were absolute necessities, the government has con- 
structed no highways leading into the country through or around 
the island, and hence inland communication is much impeded. 
Had a more far-sighted policy of road construction been under- 
taken, such as has been carried out by England in the adjacent 
island of Jamaica,* Spain would have been in no danger of 
losing her colony, the lack of good military roads having been , 
one of the factors which have made possible the success of the 
present revolution. 

- Although Cuba is so situated geographically as to command 
the commerce of the entire American Mediterranean, trade and 
communication with the adjacent regions, other than Mexico, 
have neither been cultivated nor encouraged. ‘To reach any of 
the adjacent islands, such as Haiti or Jamaica—each less than 
100 miles distant—it is usually necessary for the Cuban to pro- 
ceed first to New York and thence to his destination. <A per- 
petual quarantine appears to exist against the island on the 
part of all its neighbors. The completeness with which Cuba 
is isolated commercially is illustrated by the fact that not even 
the Habana cigar, the most far-reaching of its products, can be 
found in a single Caribbean city. 


e 


CITIES 


Habana, which bears upon its escutcheon “ Llave del Mundo,” 
the “ Key of the New World,” is the political capital and prin- 
cipal city of Cuba. It is situated mainly on the west and south 
sides of a capacious harbor and surrounded by eminences ris- 
ing to 150 feet in height. Itis a picturesque and beautiful place, 
presenting, even in the midst of the most horrible tragedy of the 
cénturies, the gay appearance of a Huropean city. In fact, in 
population, interest, customs, and dominant political feeling 
the city (being the seat of the foreign government which rules 
the island) is thoroughly Spanish, and in this sense is entirely 


* Jamaica, while only one-tenth the size of Cuba, possesses over 2,00) miles of superb 
highway, affording easy communication to every part of the island. 


AVG SVZNVIVH 


220 CUBA 


unrepresentative of the local customs and sentiments of pro- 
vincial Cuba. Its commerce is ordinarily enormous, while 
large pleasure drives, parks, clubs, and public institutions give 1t ° 
picturesque variety. Conspicuous among notable objects are the 
wharves, fortifications, hospitals, the university, the botanical 
garden, government palaces, and several churches, including the 
cathedral, which claims to possess, like Santo Domingo, the re- 
‘mains of Columbus. This city was founded early in the 16th 
century (about 1519) nearly 100 years before the first coloniza- 
tion of our seaboard. Until recently it was badly supplied with 
water, and its sewerage is still abominable. In 1895 a modern 
system of waterworks was installed by New York engineers, who 
also prepared plans for the solution of the sewerage problem. 

The foreign trade of Habana amounts to $50,000,000 yearly, 
and is chiefly carried on by American steamers. From the city 
radiate several lines of railway, which bring to it the products 
of the interior. The only cable connection with the United 
States is made here. 

West of Habana there are several small ports, such as Mariel, 
Cabanas, and Bahia Honda, which are similar in their forma- 
tion to that of Habana, but are places of secondary importance. 
South and east of the city were flourishing places, the largest of 
which is Guanabacoa, crowning a hill which commands a fine 
panoramic view of the capital. its roadsteads and environments. 

Habana has easy access to the south coast by rail, terminating 
at the miserable village of Batabano, 25 miles distant, which is 
an entrepot for the city. Here the coastal cable from Santiago 
touches and from this point radiate various lines of steamers 
along the coast and to the Isle of Pines. 

The second city and seaport of central Cuba is Matanzas, about 
75 miles east of Habana. This city was founded in 1693. It is 
the chief outlet for that part of the sugar region which stretches 
south and east toward Cardenas, and which includes the most 
fertile lands in Cuba. The harbor, like many others, through the 
laissez faire policy of the Spanish government, has been allowed 
to fill with sediment, and hence the larger steamers are obliged 
to load in the roadstead.* 

Cardenas, founded in 1828, is one of the few towns of Cuba 
which can boast of having been born in this century. It les on 

*In view of the strategic importance which Matanzas is assuming in the campaign 


which has opened since this article was written, the several illustrations given of this 
vicinity will prove of interest. 


CUBA 221 


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MATANZAS BAY AND YUMURI VALLEY 


a spacious bay sheltered by a long promontory. Itis one of the 
principal sugar-ex porting places of Cuba, and is connected by rail 
with Habana, and by regular steamers with all the coast towns. 

Kast of Cardenas for a considerable distance life and industry. 
are shifted from the northern to the southern seaboard toward 
Cienfuegos and Trinidad. 

Cienfuegos is a modern place, situated on a magnificent harbor. 
Although surveyed by Ocampo in 1508 and spoken of by Herrera 
as a haven unrivaled in the world, the town was only settled in 
1819 by refugees from Santo Domingo. Within the past twenty 
years its port has increased enormously. It is now the second 
seaport in the island. 

Trinidad, to the east of Cienfuegos, dates from the first years of 
the conquest, and has no fewer than three harbors and an excel- 
lent roadstead. It suffered largely from the incursions of the 
French and English buccaneers. The city has a picturesque set- 
ting, surrounded by high hills and mountains. 2 

Kast of Trinidad, which is near the central meridian of the 
island, important cities begin to appear in the interior, such as 
Santa Clara, Esperanza, Puerto Principe, and Holguin. These 


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22 CUBA 


places are the most truly Cuban and representative in their popu- 
lation of any towns on the island. 

Santa Clara is a beautiful city, dating from previous centuries, 
and surrounded by charming scenery. It possessed, the year 
before the revolution, a cultured creole* population. The insur- 
rection has raged most fearfully around this place, and it is prob- 
able thatits most representative people have been largely driven 
away or destroyed. 

Camaguey, as the Cubans call the town, or Puerto Principe, 
as it is officially designated, although remote from the seacoast, 
is the chief interior city of Cuba, and claims to be the most creole 
of Cuban towns. The city hes on a plain about midway be- 
tween the two coasts, and is connected by rail with Nuevitas to 
the northeast. 

In the basin of the Cauto, Bayamo is the principal place. This 
is a very old town, which was founded on a southern affluent of 
the main stream during the first years of the conquest. It was 
at Yara, a httle southwest of this place, that the great republican 
rising took place in 1868. The next year, when the Spanish 
troops made their appearance, the inhabitants themselves set fire 
to their houses. During the present revolution Bayamo has been 
an important stronghold. Holguin, lying to the northward of 
the Cauto, is also an important city of this portion of Cuba. 

Returning to the northern seacoast, several important péints 
remain to be described east of the central meridian of the island. 
Without considering the innumerable smaller landings, the 
principal towns are Nuevitas, Padre, Gibara, Banes, Nipe, and 
Baracoa. These are all antique and interesting places, pos- 
sessing many old ruins and fortifications. Baracoa, the eastern- 
most port of the north coast of the island, is of historic interest, 
inasmuch as it is the oldest continuous settlement of the New 
World, having been settled by Diego Columbus, the son of Chris- 
topher, in the year 1511.f The inhabitants still point with pride 
to the ruins of his house. It will also go down in history as the 
point near which, on the 25th of February, 1896, Antonio Maceo 
and his valiant band of nineteen followers, by a most daring and 
successful landing, started the present revolution, and from which 
within a year’s time he marched to the western extremity of the 

* The word creole, as used in this paper, means white descendants of the Latin races. 


The impression on the part of some people that the word implies a mixture of negro 
blood is an ignorant and, to the creole, an insulting mistake. 


7 In the illustration the date is erroneously given as 1508. 


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224 CUBA 


island, winning battle after battle, and was only checked by 
treachery and assassination. Baracoa at the beginning of the 
present revolution was again becoming an important commer- 
cial city, being the seat of the banana and cocoanut trades. 

Returning again to the south side of the island, there are three 
ports of importance east of Trinidad, and these are all situated 
on the south or west coast of the Sierra Maestra peninsula. The 
westernmost of these is Manzanillo. This is the chief outlet of 
the fertile valley of the Cauto. Since the close of the ten years’ 
revolution and up to the recent outbreak it was acquiring an in- 
creasing trade in tobacco, sugar, wax, honey, and other produce. 

Santiago, as it is called by the Americans, Saint Jago or sim- 
ply Cuba by the natives, is a port second only to Habana in 
strategic and political importance. It is the capital of the east- 
ern department as well as its most flourishing seaport. It is lo- 
cated on one of the many pouch-shaped harbors which outlet 
to the sea through a narrow gateway, like that of Habana, but 
with an entrance dotted by many islands with handsome villas. 
At its narrowest part this outlet is only 180 yards wide, but it 
gives access to a magnificent basin, with many indentations, large 
enough to accommodate all the shipping of the island. Its 
many-colored structures, promenades, gardens, and superb pros- 
pects over the valley make Santiago one of the most marvel- 
ous cities of the Antilles. The town is well fortified and has 
been practically the only stronghold of the Spanish authorities 
in eastern Cuba during the present revolution. Back of the city 
the overtowering cliffs of the Sierra Maestra separate it from 
the interior. Several lines of railroad run from the city to the 
iron mines, 16 miles east, where Pennsylvania capitalists were 
employing nearly 2,000 hands at the date of the recent outbreak. 
The city is the telegraphic center from whence radiate the sub- 
marine coastal cables of the island for the western department, 
Mexico, Jamaica, South America, Haiti, Porto Rico, and the 
Lesser Antilles. 


INHABITANTS 


Perhaps there is no question upon which the American people 
are so ill informed as upon that of the population of Cuba. 
Itis impossible to obtain accurate statistics, owing to the fact that 
no reliable census has been taken by the government for many 
decades. Allfigures which may be presented are merely estimates, 
and great variation is found in those given by different authorities. 


Vad00 Ad ODVIINVS OL GAONVULNA LY NOWVOMILIOL ATO 


16 


226 CUBA 


The latest census of Cuba, published December 31, 1887, gives 
the population as follows :* 


Ieie, @k 
Provinces. poacy White. (Colored.| Total. | a ne 
race. 
Habanda eee 8,610 | 344,417 | 107,511 | 451,928 | 24 | 52.49 
Pinar del Rio.... 8.486.| 167,160 | 58,731| 225,891 | 26 | 26.62 
Matanzas ....... 14,967 143,169 | 116,409 | 259,578 | 45 17.34 
Santa Clara...... 23,083 | 244,345 | 109,777) 354,122 | 8 15.34 _ 
Puerto Principe. . 32,341 54,232 | 13,557 67,789 | 20 2.10 
Santiago de Cuba. 39, 119 157,980 | 114,399) 272,379 | 42 7.76 
otal ces. 122,606 | 1,111,303 | 520,384 | 1,631,687 - 
| ; Average.| 32 13.31 
s 


The population of the principal towns has been estimated as 
follows: 


o Towns. Popa a “| Towns. eo 
(@Elabanameneeecee 198,720 | ( Puerto Principe. 46,640 
Guanabacoa.... 29,790. | Coatenil) Cienfuegos. .. 27,430 
Reolamiae sie: 11,280 ||~~ ~~ ' Santo Espiritu... 32,600 
West + Matanzas. ...... 27,000 | | Atala!’ oe so ce - 27,640 
Pinar del Rio....| 21,770 || Santiago....... 71,300 
Colomenee nn. 20,400 || East .. Holowinges ae 34,760 
(Cardenas: 53,680 | Manzanillo....| 23,200 

1] 


Few realize the important fact that environment is quite as 
potent a factor as racial or political conditions in producing the 
social status, and nowhere is this great principle more plainly 
exemplified than in the West Indies and tropical mainlands, 
where adjacent islands present most striking contrasts in the 
character and conditions of their populations. The Antiguans, 
Barbadians, Barbudans, Martiniques, Jamaicans, Haitians, and 
Cubans are socially and racially as distinct from each other as 
are the inhabitants of the great countries of Europe. Were it not 
for the facts of history, one would believe that each population 
was indigenous to its habitat, instead of having been transplanted 
from the Old World within four centuries. 

Nowhere are these distinctions more apparent than in the four 
Antilles themselves, especially as seen in the islands of Cuba, 


* Published in No. 3, vol. XI, of the Revista de Cuba. 


CUBA 227 


Haiti, and Jamaica, the people of which have hardly one trait 
in common. 

Cuba and Porto Rico are the only two tropical islands where 
the white race has become thoroughly acclimated, and Cuba 
alone contains ten times more whites of Spanish stock than all 
the British West Indies contain whites of English stock. 


FOREIGNERS 


Of the total population of Cuba about 30,000 are Chinese male 
laborers. The Spanish born, not counting the present army of 
invasion, probably do not exceed 30,000, while counting all 
others there are not over 50,000 Caucasian foreigners. This for- 
elgn population, except the Chinese, is engaged in office-hold- 
ing, trade, and shipping, and is largely confined by residence to 
the cities, which contain fully one-third of the total population. 
These foreigners, having no other interest in the welfare of the 
country than gain of wealth, and possessing no intention of per- 
manent residence, should not be considered in any manner as 
representative of the Cuban people, although, alas, their voice 
has, in recent political events, almost drowned that of the true. 
inhabitants. 

To the Cubans the foreign Spaniards are known as Intran- 
sigentes, and between the two classes, the governors and the gov- 
erned, owing to the despotism of the former, a bitter hatred has 
existed since 1812, and has been more strongly accentuated 
since the surrender of Zanjon, in 1876, when the rebellious 
Cubans laid down their arms under unfulfilled promises of au- 
tonomy and local self-government similar to schemes lately pre- 
sented. 


THE CUBANS 


Seventy-five per cent of the native population of the island is 
found outside of the Spanish capital of Habana, which, being 
the seat of an unwelcome foreign despotism, is no more repre- 
sentative of Cuban life or character than is the English city of 
Hong-Kong of the rural Chinese. While the Habanese have 
had the freest communication with the United States during the 
last three years of the revolution, Americans have had little op- 
portunity to hear from the true white Cuban population. The 
Cubans are mostly found in the provinces and provincial cities, 
especially in Pinar del Rio and the eastern provinces of Santa 
Clara, Puerto Principe, and Santiago. Although of Spanish 


AID SVZNVLVW JO WOVa ‘NONVO TTAWAX 


CUBA 229 


blood, the Cubans, through adaptation to environment, have be- 
come a different class from the people of the mother country, 
just as the American stock has differentiated from the English. 
Under the influence of their surroundings, they have developed 
into a gentle, industrious, and normally peaceable race, not to 
be judged by the combativeness which they have developed 
under a tyranny such as has never been imposed upon any other 
people. The better class of Camagueynos, as the natives are fond 
of calling themselves, are certainly the finest, the most valiant, 
and the most independent men of the island, while the women 
have the highest type of beauty. It is their boast that no Cuban 
woman has ever become a prostitute, and crime is certainly al- 
most unknown among them. 

While these people may not possess our local customs and 
habits, they have strong traits of civilized character, including 
honesty, family attachment, hospitality, politeness of address, 
and a respect for the golden rule. While numerically inferior 
to the annual migration of Poles, Jews, and Italians into the 
eastern United States, against which no official voice is raised, - 
they are too far superior to these people to justify the abuse that 
has been heaped upon them by those who have allowed their 
judgment to be prejudiced by fears that they might by some 
means be absorbed into our future population. 

Notwithstanding the disadvantages under which the Cubans 
have labored, they have contributed many members to the 
learned professions. To educate their sons and daughters in the 
institutions of the United States, England, and France has always 
been the highest ambition of the creoles of Cuba and Porto Rico. 
The influence of their educated men is felt in many countries, 
the most distinguished professor of civil engineering, two lead- 
ing civil engineers of our navy, and the most eminent authority 
on yellow fever in our country belonging to this class. Thou- 
sands of these people, driven from their beloved island, have 
settled in Paris, London, New York, Mexico, and the West In- 

_ dies, where they hold honorable positions in society, and even 
the exiles of the lower classes, with their superior agricultural 
arts, have been eagerly welcomed in countries like Jamaica, Mex- 
ico, and Florida, which hope to share with Cuba the benefits of its 
tobacco culture. 

These are the people who are the leaders of the movement for 
Cuba Libre and who struggled so valiantly to throw off the yoke 
of an inferior governing class. No cause in all history has been 


230 CUBA 


more just than theirs, no self-sacrificing heroism greater, and 
yet the world, during all the agitation of the past three years, 
has known little of them, so completely have they been cut off 
from communication, while such little as has been heard has 
had to find its outlet through the stronghold of their enemies. 


THE NEGROES 


In addition to the white creole population, 32 per cent are 
black or colored—using the latter word in its correct signifi- 
cation, of a mixture of the black and white. This black popu- 
lation of Cuba has been as little understood in this country as 
has been the creole, especially by those who have alleged that 
in case Cuba should gain her freedom the island would become 
a second Haiti. The black and colored people of the island as 
a class are more independent and manly in their bearing than 
their brethren of the United States, having possessed even be- 
fore slavery was abolished on the island the four rights of free 
marriage, of seeking a new master at their option, of purchasing 
their freedom by labor, and of acquiring property. While the 
negro shares with the creole the few local rights possessed by 
any of the inhabitants, their social privileges are greater than 
here, although a strong caste feeling exists. Miscegenation has 
also produced many mulattoes, but race mixture is no more 
common than in this country. 

The colored people of Cuba belong to several distinct classes. 
The majority of them are descendants of slaves imported during 
the present century, but a large number, like the negroes of Co- 
lombia and the maroons of Jamaica, come from a stock which 
accompanied the earliest Spanish settlers, like Estevan, the negro, 
who, with the two white companions of Cabeza de Vaca, first 
crossed the United States from the Gulf of Mexico to California 
in 1528-36. .The amalgamation of this class in the past century 
with the Spanish stock produced a superior class of free mulattoes 
of the Antonic Maceo type, unlike any people in this country 
with which they can be compared. 

The current expressions of fear concerning the future relations 
of this race in Cuba seem inexplicable. The slaves of the 
South were never subjected to a more abject servitude than have 
been the free-born whites of Cuba, for they at least were protected 
from arbitrary capital punishment, imprisonment, and deporta- 
tion without form of trial, such as that to which all Cubans are 


SVZNVIVN GNVY YWNVYAVH NOAMGLAE ADVITIA 


232 CUBA 


still subjected, and the white race of this or any other country 
has furnished few more exalted examples of patriotism than the 
mulattoes Toussaint L’Ouverture or Antonio Maceo. 

The experiences of the past have shown that there is no possi- 
bility of Cuba becoming Africanized without constant renewal 
by immigration. The 520,000 colored people, one-half of whom 
are mulattoes, represent the diminished survival of over 1,000,000 
African slaves that have been imported. The Spaniards had the 
utmost difficulty in acclimatizing and establishing this race upon 
the island. While Jamaica and other West India islands are a 
most prolific negro-breeding ground, the race could not be made 
to thrive in Cuba. 

Those persons who undertake to say what the social conditions 
of Cuba would be under independence should look elsewhere than 
to Haiti fora comparison. Even were the population of Cuba 
black, as it is not, the island of Jamaica would afford a much bet- 
ter contrast. This island, only about one-tenth the size of Cuba, 
is composed of mountainous lands like the least fertile portion of 
Cuba; has a population wherein the blacks outnumber the whites 
44 to1; yet, under the beneficent influence of the English colo- 
nial system, its civilization is one of which any land might 
be proud, possessing highways, sanitation, and other public im- 
provements even superior to those of our own country,and such 
as have never been permitted by Spain in Cuba. Even though 
Cuba should become a second Haiti, which it could not, there 
is some satisfaction in knowing, in the light of historic events, 
that Haiti free, although still groveling in the savagery which 
it inherited, is better off than it would have been had Napoleon 
succeeded in forcing its people back into slavery, as he en- 
deavored to do. 

Another fact which will stand against the Africanizing of Cuba 
is that it is highly probable that nearly one-half of these 500,000 
colored people have been destroyed during the present insurrec- 
tion. A large number of them had but recently been released 
from the bonds of slavery, and were naturally the poorer class 
of the island, upon which the hardships have mostly fallen, being 
generally the field hands in the sugar districts of Habana, Ma- 
tanzas, and Santa Clara, where the death rate of the terrible 
Weyler reconcentramiento has been greatest. Three hundred 
thousand of the 500,000 blacks belonged to these provinces, 
and of this number fully one-half have been starved to death. 
The population of Cuba has undergone great modification 


CUBA 233 


since the collection of the statistics given. What changes the 
‘deplorable conflict has wrought can only be surmised. Beyond 
doubt, however, the population has at least been reduced to a 
million inhabitants by emigration of non-combatants, destruc- _ 
tion in battle, official deportation of suspects and political pris- 
oners, and by the reconcentration. 

The rural population of the four western provinces of Pinar 
del Rio, Habana, Matanzas, and Santa Clara has been totally 
obliterated. Estimates of this extermination are all more or less 
conjectural, but the Bishop of Habana is authority for the state- 
ment that more than 400,000 people have been buried in the con- » 
secrated cemetery. | 

The shaded portions of the accompanying diagram show the 
depopulated portions of Cuba. 


RELIGION AND EDUCATION 


Cuba is divided into two dioceses, which are the archbishopric 
of Santiago de Cuba, containing 55 parishes, and the bishopric 
of Habana, containing 144 parishes. No Cuban-born priests are 
found in any church of importance. In the cathedral chapter 
at Habana there is only one Cuban, and only two natives have 
ever obtained any especial preferment—the miter never. 

The same oppression obtains in the church as in the state, 
the former being used for base ends in thousands of instances, 
and against the protest of the authorities at Rome. While nom- 
inally Catholics, and so holding that church responsible for 
what they do, many Spaniards, in and out of Cuba, are very 
poor Catholics in fact, and they do hundreds of things which 
the church authorities by no means approve. For example, 
the Cuban native who becomes a Roman Catholic priest fares 
about as badly as does the Protestant preacher. 

There is not a parish on the whole island that supports an 
endowed school. Recently there was a crusade against the civil 
marriage ceremony. The objection came because of the loss of 
fees to the priest. The crusade was led by the Spanish-born 
priest, who charges Cubans fees twice as high as he does Span- 
iards. Parishes are farmed out on account of profits—not by 
the church, but by the Spaniards. No priest gets these desir- 
able parishes unless he happens to have been bornin Spain. It 
is the Spanish blood that contaminates the church, and not the 
church that does the injury. It is partly the Spaniards’ acts in 
introducing abuses into the church that brought about the pres- 


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CUBA 239 


ent insurrection. The insurgents are Catholics and love their 
church. The religious condition of the island is as bad as the 
political. 

Education is still much neglected. The chief educational in- 
stitutions are the Habana University, two professional schools, 
with meteorological observatories attached, one agricultural 
school, and two seminaries. There are several private as well 
as public schools, aggregating in all 750 institutions, with some 
80,000 students and scholars. 

The Habana University is modeled after the Spanish univer- 
sities, and its curriculum is chiefly devoted to medicine, law, 
theology, and an obsolete system of philosophy. Its entire fac- 
ulty was disposed of by imprisonment and banishment last year, 
while the students have always been looked upon with a sus- 
picion of sedition. The public schools are decidedly few, most 
of the better Cubans patronizing the private institutions. 


COURTS 


Cuba has two high courts; but the captain-general is above 
either court, as appears from the royal decree of June 9, 1878, 
defining his duties and prerogatives. His power not only over- 
rules decisions of all the judicial authorities, including the jus- 
tices of the court of judicature, but also enables him to withhold 
the execution of any order or resolution of the home government 
“whenever he may deem it best for the public interests.” 


ADMINISTRATION 


Since its discovery Cuba has been a crown colony of Spain, 
occupying a relation to that country, so far as the absence of 
local selfgovernment is concerned, comparable to that which 
Aiaska occupies to this, but governed by military instead of civil 
authority. Some of the Spanish islands, like the Canaries and 
Balearics, are integral parts of the mother country, having equal 
rights with the people of the peninsula. Cuba, however, has 
ever been treated solely as a subordinate colony. The central 
and absolute authority of the crown has been represented by a 
governor, called the captain-general, controlling the land and sea 
forces and residing at Habana, and having the right of setting 
aside all judgments of the local courts. His authority has been 
backed, even in times of peace, by a Spanish soldiery larger than 
the army of the United States and with police powers unknown 
in this country. In addition to the army of soldiers, there is a 


. 


236 CUBA 


vast horde of subordinate officials, all Spaniards, who collect the 
customs and attend to other minor executive duties. 

The lower classes of the Habana male population—porters, 
draymen, and clerks—are organized into a dangerous and often- 
times uncontrollable military force, known as the volunteers, 
who, while never having been known to take the field, are a 
serious menace to the peace of the city, being feared equally by 
the authorities, over whose heads they wave the threat of mutiny, 
especially upon any indication of granting reforms, and by the 
resident and unarmed Cubans, over whom they hold the threat 
of massacre. Up to date the record of this organized mob has 
been a series of horrible crimes, such as shooting down a crowd 
of peaceable citizens as they emerged from the theater, firing into 
the office and dining-room of a hotel, assaulting the residences 
of Cuban gentlemen, and in 1871 forcing the authorities to exe- 
cute 43 medical students, all boys under twenty, because one of 
them had been accused of scratching the glass plate on a vault 
containing the remains of a volunteer. Fifteen thousand volun- 
teers witnessed with exultation this ignoble execution. 

While the primary functions of the government have been to 
attend to the prerogatives of the Crown and the collection of rev- 
enues, its attention has been largely devoted to the personal en- 
richment of the officials through misfeasance and the prevention 
of the secession of the island. It has practically ignored the 
other functions of government, such as the collection of statistics, 
the promotion of education,and the establishment of public works 
and proper public sanitation. Few, if any, educational institu- 
tions have been erected at public expense; no public highways 
have been constructed, nor have any improvements of a public 
character been made outside of the city of Habana. Even when 
the Cubans have undertaken such improvements, they have been 
heavily taxed for the benefit of the Spanish officials. The ad- 
ministration of Cuba is and has been since the settlement of the 
island an absolute military despotism on the part of the mother 
country. At periods, dependent upon the personality of the cap- 
tain-general, there have been epochs of peace and prosperity, but 
since the middle of the present century the island has been in a 
state of insurrection, dormant or eruptive, accompanied by a 
growing hatred between the governing and the governed classes, 
with constantly increasing restrictions upon the latter. At times 
the revolting people were reduced to subjection by promises of 
local self-government, which have invariably been broken. - 


SVZNVLVIN UVAN ‘AMTIVA INAWOA FHL 


238 CUBA 


During the present century the Spanish Crown has made vari- 
ous pretenses of giving to the inhabitants of the island greater 
political privileges, but all of these, down to the latest and pres- 
ent autonomy scheme, have been the merest subterfuges, void 
of the true essence of local self-government, with a string attach- 
ment by which absolute -and despotic power remained in the 
hands of the Spanish governor-general. Thus it was that in 
February, 1878, the ten years’ revolution was ended by General 
Campos. Under the stipulations of the treaty the island was 
allowed to be represented in the Spanish Cortes by 16 senators 
and 30 deputies; but restrictions were so thrown around their 
selection that Cubans were practically debarred from participat- 
ing in the choice of these members, notwithstanding that these 
so-called representatives were utterly powerless to press any 
Cuban measure in the Cortes of over 900 members or to put it to 
a vote. 

This military despotism has been accompanied by a system of 
exorbitant taxation, such as has never been known elsewhere in 
the world. This has included at times an average of 40 per cent 
on all imports, in addition to taxes upon real estate, the indus- 
tries, arts, professions, the slaughtering of meats, and an odious 
system of stamp taxes, which even included in its far-reaching 
application the affixing of an impost stamp upon every arrival 
at a hotel. The processes of possible direct taxation being ex- 
hausted, the government even resorted to the establishment of 
a most nefarious and contaminating lottery system, which yielded 
a profit of $4,000,000 annually. 

In 1879 the total revenue collected was about $35,000,000, or 
$25 per capita, all of which, except $98,000, was spent—mostly in 
the payment of the parasitic horde of intransigente soldiers and 
office-holders and the Spanish debt. In addition to the legal 
taxation, the commerce is burdened by a system of illegal tax- 
ation in the form of bribes, which are necessary to the securing 
of any legal action. Little or none of this money was devoted 
to education, science, public construction, harbor improvements, 
highways, sanitation, or other benevolent purposes, such as 
those to which our free government devotes its per capita tax of 
$13.65. It isalso a remarkable fact, notwithstanding the extray- 
agant taxation, that only about $100,000,000 have been remitted 
to the mother country during the past century, most of the rey- 
enue having been diverted to maintain the official classes. It is 
a common assertion that, with the exception of Martinez Campos, 


ee = 


CUBA 239 


no captain-general has ever returned to Spain after a four years’ 
intendancy except as a millionaire. 

Above all the numerous edicts, decrees, customs, and police 
regulations, the fundamental law of the island is the will of the 
captain-general, enforced by the following decree of May 28, 1825, 
which is still in force : 


“His Majesty, the King, our Lord, desiring to cbviate the inconveniences 
which might result, in extraordinary cases, from a division of command, 
and from the interference of powers and prerogatives of the respective offi- 
cers; for the important end of preserving in that precious island (Cuba) 
his legitimate sovereign authority and the public tranquillity, through 
proper means, has resolved in accordance with the opinion of his council 
of ministers to give to your excellency the fullest authority, bestowing 
upon you all the powers which by the royal ordinances are granted to the 
governors of besieged cities. Im consequence of this His Majesty gives to 
your excellency the most ample and unbounded power, not only to send 
away from the island any persons in office, whatever be their occupation, 
rank, class, or condition, whose continuance therein your excellency may 
deem injurious, or whose conduct, public or private, may alarm you, re- 
placing them with persons faithful to His Majesty, and deserving of all 
the confidence of your excellency ; but also to suspend the execution of 
any order whatsoever, or any general- provision made concerning any 
branch of the administration, as your excellency may think most suit- 
able to the royal service.”’ 


Under this law, which has been utilized with terrible effect, 
misfeasance has developed beyond description and freedom has 
been a mockery. Year after year the least liberty of thought or 
expression of opinion or suspicion of liberal ideas on the part 
of the individual or the press has resulted in imprisonment, 
death, or deportation. Furthermore, the elsewhere obsolete 
punishment of torture has added horror to the cruelty of this 
edict. In’ 1844 over 5,000 people were executed under this law. 
During the ten years’ war it is estimated that fully 20,000 people 
suffered its enforcement. The official records show that 4,672 
people were executed during the first half of that war. The 
first act of the Spaniards upon the outbreak of the present rev- 
olution was to arrest, imprison, deport, shoot, or otherwise pun- 
ish every man who was suspected of disloyalty. This class 
included all who were suspected of lability to become revo- 
lutionary sympathizers, such as the leading men of the learned 
professions—doctors, lawyers, editors, and the faculty of the 
University—who during the past three years have been im- 
prisoned in the dungeons of Ceuta, Africa, where 730 leading 
Cuban citizens are now confined, orupon the Isle of Pines. Many 


240 CUBA 


women were similarly treated. This process is still in force, not- 
withstanding the recent assertion that liberal autonomy has been 
granted to Cuba. The following extract from the New York Sun 
of April 5, 1898, as I write this article, shows that the force of 
this despotic decree has not at all been ameliorated by the pres- 
ent farcical autonomous government : 

“‘Many arrests are being made in the city among members of the best 
families for political causes. Magdalena Pefia Redonda, a well-known 
Cuban lady, was put in jail this morning upon a charge of conspiracy 
against the government. 

“Alfredo Herrera, a young man of an aristocratic family, was arrested 
this morning in a house in Industria street upon a charge of rebellion. 
It is said that he was leading a band of insurgents near Habana a few 
days ago. ; 

‘*Pablo Larrinago, Juan Romero, Candido Villaneuva, and others, all 
well known persons, also have been arrested, charged with conspiracy 
and rebellion.” 


The'right of free speech on the part of the individual citizen 
has not only been restricted, but the rigorous press law of 1881 
requires every editor or manager of a paper to send, duly signed 
by him, two copies of each issue to government headquarters and 
two other copies to the district attorney as soon as printed, that 
it may be seen whether any objectionable remarks are contained 
therein. Nearly every publication in Cuba has been suspended 
at some time or other, and its editor fined, imprisoned, or de- 
ported to the penal colonies. 

The American who undertakes to investigate the history of 
the Spanish government in Cuba inevitably finds the details too 
revolting to be described. Greed, injustice, bribery, and cruelty 
have been practiced with such frequency that volumes could be 
filled with their horrible details. Above all these, however, 
stands the fact that Spain has thrice endeavored to wipe out by 
butchery and starvation the entire native population. The first 
of these attempts, practiced in former centuries upon the abo- 
rigines, was successful. The second attempt was made during 
the ten years’ war by Valamaseda, who wrote: 

‘“‘ Not a single Cuban will remain on this island, because we shoot all 
those we find in the fields, on their farms, and in every hovel. * * * 
We do not leave a creature alive where we pass, be it man or animal. If 
we find cows, we kill them ; if horses, ditto; if hogs, ditto; men, women, 
or children, ditto. As to the houses, we burn them. So every one re- 
ceives what he deserves—the men with bullets, the animals with the 
bayonet. The island will remain a desert.”’ 


CUBA 241 


The intentions of this officer were only foiled by the arousal 
of foreign public sentiment against him, and his replacement 
by the humane General Campos, who tried to restore peace. 
The third attempt at extermination, a matter of present history, 
was made by Weyler, who expressed sentiments as ferocious as 
those of Valamaseda. wee 

How successfully Weyler’s policy has been partially carried 
out can be answered by the graves of a fourth of the population, 
which have been recently filled with starved or assassinated 
victims of his cruelty. Had not this government raised its voice 
and demanded his recall, the sole remnant of the Cuban people 
would now have consisted of the soldiers of Gomez. 


We have now given in brief the geography, resources, and po- 
litical conditions of this island. In all history no other country 
has presented such an unfortunate exhibition of misgovernment. 
Perhaps ere this article reaches the reader the great government 
which stands for the highest type of humanity and whose every 
interest—commercial, hygieni¢, and strategic—calls for a cessa- 
tion of Spanish misrule, will have made its influence felt and 
established a permanent peace upon the island. 


SUPPLEMENTAL ‘Note ON THE ISLE OF PINES 


The principal of the outlying islands considered geograph- 
ically as a part of Cuba is the Isle of Pines, which is situated 
about 38 miles south of the coast of Pinar del Rio. his is the 
only one of the adjacent islands which is not merely an elevated 
reef or mangrove swamp,.and which has a geologie structure 
and configuration comparable tothe mainland. Its area of 1,214 
square miles is almost equal to the combined area of the other 
1,500 islands and islets. ; 

The island is circular in outline and almost divided by a 
bayou or salty depression into two divisions, the southernmost 
of which is a vast clenega or swamp, accupied only by a few fish- 
ermen. The main portion of the island is diversified, being dom- 
inated by a central ridge of low mountains extending from east 
to west, rising to 2,000 feet above the sea. Elsewhere the island 
is quite flat, consisting of land which represents a coralline plain 
recently reclaimed from the sea. 

Steamers from Batabano run to Santa Fé and Nueva Gerona. 
The latter place is a very small town at the foot of the hills, with 


17 


242 THE FLORIDA COAST LINE CANAL 


plains of palm trees in its neighborhood, the town itself being 
on the ‘‘ Rio de Serra de Casa,” some distance from its mouth. 
Santa Fé, which is the prominent place of resort for travelers, is 
of itself a miserable congregation of houses on the banks of the 
river of the same name, some distance from its mouth, and also 
some distance from the steamboat landing. This landing is a 
rough wooden wharf, from which carriages and stages ply to 
Santa Fé. Immediately in the neighborhood of Santa Fé there 
are beautiful drives and walks some distance back, where the 
country 1s more rolling and even hilly. 

The climate of the Isle of Pines is delightful, the air is pure, 
dry, and balmy, and the winds coming from the sea, passing over 
pine forests, are gentle and invigorating. 

The ‘nih nenms of the island are a very simple, me hearted 
set of people and very fond of a chat with strangers. They have 
a natural dignity of manner, a courteously hospitable way, as 
also a degree of freshness and innocence. ~ 

For many years a large penal colony has been maintained on 
the island, consisting mostly of Cuban revolutionists. 


UES se 


CAPE MAYCI, EASTERN POINT OF CUBA - 


Lowest bench, elevated coral reef; Upper terraces, wave-cut cliffs 


Nore.—The date of the landing of Antonio Maceo and the starting of the present 
revolution, given on page 222 as February 25, 1896, should be February 20, 1895. 


THE FLORIDA COAST LINE CANAL 


The Florida Coast Line canal, which has been under construc- 
tion since 1889, is now completed from Mosquito inlet to Miami. 
Boats of five feet draught traverse semi-weekly the entire dis- 
tance from Titusville, on the Indian river, through Lake Worth, 
to Palm Beach. ‘Three short cuts complete the canal—two be- 
tween Matanzas and Tomoka and one uniting North river with 
Pablo creek. Eventually the canal will connect the St John 
river with Biscayne bay, rendering possible an inland passage 
along the Atlantic coast from Long Island sound to Key West. 


THE ORIGIN OF WEST INDIA BIRD-LIFE 


By Frank M. CHApMan, 


American Museum of Natural History, New York 


A study of the origin of the life of any given area involves so 
extensive a knowledge of the factors governing the distribution 
of life that the ideal theory of the derivation of the fauna of a 
region should be based on the detailed reports of a corps of 
specialists, each one of whom should state without bias the facts 
in the case as they have been determined in his particular sub- 
ject. Thus, before attempting to account for the origin of life 
in the West India islands, we should receive such reports from 
the geologist, hydrographer, climatologist, paleeontologist, zoél- 
ogist, and botanist, and no theory can be satisfactory which does 
not consider the data presented by these specialists. 

Acting on this principle, I offer the following synopsis of 

studies of West India bird-life made during the past ten years, 
the detailed results of which will be found in earlier papers :* 
_ My remarks may be prefaced by the statement that, so far 
as its distribution is concerned, our knowledge of the resident 
bird-life of the West Indies is essentially complete. Haiti and 
San Domingo may hold some ornithological secrets, but our re- 
corded information is not likely to receive any material acces- 
sions—a condition of affairs for which we have largely to thank 
MrC.B. Cory, who has sent collectors to every West India island 
and published numerous reports on the results of their work.t 

Of the 580 or more birds which have now been recorded from 
the West Indies, no fewer than some 305 are endemic. The re- 
maining 275 are species of general continental or tropical distri- 
bution, or those of the surrounding mainland, about 170 being 
migrants from eastern North America, which occur in the West 
Indies as winter residents or as transient visitants. Of the 805 
endemie species, 293 are land birds, 90 per cent of the resident 
land birds being therefore endemic—truly a surprising degree of 
specialization when we consider how near several of the islands 

*American Naturalist, 1891, pp. 528-539; Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., iv, 1892, pp. 279- 
330; vi, 1894, pp. 8, 9; ix, 1897, pp. 29, 30. 


7See his *‘ Birds of the West Indies,’ in The Auk, iii, 1886, pp. 1-59 et seq. ; and “‘ Cata- 
logue of West Indian Birds,” published by the Author, Boston, 1892. 


243 


244 THE ORIGIN OF WEST INDIA BIRD-LIFE 


are to the mainland. One family (Todide) and 38 genera are 
peculiar. The latter are represented by 96 species, leaving 209 
species belonging to genera of North, South, or Central America ; 
but for the most part they have no near mainland allies, and in 
comparatively few cases tan we point with probable exactness to 
their continental ancestors. In other words, taken as a whole, 
the endemic birds of the West Indies are widely differentiated 
from their parent stock. 

Considering now the faunal relationships of the islands inter 
se, we find at once that they can be divided into the two groups 
of physical geographers—the Greater and the Lesser Antilles. 
With the former belong the Virgin islands and St Croix; with 
the latter Sombrero, Anguilla, and the other islands east of the 
Anegada channel and southward to and including Grenada. 
While some genera (e.g., Myiadestes and Quiscalus) are repre- _ 
sented by more or less closely allied species in both the Greater — 
and Lesser Antilles, and while certain species characteristic of 
each group (é. g., Margarops, Bellona,and Mimocichla spp.) intrude 
to some extent into the other, their avifaunee are quite unlike. 
The more distinct West Indian species are found only in the 
Greater Antilles. Thus the Todide are represented in each of 
the larger islands of the Greater Antilles, but are known in the 
Lesser Antilles. In short, the relationships of the avifauna of 
these two groups are quite in accord with Mr Agassiz’s statement 
that “the Windward islands were probably raised long after the 
range of the greater West Indian islands existed * * *”* | 

Some 108 resident land birds have been found in the Lesser 
Antilles. Sixteen of these are South American, of which thir- 
teen occur in the Lesser but not in the Greater Antilles, and 
fourteen are West Indian species, which occur in both the 
Greater and the Lesser Antilles. Hight genera are peculiar, 
whereas in the Greater Antilles twenty-four genera are peculiar. 
These eight genera contain seventeen species upon whose origin 
we can only speculate. Subtracting them from the eighty-one 
endemic land birds, we have left sixty-four species, which may 
be grouped according to their apparent relationships as follows: 


WO) O62, 3 Sheva nrae Ram ees 2 5. Mig ma a 22 
SoutimAmMenieanlo. oe ee ee ee enone 19 
WRG LOChRINs sob beehooccccs Leas Lyte Aras ayn ea D5 


The South American element here shown to be present in the 
Lesser Antilles at once suggests the possibility of a former land 


* Three Cruises of the Blake, ii, p. 113, foot-note. 


THE ORIGIN OF WEST INDIA BIRD-LIFE 245 


connection between these islands and the continent, and with- 
out pausing to inquire into minor questions, let us at once pro- 
ceed to Grenada, the last.island of the group, in order to learn 
to what extent its avifauna has been influenced by its proximity 
to the mainland, and espectally to the continental island of 
Trinidad. 

Some 195 resident South American land birds are known from 
Trinidad. Of this number no fewer than sixty-five have been 
found in Tobago, which was evidently at one time connected 
with Trinidad, but only sixteen have been recorded from Gre- 
nada. In Trinidad these birds represent thirty families, in 
Tobago twenty-five, and in Grenada but eleven, and these eleven 
birds, with one or two exceptions, are members of families hav- 
ing wide distribution and extended powers of flight. So far as 
their avifauna is concerned, theréfore, there has apparently been 
no connection between the Lesser Antilles and the mainland, 
and we may regard these islands as zodlogical dependencies of 
both South America and the Greater Antilles, from which, 
through more or less fortuitous circumstances, their avifauna 
has been derived. 

Turning now to the Greater Antilles, we may at once dispose 
of the Bahamas as oceanic islands of more recent formation 
than any of the larger islands or mainland adjacent to them, 
from which they have evidently received their life. Only one 
genus is peculiar, and with the exception of its single species, 
the ancestry of the twenty-five forms peculiar to the Bahamas 
-can be traced with more or less certainty, Cuba furnishing the 
ereater number of parent forms. The Caymans, about 175 miles 
south of Cuba and 200 miles west of Jamaica, present an appar- 
ently similar case, most of the fifteen forms peculiar to them 
being closely related to Cuban or Jamaican species. 

We have left now the four larger islands of the Greater Antilles, 
from which 174 of the 303 peculiar West Indian birds have 
been recorded. They are distributed as follows : 

Jamaica, 66, of which 42 are endemic; Cuba, 68, of which 45 
are endemic; Haiti and San Domingo, 56, of which 34 are en- 
demic; Porto Rico, 46, of which 25 are endemic. 

As I remarked in the paper on the “ Origin of West Indian 
Bird-life,” previously referred to: “It will be observed that 
although Jamaica is but little larger than Porto Rico, and is 
‘more isolated from neighboring regions than any island of the 
eroup, it is nearly as rich in endemic species, and has one 


246 THE ORIGIN OF WEST INDIA BIRD-LIFE 


more peculiar genus than Cuba. The latter island is not only 
ten times as large as Jamaica, but its proximity to Florida 
has given it at least four forms which have evidently been de- 
rived from Florida species. * * * Haiti and San Domingo, 
although about seven times as large as Jamaica, have eight 
endemic species less, while Porto Rico, nearly as large as 
Jamaica and favorably situated for the reception of Lesser 
Antillean species, has seventeen endemic species less than 
Jamaica, and but one genus is peculiar to the island. 

“Tt is evident that, as Wallace has said, the islands ‘ were 
not peopled by immigration from surrounding countries while 
in the condition we now see them, for in that case the smaller 
and more remote islands would be very much poorer, while 
Cuba, which is not only the largest, but nearest to the mainland 
in two directions, would be immensely richer, just as it really is 
in migratory birds.’”? (Distrib. Animals, Am. ed., 11,1876, p. 66.) 

These facts in distribution and a study of hydrographic charts 
give us some suggestive evidence in regard to a past land con- 


nection between the West Indies and the mainland: Thus we- 


discover that an elevation of only 100 fathoms would leave but 
two channels, the wider 75 miles across, between Jamaica and 
the Honduras coast. Wallace, in theory, completely bridged 
this gap, connected Cuba with Yucatan, and filled the sea thus 
enclosed with land, to which Sclater gave the name “ Preeantil- 
lesia;” but,as Mr Agassiz has remarked: ‘“ The deep soundings 
(over 3,000 fathoms) developed by the Blake south of Cuba, be- 
tween that island and Yucatan and Jamaica, do not lend much 
support to the theory of an Antillean continent as mapped out 
by Wallace, nor is it probable that this continent had a much 
greater extension in former times than now, judging from the 
depths found on both sides of the West Indian Islands” (1. ¢., 
p. 116). 

While the disproportionately rich avifauna of Jamaica and 
the shallow sea between this island and the mainland suggests 
the possibility of a continental land connection at this point, the 
absence of representatives of certain families of birds from the 
Greater Antilles is opposed to the theory of this connection ever 
having beencomplete. Thus, with the exception of Hadrostomus 
niger in Jamaica and Colinus virginianus cubanensis in Cuba. the 
following twelve familes of Mexican and Central American birds 


are without representatives in the Greater Antilles: Troglodytide,: 


Pipridz, Cotingidee, Dendrocolaptidee, Formicariide, Galbulidee, 


TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES WITH CUBA 247 


Bucconide, Momotide, Rhamphastide, Cracide, Tetraonide, 
Tinamide. 

In his list of the birds,of Costa Rica, Zeledon records no less 
than 140 species of birds belonging to these families, and their 
non-representation-in the West Indies is a fact which cannot be 
ignored. Hspecially does their absence become significant when 
we consider that with few exceptions they are birds of terres- 
trial or sedentary habits, which we should not therefore expect 
to find on oceanic islands. 

Although in previous papers I have proceeded to theorize on 
the facts here presented, I shall on this occasion adhere to the 
‘suggestion made in my opening sentence, and with this presen- 
tation of the more important results derived from a study of 
West India bird-life, leaye the larger questions involved until 
we are in possession of the reports of other specialists. 


TRADI Ole Welle ONIN) SWE S MMs Clues: 


The trade of the United States with Cuba reached its high- 
water mark in 1892-93, when it amounted to $102,864,204, the 
ratio of imports to exports being approximately as 10 to 3. - 

This total was almost.equal to that of our entire Asiatic trade, 
was nearly four times that of our trade with China or Japan, 
and thirteen times that of our trade with Russia, while it even 
exceeded the grand total of that with Austria-Hungary, Russia, 
Sweden and Norway, Denmark, Turkey. Greece, Italy, Switzer- 
land, and Portugal combined. Nor does this contrast derive its 
strength mainly from the largeness of the imports. The exports 
themselves, products of our own country, were nearly twice as 
great in point of value as our exports to Italy, over three times 
as great as those to China and Japan combined, nearly six times 
as great as those to Sweden and Norway, and over ten times as 
great as those to Russia; they amounted to almost half as much 
again as our total exports to Asia, and even exceeded our total | 
exports to South America, exclusive of Brazil. 

So much for the aggregate. What of the different items of 
which it. is composed? These may best be considered in detail 
if presented in tabular form, and the accompanying tables will 
accordingly show the principal imports into the United States 
from Cuba and the principal exports of domestic merchandise 


NITED STATES WITH CUBA 


yr 


TRADE OF THE U 


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TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES WITH CUBA 249 


from the United States to that island for the ten years ending 
June 30, 1897. 

The principal article im/ported is sugar, the largest importation 
of which was in the fiscal’ year 1893-94, when it amounted to 
949,778 tons of 2,240 pounds, or over one million tons of 2,000 
pounds. This was equivalent to 30 pounds or more per capita 
of our population, and constituted about one-half of our total 
consumption. The next item in importance is tobacco, the im- 
ports of which reached their highest figures in 1895-96, when 
they amounted in point of value to considerably more than one- 
third of the total value of our own tobacco crop. The only other 
class of imports that calls for special mention consists of fruit 
and vegetables, which had a value in 1892-93 of nearly two and 
one-half million dollars. ” 

The principal articles of export are, as will be seen from the 
table, meats, breadstuffs, and manufactured goods, the trade in 
all of which articles was rapidly assuming very large dimensions 
at the outbreak of the insurrection. Coal, coke, and oils were 
also exported in considerable quantities ; indeed, so diversified 
were our exports that there is no considerable section of the en- 
tire country that was not to a greater or less degree benefited 
by the market for our agricultural, mineral, and manufactured 
products that existed in Cuba. 

Between 1893-’94 and 1896-97, however, our imports from 
Cuba suffered a decline of 75.7 per cent, and our exports to the 
island a decline of 61.7 per cent, the imports being reduced to 
less than one-fourth and the exports to little more than one-third 
of their previous volume. “During the first year of the insurrec- 
tion our trade fell off over thirty million dollars, during the 
second year a further sum of eighteen million dollars, and dur- 
ing the third year a still further sum of twenty-one million 
dollars, making a total decline of sixty-nine million dollars in 
the annual value of our foreign trade, and of a branch of it, 
moreover, that is carried almost entirely in American bottoms. 

Is it any wonder that, entirely aside from the humanitarian 
considerations that have prompted the United States govern- 
ment to seek to put an end to the unfortunate conditions so 
long prevailing in the island, some justification for such inter- 
vention should-have been found in the well-nigh total paralysis 
of our commercial relations with that once extensive and profit- 


able market? 
i. Jel. 


CAPTAIN - CHARLES! DieSIGSBEER UNS. N: 


Captain Charles Dwight Sigsbee, U.S. N., whose portrait forms 
the frontispiece of this number of the magazine, was born July 
16, 1845,in New York. Hegraduated from the Naval Academy 
in 1863 and served throughout the Civil War; was on board the 
Monongahela at the battle of Mobile bay, and in the Fort Fisher 
fights. In 1868 he was made a Lieutenant-Commander. In 
1874 he was placed in command of the Blake, and during the 
succeeding four years was engaged in deep-sea exploration in 
the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulfof Maine. During part of this 
time Prof. Alexander Agassiz was upon the Blake directing the 
deep-sea dredgings. . 

Almost immediately after taking command of the Blake, Sigs- 
bee instituted improvements in instruments for deep-sea sound- 
ing, and virtually designed a new machine for that purpose, 
which has since been adopted all over the world. The results 
of the deep-sea soundings made by the Blake under his com- 
mand were published as an appendix to the report of the U.S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey for 1880, under the title “ Deep Sea 
Sounding and Dredging. A Description and Discussion of the 
Methods and Applhances used on board the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey Steamer Blake.” This work has proved valuable in 
many ways, especially with reference to the intricate problems 
involved in the study of the Gulf stream. The report is a com- 
prehensive and standard treatise on deep-sea exploration. 

For several years prior to taking command of the Maine Cap- 
tain Sigsbee was Hydrographer of the Navy Department. While 
thus in charge of the Hydrographic Office he developed many 
improvements tending to simplify and strengthen the data and 
material furnished the marine from both the practical and sci- 
entific sides. During his detail in charge of the Hydrographic 
Office Captain Sigsbee was a member of the U.S. Board on Geo- 
graphic Names. 

Captain Sigsbee’s contributions to our knowledge of the sea 
bottom and its topography place him in the front rank of sci- 
entific hydrographers. As a naval officer and an American the 
events of the past two months have shown what manner of man 


he is. 
Jak Ge 


250 


RECEL MON TO: CAPTAINVG. “De SIGSBEE “U.S. N: 


Not only has the name of Captain Charles D. Sigsbee become 
a household word throughout the length and breadth of the 
United States as that of the gallant commander of the ill-fated 
battleship Maine, but Captain Sigsbee himself, by the admirable 
self-restraint and judicial temper which he displayed in the most 
trying of all conceivable circumstances, has won “* golden opin- 
ions from all sorts of people.” In addition, however, to being a 
brave officer, a true patriot, and a just man, he has distinguished 
himself, as shown in the preceding article, by his valuable con- 
tributions to hydrographic science, so much so, indeed, that his 
position in the scientific circles of the National Capital is as well 
recognized and assured as‘his standing as a naval officer. 

It was eminently fitting, therefore, that the National Geo- 
eraphic Society, of which Captain Sigsbee has long been an 
active member, should take advantage of his recent return to 
Washington to do him honor. Immediately on his arrival the 
following letter was addressed to him by President Alexander 
Graham Bell: 

Wasnineton, D. C., March 30, 1898. 
Captain Cuarues D. Stasper; U.S. N., Washington, D. C. 

My Drar Str: You have earned the gratitude of America by your noble 
conduct in a great and terrible emergency, when your prompt, energetic, 
and wise action held in check the popular excitement which threatened 
to precipitate war between friendly nations. 

The citizens of Washington are, one and all, anxious to greet the brave 
Commander of the Maine. 

Your fellow-members of the National Geographic Society especially, to 
whom you have so long been known as a scientific hydrographer, desire 
to grasp you by the hand and welcome you back to the city once more. 

On behalf of the National Geographic Society, allow me to tender you 
a reception, to be held in the parlors of the Arlington Hotel on Saturday 
evening, April second, from nine to eleven o’clock. 

lam, my dear sir, yours respectfully, 
ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL, 
President National Geographic Society. 


To this invitation Captain Sigsbee responded as follows : 


‘ Wasuineton, D. C., March 30, 1898. 
Professor ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL, 
President National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. 


My Dear Sir: In acknowledging the receipt of your letter of today, 
wherein the members of the National Geographic Society tender me a 


251 


252 RECEPTION TO CAPTAIN C. D. SIGSBEE, U. S. N. 


reception on Saturday to meet my associates of the Society as well as 
other residents of Washington, I beg to thank you sincerely for the kind 
sentiments which you express. The honor which the Society proposes 
for me I accept most gratefully, not alone for the good will towards my- 
self, but also because the occasion will reflect honor on those who served 
with me on board the Maine at Havana. ‘ 

To come out of so great a disaster with honor and to have the fact con- 
firmed in so positive a manner is a satisfaction that lies nearest the heart 
of every survivor of the Maine. 

With full appreciation ef your offer, which.please express to the 
Society, I am, 

‘Yours most sincerely and most respectfully, - 
C. D. SiasBer, 
Captain, U. S. Navy. 


Three days later—namely, on the evening of Saturday, April 
2—the parlors of the Arlington Hotel were crowded with one of 
the most brilliant and distinguished, assemblages ever brought 
together in the National Capital, the President of the United 
States, the Vice-President and Mrs Hobart, and an exception- 
ally large gathering of statesmen, diplomatists, scientists, mili- 
tary and naval officers of high rank, and other distinguished 
persons to the number of 1,660 uniting to do honor to the So- 
ciety’s guest, to whom each of them was presented by President 
Bell. 

Rarely has a purely scientific society performed a function so 
entirely en rapport with public sentiment and been so truly 
“national” in any of its doings. Everything conspired to give 
a national character to the occasion. In addition to the attend- 
ance of the Chief Magistrate of the Nation and of a gathering in 
which few states of the Union and few departments of the na- 
tional life were not specially represented, a guard of honor was 
furnished by the U.S. Marine Corps, whose band, stationed in 
the ball-room, performed a selection of patriotic music, under 
special orders from the Seéretary of the Navy, while the brilliant 
salons set apart for the occasion were decorated with the hand- 
somest national flags and emblems the resources of the govern- 


ment could furnish: 
ae sl, 


GEOGRAPHIE LITERATURE 


Rand-MeNally War Atlas, with Marginal Index. Pp. 16. Chicago and 
New York: Rand, McNally & Co. 1898. 25 cents. 

Bulletin of the Department of Labor. No. 16. May, 1898. Pp. 216. 
Washington, 1898. 

Statistical Abstract of the United States. 1897. Twentieth Number. Pre- 
pared by the Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department. Pp. xii + 412. 
Washington, 1898. 


It was surely a happy thought on the part of Rand, McNally & Co. to 
select from one of their high-priced atlases a series of maps of those por- 
tions of the world to which public attention is being directed in connection 
with the war with Spain, and to place them within the reach of every one 
by binding them up together for sale at 25 cents. The atlas is everything 
that can be desired, in its way. It is marvelously cheap, and cannot fail 
to have an enormous sale. 

The May bulletin of the Department of Labor is largely devoted to a 
report on The Alaskan Gold Fields and the Opportunities they offer for 
Capital and Labor, by Mr Sam. C. Dunham, a special agent who was sent 
out to the Klondike by the Commissioner of Labor in July last. The re- 
port isaccompanied by maps and illustrations and contains much valuable 
information. While written in a becomingly dignified style, it is oeca- 
sionally enlivened by a vein of quiet humor, which adds greatly to its 
readability. Good examples of thisare found in the statement: “If a vis- 
itor to the gulches prefers to ride, he can secure a saddle-horse in Dawson 
for $60 a day,” and in the author’s description of the proceedings of the 
improvised courts, the creation of a justice-loving community that hgs no: 
regularly constituted judicial system or officers of the law- 

As a compendium of information relative to the population, finance, 
commerce, agriculture, mining, railroads and telegraphs, immigration, 
education, public lands, pensions, postal service, prices of commodities, 
shipping, etc., of the United States, the Statistical Abstract has become 
an absolute necessity, not only to all economic writers and students, but 
to every one who would keep abreast of the growth of our institutions 
and the development of our resources asa nation. The Abstract has been 
almost completely transformed under the direction of Mr Worthington O, 
Ford, and it is not-easy to see how it could be made more useful, except 


by increasing its circulation. 
do Tale 


Ninth Annual Report.on the Statistics of Railways in the United States for the 
year ending June 30, 1896. Prepared by the Statistician to the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. Pp. 709and map. Washington, 1897. 


Thisreport follows the same general glan and presents the same technical 
excellence that have rendered all the reports prepared by Prof. Henry C. 


253, 


24 GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


Adams as Statistician to the Interstate Commerce Commission especially 
acceptable to all trained statisticians. 

The condition of the railway system of the United States on June 30, 
1896, and auring the twelve months ending with that date, was about as 
follows: The aggregate growth of the railways was 182,776.63 miles, of 
which 181,153.77 miles were represented by reports to the Commission. 
There were 10,685.16 miles of second track, 990.45 of third track, 764.15 
of fourth track, and 44,717.73 of yard track and sidings, making the total 
mileage of all tracks 239,140.18. The railway construction during the 
period covered was slightly greater than during the fiscal year 1895, but 
less than during any other year covered by the statistical reports of the 
Commission. 

Forty-four corporations operated 103,345.89 miles, or 56.89 per cent of 
the railway mileage of the country, the remainder being operated by 1,067 
companies, of which 977 operated but 34,497.90, or 18.99 per cent of the 
total. Equipment consisted of 9,943 passenger locomotives, 20,351 freight 
locomotives, 5,656 switching and other locomotives, 33,003 passenger cars, 
1,221,887 freight cars, and 42,759 cars employed in companies’ service. 
The passenger service performed was equal to carrying 1,312,381 passen- 
gers one mile for each passenger locomotive, and 4,684,210 tons of freight 
one mile per freight locomotive, both of these items showing a gratifying 
increase in efficiency over the previous year. The resources of the Com- 
mission do not permit of the collection of statistics of cars owned by private 
companies. The number of employés was 826,620, having increased since 
June 30, 1895, from 785,034, but being less than the number employed 
on June 30, 1893. The number assigned to general administration was 
31,792, to maintenance of way and structures 243,627, to maintenance of 
equipment 167,850, and to conducting transportation 373,747, the balance 
of 9,609 being unclassified. The average daily compensation of general 
officers was $9.19; of station agents, $1.73; of engineers, $3.65; of fire- 
men, $2.06; of conductors, $3.05; of section foremen, $1.70; of other 
trackmen, $1.17, and of‘switchmen, flagmen, and watchmen, $1.74. The 
total amount paid as compensation for labor was $468,824,531, amounting 
to 61 per cent of the entire expense of operation, less than 2? per cent of 
the amount being paid to general officers. The total railway capitaliza- 
tion is reported as $10,566,865,771, and the average per mile of line as 
$59,610. These figures are not comparable with those of previous years 
for the reason that, at the request of the Association of American Rail- 
way Accounting Officers, the continuous codperation of which with the 
Statistician has been a source of considerable advantage, ‘‘other forms 
of indebtedness,” which in 1895 constituted $616,830,156, or $5,556 per 
mile of line of the capital reported, is no longer included. It is especially 
notable as a result of the railway financiering incident to the rehabilita- 
tion of those companies which have become bankrupt during the recent 
depression, that the increase in capital stock during the last two years 
has for the first time since the establishment of the Commission exceeded 
the increase in funded debt. As success in securing a definite aggregate 
profit upon capital stock is not essential, this change makes for perma- 
nent financial stability. Another transformation of capital tending in 


GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 259 


the same direction is shown by the fact that an increase in income bonds 
has been accompanied by an absolute decrease in the amount of mort- 
gage bonds. SAU 

It is interesting also to observe that of the total stocks and bonds out- 
standing those having a par value of $1,501,346,914 are held by railway 
corporations. Of the total stock outstanding an amount having a par 
value of $3,667,503,194, or 70.17 per cent, paid no dividends, while 
$515,029,668, or 11.40 per cent, of bonds was similarly unremunerative to 
investors. The percentage of income bonds not receiving interest was 
87.96. The total amount paid in dividends on common and preferred 
stock was $87,603,371, as interest on funded debt $249, 624,177, and as in- 
terest on current liabilities $8,469,063. The public service performed was 
equivalent to carrying 13,049,007,233 passengers and 95,328,360,278 tons 
of freight one mile. Passenger service showed an increase over the pre- 
ceding year, but was lower than that of 1894, 1893, and 1892. The 
freight service performed exceeded by more than ten billion ton miles 
that of the preceding year and exceeded that of 1893, the highest year 
previously recorded. 

The total earnings from operation were $1,150,169,376, of which 
$266,£62,533 was from passengers, $63,951,481 from mail, express, and 
other miscellaneous sources connected with passenger service, $786,615,837 
from freight, $3,885,890 from miscellaneous sources connected with freight 
service, and $29,153,635 unclassified, or from other operations. The aver- 
age revenue per passenger per mile was 2.019 cents, and that per ton of 
freight per mile .806 cent, the latter being lower than for any previous 
year covered by the reports of the Commission. Operating expenses 
amounted to $772,989,044, or 67.21 per cent of the total income from 
operation. The average cost of running a train one mile was 93.838 cents, 
From the summary of accidents it appears that 181 passengers, 1,861 em- 
ployés, and 4,406 “‘other persons” were killed during the year covered 
by the report, while 2,875 passengers, 29,969 employés, and 5,840 ‘‘ other 
persons ’’ were more or less seriously injured. Comparing these data with 
the number of passengers and of employés, it appears that one passen- 
ger in every 2,827,474 carried was killed, and one in every 178,132 carried 
was injured, while one employé in every 444 was killed and one in every 
28 injured. Of the *‘ other persons” killed, 3,811 were trespassers, and 
of those injured, 4,468. The statistics of accidents to that class of em- 
ployés whose duties involve their presence on running trains are particu- 
larly disheartening. They show that during the twelve months covered 
by the report one in every 152 of such employés was killed, and one in 
every 10 more or less seriously injured. The increased use of safety ap- 
pliances does not seem materially to have affected this ratio, and it is to 
be doubted whether it will do so until all cars are properly equipped. Of 
the 1,333,599 cars in service, 448,854 were equipped with train brakes, 
the increase during the twelve montis covered by the report being 86,356, 
while the actual increase in the number of cars was 27,339. The number 
equipped with automatic couplers was 545,583, being an increase during 
the year of 136,727; 9,816 of the 9,943 passenger locomotives in service 


256 GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 


were fitted with train brakes, as were also 17,921 of the 20,351 freight. 
locomotives, and 3,895 of the 5,656 switching and other locomotives. 

Such is the picture of the condition of the railways of the United States 
so far as it can be derived from this report, and if it fails to meet in any 
way with the reasonable desires of the student of transportation who 
seeks a complete numerical. description of the business of interstate trans- 
portation of persons and property as conducted in the United States at 
the present time, the fault is in no way attributable to the statistician or 
to his assistants, but to the inadequacy of the legislation which provides 
for the collection of these statistics. The very excellence of the report 
from a technical standpoint causes greater regret that those who have had 
its preparation in charge have not been intrusted with the collection of 
those data which all intelligent students of transportation so seriously 
need. No statistical report can adequately present the business of trans- 
portation while omitting to deal with the business of express compani s 
and that of interstate carriers operating via water routes. Itis also to be 
desired that the classification of the data now collected be greatly extended 
and the supervision of the accounting of individual roads so perfected as 
‘to insure greater definiteness*in the items included. 

© H. T. Newcome. 


GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 


The Geographical Journal for March contains a summary of Mr Peary’s 
explorations in Greenland, under the title of “Journeys in North Green- 
land.’? Dr Sven Hedin commences a narrative of his ‘‘ Four Years’ 
Travel in Central Asia.” Hon. D. W. Carnegie publishes a narrative of 
his ‘‘ Explorations in the Interior of Western Australia.” 


The Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, No. 1, 1898, offers the 
following table of contents: “ Relations of Irrigation to Geography,” by 
H. M. Wilson; ‘ From Cairo to Beni Hassan,” the location of some of 
the most celebrated tombs of ancient Egypt, by D. Cady Eaton, and 
“ Physical Geography of New York State,” the third installment of a 
continued story, by Prof. R. 8S. Tarr. 


The Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute for March is largely devoted to 
a paper by Henry Birchenough on *‘Some Aspects of our Imperial Trade,” 
and an extended discussion. It is curious to find an Englishman com- 
plaining of the greater cheapness of foreign goods, of the want of adapt- 
ability of British manufacturers and traders, the superiority of foreign 
methods of pushing trade, and the lower freights of foreign shipping com- 
panies, especially when he instances the American as the chief competitor 
and as excelling the Briton in these respects. The article is extremely 
significant and very suggestive. Another suggestive article is by Mr 
Everard R. Calthrop on ‘‘ Light Railways for the Colonies,’’ in which he 
rehearses arguments in favor of cheap construction which, while perhaps 
new to his readers, have controlled the construction of the entire railroad 
system of this country. 


Isl, (Gr, 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


Wp 
gm» 
yi 


CHESAPEAKE & OHIO RY. 


HE F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 
solid between Cincinnati and New York, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
system. It has every modern convenience and appliance, and the dining-car service has no superior if 
it has an equal. The road-bed is literally hewed out of the eternal rocks; it is ballasted with stone 
from one end to the other; the greater portion is laid with one-hundred-pound steel rails, and although 
curves are numerous in the mountain section, the ride is as smooth as over a Western prairie. 

One of the most delightful ridés in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
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These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the Kast and the West. 


H. W. FULLER, Gen/. Pass. Agent, Washington, D. C. 


OF course you expect to go there this spring. Let 
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the return portion of your ticket reads viathe . . . 


Northern Pacific-Shasta Route. 


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GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES - - - - - - ty. W. Powell 
PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES - : - 

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PRESENT AND EXTINCT LAKES:OF NEVADA - - - - Prof. I. C. Russell 
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MT. SHASTA—A TYPICAL EXTINCT VOLCANO - - - - J. S. Diller 

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TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 


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Wit the March, 1898, issue, this Journal, devoted exclusively to Terrestrial Magnetism and allied 
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volume. The hearty co-operation extended by the workers in this promising field of investigation, as 
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‘¢ The Height of the Aurora,’’ 
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IPP INE, ISLANDS, 
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CHARLES E. HOWE, 
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National Geographic Magazine 


Vou. 1X JUNE, 1898 No. 6 


THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 
By F. F. Hinper 


To the southeast of the continent of Asia lies a vast archipelago, 
of which a considerable portion is occupied by the group called 
the Philippine islands, or, in Spanish, Islas Filipinas. Thenum- 
ber of islands included under this denomination is not definitely 
known, and this uncertainty has given rise to some rather wild 
euessing. Some English authorities state the number as six hun- 
dred, while a late consular report issued by the Department of 
State places the number at two thousand, but this may perhaps 
be intended to include the Marianas, or Ladrones, the Carolines, 
and the Pelew islands, as all of these are included under the juris- 
diction of the governor-general of the Philippines. Some of the 
Philippines are mere islets, too small for occupation, but others 
are important in size and resources and are very populous. The 
principal islands rank according to size in the following order : 
Luzon, Mindanao, Palawan, Samar, Panay, Mindoro, Leyto, Ne- 
gros, Cebu, Bejol,and Maskato. The northern island, Luzon, on 
which Manila, the capital, is situated, is the largest, having an 
area of about 41,000 square miles, corresponding in size to the 
State of Ohio. Mindanao, the southernmost island, contains 
about 37,500 square miles. As no accurate survey of even the 
larger islands has ever been made, it is impossible to make a 
definite statement as to the aggregate land area of the group, but 
the most reliable estimate is 114,556 square miles, which is equal 
to the combined area of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
and Maryland. 

The islands are situated directly on the line of volcanic energy 
which extends from Japan to Java, and volcanic forces have 


1& 


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yy 
Q BALUYAN /S. 


2 G 


MAP OF VHE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


eee ao 


THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 259 


largely contributed to their formation and shaping, as is testified, 
not only by the existence of ‘active voleanoes, but by the still 
larger number of mountains which show evidences of former 
igneous activity, the traces of its effects on the surrounding 
country, and the abundance of thermal springs which are found 
in different localities, in which the temperature of the water 
ranges from 180° Fahrenheit to the boiling point. Although sit- 
uated in a region peculiarly adapted to the growth of corals, they 
do not exist toany great extent on the coasts of the Philippines. 
Occasional traces, sometimes amounting to a fringing reef, are 
met with in favorable places along the west coast of Luzon and 
some of the other islands of the group. This scarcity of coral 
formation may be accounted for by the presence of volcanic fires 
and the occasional deluges of hot water emanating from their 
outlets, which prevent the growth of the polyps. All the islands 
are generally hilly and mountainous, but none of the summits 
much exceed 8,000 feet.in height. The loftiest peaks are, per- 
haps, Apo and Malindang, in Mindanao; Halcon, in Mindoro, 
and Mayon, in Luzon. The latter is an active volcano, which 
has been the scene of several disastrous eruptions within the past 
hundred years. 

As a consequence of these subterraneous forces, earthquakes 
are frequent and violent. An English writer says: 

‘“The destructive ravages and changes produced by earthquakes are 
howhere more remarkable than in the Philippines. They have over- 
turned mountains; they have filled up valleys; they have desolated ex- 


tensive plains; they have opened passages for the sea into the interior 
and from lakes into the sea.’’.. 


That this is not an exaggeration is proved by historical rec- 
ords, which contain many accounts of such disasters since the 
Spaniards first occupied the territory, and proofs that they have 
produced great geographical changes. 

“Tn that of 1627 one of the most elevated of the mountains of Cagayan 


disappeared. In 1675 in the island of Mindanao a passage was opened 
to the sea and a vast plain was emerged.”’ 


The more recent of these convulsions occurred in 1865 and 
1880, both of which caused great destruction of property. In 
the former the loss of life was greater, but the more massive 
buildings in the old city of Manila suffered more during the 
latter, the cathedral and many other edifices being completely 
wrecked. 


260 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


As a result of these repeated experiences, the style adopted in 
the erection of buildings, especially of the better class of dwell- 
ings and stores, has been modified to meet these emergencies ; 
consequently the liability to destruction and damage has been 
lessened. The islands are all well watered by rivers, streams, 
and lakes. Many of the latter are of large size, particularly the 
Laguna de Bay (Bay lake), which nearly bisects the island of 
Luzon. Mindanao derives its name from an Indian phrase in- 
dicating the abundanée of its lakes. : 


NEW CATHEDRAL AT MANILA, WITH RUINED TOWER OF OLD STRUCTURE 


By courtesy of Leslie’s Weekly 


In consequence of the island of Luzon having the capital and 
a very large proportion of the white residents located upon it, 
the interior is better known than that of many of the other 
islands. Its scenery, although mountainous, is charmingly di- 
versified and will compare favorably with any of the countries 
of farther Asia. Its large lakes and rivers, broad plains and 
fertile valleys, teeming with luxuriant tropical vegetation and 
noble forests, add both to its beauties and productive capabilities. 


ANIMALS 


If a land connection ever existed between the Philippines and 
Borneo, the separation must have occurred long ages ago. It 


THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 261 


is true that the strait between them is narrow, but the water is 
very deep, and the larger animals included in the fauna of 
Borneo are not found in the Philippines, especially the ele- 
phant, tapir, and orang-outang. There are no beasts of prey in 
the Philippines except a small one—“el gato del monte ””—a 
species of wildcat,and even that is not very plentiful. The wild 
animals are buffalo—not the. bison of our western plains, mis- 
called buffalo, but the East Indian animal—deer, hogs, which 
are doubtless descendants of domesticated animals that have 
taken to wild life in the woods,and monkeys. There is also re- 
port of the existence on the island of Mindoro of a mysterious 
animal called tumarao, which the natives describe as a cross be- 
tween the buffalo and deer. 

The tamed buffalo, called the water buffalo, from its delight 
in wallowing in water and mud, is the most useful of the quad- 
rupeds and is universally employed in agricultural work and 
the transportation of freight, both as a pack and draft animal. 
Goats, sheep, dogs, and cats are plentiful. Flying squirrels are 
numerous in the forests, and bats of enormous size, frequently 
measuring five or six feet from tip to tip of their wings. 

Snakes, lizards, and other reptiles abound; also insect pests 
of various kinds, among which are the destructive white ants, 
mosquitoes, tarantulas, and other spiders of enormous size. 

Pigeons and domestic fowls are abundant, and there is an 
immense variety of parrots and other wild birds, many of which 
are comparatively little known, even by name, to American or 
Huropean ornithologists. 


CLIMATE 


The extreme length of the Philippine group being from north 
to south, their northern extremity reaching nearly to the northern 
limit of the tropical zone, causes considerable variety of climate, 
although the general characteristics are, of course, tropical. On 
the western side of Luzon, where Manila is situated, the hottest 
season is from March to June, the greatest heat being felt gener- 
ally in May, before the rains set in, when the maximum ranges 
from 80° to 100° in the shade. The coolest weather occurs in 
December and January, when the temperature falls at night to 
60° or 65° and seldom rises in the day above 75°; in fact, dur- 
ing the months from November to February the sky is bright, 
the atmosphere cool and dry, and the weather in every way 
delightful. 


262 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


Owing to the insular conditions, this region enjoys an advan- 
tage which does not extend to tropical continental areas of sim- 
ilar elevation—that is, a considerable range in temperature dur- 
ing the twenty-four hours, averaging from 10° to 20°, which 
frequently affords the relief of a tolerably cool night even in the 
hottest season. 

The following table of temperature, rainfall, etc., at Manila 
has been compiled by Prof. H. A. Hazen, of the United States 
Weather Bureau, from observations made at the Observatorio 


Meteorologico 


de Manila: 


Sela AER eS hws : 
ised ees : ; 7 = g E g S 
= f= rS) = (oD) x 5 vo oz ® ) = 
Ae Coll ewes soem Sale sess ll 3 
e o e a = 5 5 ® L 2 g a 
5 i = < = 5 5 = N S) Z iS) = 
Temperature (de- | 
grees F.): | 
Mean monthly.........) 77} 78 81 83} 84 82 81 81 81 80 79 77 80 
Warmest month...... (Ey teil 82 85 87 85 82 82 82 82 81 80 82 
Coolest month......... | 78) |) Bb ea BL ON BO WO WON ar) 79 
Highest......... ood 91} 96 96 99 | 100 98 95 94 94 95 94 92 100, 
DOW Wsacosodssans0Gnash00 60) 61 65 66 71 70 70 69 71 69 63 60 60 
Humidity : 
Relative, per cent....) 77 73 71 70 75 80 84 84 85 82 80 80 78 
Absolute, grains per 
CupICHOO Usp ete 7.75 | 7.60 | 7.90 | 8.42 | 9.27 | 9.39 | 9.33 | 9.53 | 9.33 | 9.24] 8.59 | 8.06 8.75 
Wind movement in 
miles : 
iDailiyamleanee-s.s-------- 98| 115 | 132} 145) 144] 138|] 182] 165} 192} 111 94 13 134 
Greatest daily.......... 152) 187} 220) 229°) 236] 361] 267) 264) 282) 196} 164] 153 204 
Weast dailliyz-.:---1------- 66 72 32 92 68 96 | 110 79 69 48 67 59 95 
Prevailing wind di- | 
THEO O cpemocceboneaoco0 jam: il) e: @e || Sk@b |) SACS || S35 Shi || Seis Sei |] Tas |] WEL HI TCE NNecoonc320 
Cloudiness, per cent...) 45 37 35 32 47 65 74 68 72 58 54 53 53 
Days with rain............ 4.3 | 2.2) 3.4] 3.5) 9.2) 15.4).22.1) 19.8) 20.7) 14.4] 11.3) 8.4 135 
Rainfall in inches: | 
Mean monthly......... 1.15 | 0.47 | 0.65 | 1.11 | 4.30 | 9.68 |14.70 |13.88 |15.01 | 7.47 | 4.92 | 2.09 | 75.4: 
Greatest monthly.....| 7.59 | 1.97 | 3.94 5.37 |10.11 |25.81 |29.71 |43.20 |61.43 |23.65 |15.27 |13.67 | 120.98 
Least monthly......... 0.02 | 0.00 | 0.00 | 0.00} 0.00} 0.98 | 5.28 | 5.15 | 2.00 | 0.90 | 1.17] 0.01 | 35. 


Rainfall record for 32 years, 1865-1896; remaining data for 17 years, 1880-1896. 


The seasons vary with the monsoons or trade winds, which 
blow from the northeast from November to April, and from the 
southwest from May to October, and produce what are generally 
called the dry and wet seasons; but there is no abrupt change 
from one tothe other. Between those periods there are intervals 
of variable weather. 

The Spaniards describe the seasons as— 

‘Seis meses de lodo, 
Seis meses de polvo, 
Seis meses de todo ; ” 


six months of mud, six months of dust, and six months of every- 
thing. 


THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 263 


The northern islands lie in the track of the typhoons, which 
develop in the Pacific and sweep over the China sea from north- 
east to southwest during the southwest monsoon. They are 
liable to occur at any time between May and November, but it is 
in the months of July, August, and September that they are 
most frequent. In the early part of the season it is the northern 
part of the region subject to these storms that feels their greatest 
force. As the season advances they gradually work southward, 
so that the most dangerous time in Manila is about the end of 
October and beginning of November. They never pass further 
south than about 9° north latitude; consequently all the terri- 
tory south of that line is exempt from theirravages. Sometimes 
the typhoon is of large diameter and travels slowly, so far as pro- 
eressive motion is concerned; at others it is of smaller dimen- 
sions, and both the circular and progressive motions are more 
rapid; but they are always storms of terrific energy, frequently 
causing terrible devastation and destruction of crops and proyp- 
erty on shore and of shipping on the sea. 

Thunder-storms, often of astonishing violence, are of frequent 
occurrence in May and June, before the setting in of the south- 
west monsoon and commencement of the rainy season. During 
July, August, September, and October the rains are very heavy ; 
the rivers and lakes are swollen and frequently overflow, flood- 
ing large tracts of the lower-lying country. The average rain- 
fall in the neighborhood of Manila is stated to be from 75 to 120 
inches per annum, and there the difference between the longest 
and shortest day of the year is only 1 hour 47 minutes and 12 
seconds. ig 

For a tropical climate, that of the islands may be considered 
healthful for people of the white race, and even for natives of north- 
ern regions visiting for the first time a tropical country if they 
pay ordinary attention to hygienic laws, particularly to cleanli- 
ness, and temperance in eating and drinking. In the majority 
of cases when foreigners suffer from change of climate in this or 
most other tropical countries the cause can be traced to their 
own imprudence and careless habits of life. The immoderate 
use of fruits, although novel and delicious, particularly after a 
long sea voyage, should be avoided, as they tend to disarrange 
the gastro-intestinal functions and produce dysenteric and diar- 
rheal diseases, which are those most to be feared by newly ar- 
rived strangers. Alcoholic liquors, if used at all, should be 
taken with extreme moderation. Animal foods and fats, which 


264 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


are heat-producing, should be used sparingly and care be taken 
to provide against sudden changes of temperature by proper 
clothing. If these precautions are followed until he becomes 
thoroughly acclimatized, there is no reason why any person of 
good constitution should not enjoy good health. 

Elephantiasis,and leprosy prevail to some extent, and biri- 
biriis also common and fatal among the natives. Typhoid fever 
is also prevalent at times, but the white inhabitants seldom 
suffer from it or any of the other diseases which affect the na- 
tives. This immunity is due, without doubt, to better nutrition 
and sanitary conditions in their dwellings. 


FOREST PRODUCTS 


In estimating the natural riches of the islands the forest growths 
form an important factor. Ebony, cedar, ironwood, sapan wood, 
logwood, and gum trees’abound, and in addition to these fa- 
miliar trees there are hundreds of other varieties not generally 
known, even by name, which produce useful and ornamental 
woods available for many purposes. Gutta-percha is found in 
some localities, and the tall and graceful cocoanut palin, Cocos 
nucifera, is universal and contributes in no small degree to the 
comfort and prosperity of the natives. Its trunk, branches, 
leaves, fruit, shell, and husk are all turned to account. It pro- 
duces fruit when seven years old that forms an important article 
of diet. It is eaten when the nut is young or at that stage when 
the shell is just formed, ina thin layer that can be cut with a 
spoon. When the fruit is mature or in the condition in which 
it is brought to our markets, it is valued only for its oil. To 
obtain that, the nut is broken and the meat scooped out and 
boiled inalarge pan. As the oil rises to the surface itis skimmed 
off. When first made it has a rich, sweet taste and is used for 
culinary purposes and hair-dressing, but afte: a few days it be- 
comes rancid and is used only for lighting and lubricating. 
Throughout the islands it was the only substance used for light- 
ing until the introduction of kerosene, but it is still in almost 
universal use by the natives, particularly in the interior, not only 
from motives of economy, but from its being so easily manufact- 
ured or procured. 

Of all the indigenous vegetal products, the bamboo, which, 
although botanically a grass, is practically a tree, is most plen- 
tiful, useful, and ornamental. It is scattered everywhere in pro- 
fusion, and is always found near native habitations. It is put 


THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 265 


to an infinity of uses, from the construction of bridges and dwell- 
ings to the manufacture of furniture, domestic utensils of all 
kinds, pipes for conveying water, musical instruments, mats, 
fences, and scaffolds—in fact, the roots, trunks, branches, and 
leaves are all utilized. The varieties of bamboo are almost in- 
numerable, some attaining a height of fifty or sixty feet and 
varying in diameter from eight to nine inches, while others are 
as small asa rattan. The forests also abound in the various 
classes of canes, rattans, and others of the calamus family, which 
are important and useful and serve for a great variety of purposes. 

The Areca palm grows to about the same height as the cocoa- 
nut tree, and produces a nut about the size of a small hen’s egg. 
It is called bonga by the natives, and the quantity used is enor- 
mous—men, women, and children all chew it. <A piece of the 
nut is wrapped in a leaf of the betel pepper, which is smeared 
with shell lime made into a paste with water. In the city of 
Manila alone there are hundreds of places devoted solely to the 
sale of this article prepared ready for use, and it can be found 
on sale in every town and village. 


~AGRICULTURI 


There is a great similarity between the agricultural products 
of Cuba and the Philippines—in both sugar and tobacco are the 
great staples —but the latter islands possess an unique product 
which hitherto it has not been found possible to raise success- 
fully elsewhere, although attempts have been made to introduce 
it in Borneo, Cochin-China, the Andaman islands, and other 
places. It is known commercially as Manila hemp, but this is 
a misnomer, as it has no relation to the hemp plant. Its native 
name is abaca, and it is the product of a species of plantain or 
banana, Musa textilis, which differs very shghtly in appearance 
from the edible variety, Musa paradisiaca. Its fruit, however, is 
small, disagreeable to the taste, and not edible. It grows to the 
height of twelve to fifteen feet. There is evidently some pecu- 
harity of soil or climate, or of both, which enables these islands 
to retain a monopoly of this fiber which has become of such im- 
mense commercial value. It grows best in hilly or mountain- 
ous districts, and particularly in the volcanic regions in the east- 

ern parts of the islands. It is hardy and suffers little from any 
enemy except drought. It has the advantage of being a peren- 
nial crop, like its fruit-bearing relative, month after month young 
shoots springing up from the original root. 


fyyoay, sausagT fo fisazunoa ig 


NOZOT 10 GQNVISI—AYOLOVA V LV UVNNS ONTIAUA 


* 


THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 267 


In starting a plantation the timber and undergrowth are cut 
down and allowed to lie until dried by the sun, when they are 
burned and the young sprouts or suckers are planted. Nothing 
more is ever done in the way of cultivation except to cut down 
weeds and extraneous growths to allow access to the plants and 
to replace those that may die from accident or old age. They 
reach maturity in about three years, and should then be cut, as 
at that age they yield the best fiber. IPf they are cut earlier the 
fiber is short and lacking in strength, and if allowed to grow too 
old before cutting it becomes harsh, woody, and brittle. A large 
quantity of land is required to form a successful plantation, as 
the plants occupy considerable room, and it requires the product 
of five or six acres to produce a ton of fiber at each cutting. 

The method of decortication is as rude as the agricultural pro- 
cess. It is true that many machines constructed on scientific 
principles have been experimented with, but none so far have 
proved satisfactory, and the crude native implement is still the 
only one in use; it consists of a rough wooden bench with a 
long knife-blade hinged to it at one end and connected at the 
other to a treadle. Strips of the plant are drawn several times 
between this blade and the bench, which removes the pulp and 
outer skin, leaving the fiber, which is then cleansed by washing, 
dried in the sun, and packed for shipment. 

It is one of the most useful fibers known to commerce. Beside 
its value for making rope and cordage, it is extensively used in 
the United States for binding twine for harvesting machines. 
Nearly one million bales are exported annually, of which forty 
per cent comes to the United States. 

Sugar is grown very extensively. The cane, Saccharum viola- 
ceum, 18 not of the same species as that cultivated in the Western 
hemisphere, but it is of the kind common throughout Malaysia 
and Polynesia. It is either a native of the archipelago or was 
introduced in prehistoric times. Several varieties are raised on 
the islands, some of which are used as food for man and animals 
and others for sugar-making. They are all rich in saccharine 
qualities, but the greater part of the sugar produced is coarse and 
of poor quality, and brings a low price in consequence of slovenly 
methods of cultivation and manufacture and the lack of high- 
erade machinery, such as is used in Cuba and the United States. 
The quantity produced, however, is very large, supplying all that 
is used for home consumption and furnishing for export annu- 
ally an average of 250,000 tons, which could be indefinitely in- 


. 


268 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


creased by the introduction of improved machinery, skill, and 
capital. 

Tobacco is an important crop, and Manila cheroots and cigars 
are as famous and highly appreciated east of the Cape of Good 
Hope as the Havana product is among western nations. The 
quantity of the leaf raised is very great, but its cultivation is 
capable of much further development. It has been estimated 
that 20,000 or more persons find employment in its preparation 
and the manufacture of cigars, exclusive of those who raise the 
leaf. In one factory alone in the Binondo suburb of Manila 
about 9,000 young women and girls are employed. Tobacco 
was made a government monopoly by Captain-General José 
Basco y Vargas in 1781, and remained so until July 1, 1882, 
when the trade was thrown open. 

Rice is largely grown, but its use is so general and the demand 
for home consumption so great that little is left for exportation, 
although a market could always be found inChina forany amount 
that might be sent there. There are several varieties grown in 
the islands, but they may be classified under two heads: the 
upland or mountain rice and the water rice. The upland rice 


GIRLS MAKING CIGARS 


By courtesy of Leslie’s Weekly 


THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 269 


% 


NATIVE AGRICULTURE OF PHILIPPINE ISLANDS — PLOWING 


By courtesy of Leslie's Weekly 


is sown broadcast on the-hill lands after plowing and harrowing 
the soil. It matures in about three to four months and is har- 
vested ear by ear. ‘The water rice is sown later in the year, after 
the rains have commenced and the low land has become thor- 
oughly water-soaked. The seed is sown in the mud and water, 
and in about six weeks the young plants are transplanted to the 
rice fields, which are kept thoroughly irrigated. 

The cacao bean, Theobroma cacao, was introduced into the 
islands from Mexico by the Spaniards. It found a congenial 
home, as it grows luxuriantly and produces good crops, from 
which excellent chocolate is made, but principally for home con- 
sumption. 

Corn, which was also brought to these islands from the West- 
ern hemisphere, is grown to some extent, as are also cotton, va- 
nilla, cassia, ginger, and pepper. Coffee of excellent quality has 
also been produced, but of late years the crops have not been 
very successful, in consequence of disease among the trees. 

All fruits suitable to the climate are plentiful, including the 
orange, tamarind, guava, and pineapple. 

The mango grown in the Philippines is considered of very 
fine quality. The tree, Mangifera indica, is large and thickly 
branching, with bright green leaves. The fruit before it ripens 
is so acid that it forms a good pickle by merely preserving it in 


270 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


salt water, but when ripe it changes from green to bright yellow 
and has a rich aromatic flavor. 

The mangostin, on of the most delicious of all tropical fruits, 
is grown in Mindanao and some other of the southern islands 
of the group. The tree on which it grows resembles a pear tree 
in size and shape, the reddish brown-skinned fruit is spherical 
in form, the outer rind is thick and tough, enclosing a white 
center, Which is shghtly sweet, but of most delicious and delicate 
flavor. This fruit is confined to the Malay peninsula and east- 
ern archipelago, and all efforts to raise it elsewhere have failed. 

Of all the native fruits, however, the banana is the most pro- 
lific and useful to the people, giving them a larger amount of 
nutritious food from a given area of land than any other crop, 
with a minimum expenditure of labor. Bananas as used in 
this country have been gathered while immature and have been 
bruised and heated in transportation; consequently they bear 
but small likeness to the fruit in its tropical home. A traveler 
who has partaken of a meal in a native dwelling in the Philip- 
pines, consisting of rice, boiled as only the natives can cook it, 
and ripe bananas full of delicious juice, melting in the mouth 
like cream, with the cool and fragrant water of the cocoanut as 
a beverage, can appreciate how much nature has done in those 
rezions to supply the wants of man and how little of human 
labor is required to support life. 


MINERALS 


From what is known of the mineralogy of the islands, there is 
no doubt that a scientific geological survey would prove that they 
are rich in ore deposits of many kinds. Gold has been found in 
several of the provinces, but chiefly in the more mountainous 
and inaccessible localities, many of which are occupied by inde- 
pendent tribes that have never submitted to Spanish rule; but 
that the auriferous formations extend over a wide area on the 
island of Luzon is proved by the fact that in the alluvial deposits 
of every stream on the Pacific side some color of gold can be 
found. ‘The islands of Mindanao and Mindoro are also equally 
promising fields for prospectors for gold. In many places the 
natives have extracted considerable quantities of gold dust by 
washing the alluvial deposits; in others gold-bearing rock is 
broken by them with hammers and ground in rude mills, such 
crude methods of course producing but poor results. It seems 
remarkable that with the knowledge that gold exists the Span- 


THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 2a 


\ 


jards have not taken measures to prosecute the search for it, and 
to apply modern scientific means to obtain profitable results, 
This, however, may not appear so strange when we consider that 
for centuries the gold deposits of California were in their posses- 
sion without being utilized. 

Iron ore of excellent quality is abundant, but from lack of 
means of transportation and machinery it has not been found 
possible to manufacture iron as cheaply as it can be imported, 
so that whenever works have been started they have soon been 
abandoned as unprofitable. 

Rich deposits of copper also-exist, and many of them have been 
worked in a desultory manner by the natives, and more recently 
some of them have been operated by a company organized in 
Europe, but without any pronounced success. Galena and zine 
blends have also been found. Several very promising coal-fields 
are known, and some of them have been utilized to a small ex- 
tent, but the absence of roads and consequent expense and diffi- 
culty of transportation have proved a bar to development of 
this as well as of all other mineral resources. Sulphur is found 
in the vicinity of many of the ancient volcanoes, in quantities 
that would prove profitable if transportation facilities could be 
obtained. ce 


MANUFACTURES 


Shipbuilding is carried on to some extent, but the vessels built 
are principally small and intended for the coasting trade among 
the islands. i 

Considering that the Philippines are essentially an agricult- 
ural region, the manufacture of textile fabrics has attained con- 
siderable development; but it is not carried on in large establish- 
ments, and little has been done to introduce modern machinery. 
The looms are made of bamboo, and are of the simplest con- 
struction. 

In some districts, particularly in the islands of Panay and 
Luzon, there are communities where almost every family pos- 
sesses a loom, and in the houses of some of the well-to-do natives 
a number of looms may be found which are operated by hired 
labor. The products are principally cotton cloths, sail cloths, 
quilts, coverlets, etc. Coarse fabrics are also made from fibers 
extracted from the leaves of the sago palm, manila hemp, and 
other fibers. The most beautiful fabric produced on the islands 
is that called pifia, which is made from fiber obtained from 


bo 


(C2 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


leaves of the pineapple plant. The plants are raised especially 
for this purpose. Before the fruit begins to form the crown is 
removed, which not only prevents the formation of the fruit, 
but causes the leaves to grow larger; when they reach maturity 
they are broken from the plant and the outer skin and pulp are 
removed by scraping. As the fibers appear they are cautiously 
raised and removed one by one, and after a thorough cleansing 
by washing are dried in the sun; they are then assorted accord- 
ing to lengths and qualities by women and tied together in pack- 
ages for the weaver’s use. 

The weaving is a delicate process, requiring the greatest care 
on the part of the operator, and the fabric produced is so exqui- 
sitely fine that sometimes only a few inches are the result of a 
day’s work. Sometimes silk, which is imported from China, is 
mixed with the anana fiber, but the plain pifa is the most 
esteemed and is largely sent to Manila, where it is embroidered. 
In that city and the suburban villages laree numbers of women 
are employed in this industry. The work is frequently of the 
most exquisite quality and is sold for extravagant prices. In 
the villages near Manila and in many other communities on the 
islands women are also employed in making hats somewhat 
similar to the celebrated Panama hats, cigar cases, and other 
small wares, in which they display great skill and taste. Mats 
are also largely manufactured, and as every one uses them to 
sleep on, the demand is constant. They are of various qualities, 
but some of them are beautiful in texture and are ornamented 
with colors and gold or silver threads. 

Cotton rugs of handsome designs are also made in some of the 
islands. Horn is also softened and fashioned into bowls and 
other utensils. Many of the various articles produced by native 
workmen are remarkably artistic and beautiful, considering that 
all their tools and implements are of the simplest and rudest 
character. 


COMMERCE 


The earliest development of commerce between the Philip- 
pines and the outside world was in the direction of China and 
Japan, which gradually increased in importance. The Chinese 
were the founders of this interchange of products. At first their 
merchants came and returned each year, but as the trade in- 
creased they found it more profitable to remain permanently, 
and founded that Chinese commercial colony which, in spite of 


a 


THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 273 


occasional outbursts of fanatical persecution and of oppressive 
taxation, has really been the mainstay of commerce in the 
islands. 

The earliest efforts of the Spaniards after obtaining possession 
of the country were directed to securing for Spanish subjects a 
monopoly of the trade, precisely as they did in their American 
possessions, and to this end for a long time only a single ship 
was allowed to make the voyage each year from Mexico to the 
Philippines and from the Philippines to Mexico. These ships, 
called by the Spaniards the Acapulco ships and known to the 
English as the Spanish galleons, were equipped as ships of war 
and commanded by officers ofthe navy. This monopoly insured 
enormous profits to the adventurers who supplied the cargoes, 
but the whole business was permeated by corruption and roguery 
of the worst description. . This condition existed, but with di- 
minishing success, until 1815, when the last of these vessels was 
dispatched from Acapulco, as their monopoly had been grad- 
ually absorbed by a company chartered in Spain in 1784, called 
“Compania de Filipinas,” which by opening direct commerce 
with Spain caused the decline and final extinction of the trade 
via Mexico. This company, however, in consequence of bad 
management and injudicious ventures, did not prove successful 
and passed out of existence at the end of fifty years. In the 
meantime some relaxation of the narrow-minded exclusive sys- 
tem had taken place; in 1789 the port of Manila was opened to 
foreign vessels, and in 1809 an English firm received permission 
to establish a business house in Manila, being the first foreigners 
to receive such concession. ©, In 1814 this permission was made 
general. 

It is, however, only since 1834, when the operations of the 
Philippine company came to an end, that greater freedom of 
intercourse and larger introduction of foreign capital and busi- 
ness methods has affected materially the development of the 
ereat natural resources and a foreign commerce has resulted 
which, although far smaller in amount than it ought to be, is a 
fair indication of what it might and would become if the country 
should be controlled by a liberal and progressive government. 
The statistics published in another part of this issue will give a 
good idea of the progress and present condition of the commerce 
of the islands. 

Internal commerce as well as the export trade suffers from 


the lack of facilities for transportation. This is more marked 
19 


274 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


during the rainy season, when the stormy weather which accom- 
panies the southwest monsoon renders coastwise navigation dan- 
gerous to coasting vessels, and land carriage is impeded by bad 
roads and the absence of bridges, necessitating the floating of 
goods across the streams on rafts, while facilities for personal 
travel have been confined to horseback or to uncomfortable two- 
wheeled vehicles called carromatas, over roads execrable in the dry 
season, but which in the wet season become seas of mud, only to 
be traversed by a rude sledge drawn by buffaloes—in fact, sleigh- 
ing on the mud in place of the snow of northern climes. 

But in this direction also there is a hopeful sign of progress, 
as the first railroad has been built and is in operation from Ma- 
nila to Dagupin, 123 miles in length, connecting the capital with 
the rice-growine districts of Pangasinan. It is a single-track 
road, well and substantially built, and its earnings have been 
sufficiently remunerative to encourage an extension of railroad 
facilities whenever the islands may enjoy the blessings of peace 
and liberal government. | 

The traveler in the interior of Luzon will find no hotels nor 
inns for his accommodation, but every village has a public build- 
ing—often, indeed, a very rude structure and sometimes a mere 
hut—where he is entitled to shelter and where he can obtain 
food, frequently of poor character, at a fixed tariff rate. Wher- 
ever a priest or a convent is located he is sure of more commo- 
dious quarters and better fare. 


HARBORS 


The immense coast line of the islands contains a great num- 
ber of good harbors, but in consequence of the exclusive policy 
of the Spanish government in closing them to foreign commerce 
very little is known of them except to coastwise navigators. The 
foreign trade is confined chiefly to Manila, Iloilo, Cebu, and Sual. 
Zamboanga, on the island of Mindanao, is also an open port, 
but the amount of business transacted there is insignificant. 

The bay of Manila, one of the finest in the world, is about 120 
miles in circumference, with deep water and very few dangers to 
navigation. The entrance is divided into two channels by the 
islands Corregidor and Caballos, the northern about two miles 
in width and the southern five miles. The anchorage for large 
vessels is good within a short distance from the mouth of the 
river Pasig, on which the city of Manila is situated and which 
enters the bay on its eastern side, where it 1s prolonged into the 


THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 275 


bay by two piers, which terminate the one in a small fort and 
the other in a light-house. During the stormy weather of the 
southwest monsoon this anchorage off the city is not considered 
very safe, but there is good shelter for ships at Cavite, which lies 
about eight miles southwest of Manila in a direct line by water 
or fourteen by land. Here the Spaniards have a naval estab- 
lishment, with a marine railroad capable of taking from the 
water vessels of 2,000 tons displacement; a dock for gunboats 
and small vessels, and shops containing machinery and appli- 
ances for repairs; also an arsenal and hospital. 


we 
Nes Tmt 


aSeacon, 


oa regidor Z 
aa 


ACaballo /. 


CHART OF MANILA BAY 


Iloilo, the second port in importance, is on the island of Panay, 
near its southeastern extremity, distant about 250 miles in a di- 
rect line from Manila. The approach to the harbor is by a 
channel between a sand bank and the island of Guimaras, which 
lies about two and a half miles from the shore. The anchorage 
for large vessels, which is well protected and naturally good, is 
outside the mouth of the Iloilo river, but small vessels enter it 
and discharge their cargoes at the wharves of the town which 
faces both on the sea and on a bend of the river. 


276 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


CITIES AND TOWNS 


Although there are innumerable villages and many consider- 
able towns in the Philippine islands, the restrictive policy of 
Spain and the centralization of civil, military, and ecclesiastical 
power at Manila have prevented the growth of any other great 
community ; consequently it is the only important city. 

The geographical conditions, principal among, which is the con- 
nection of Manila bay with Lake bay by the river Pasig, afford- 
ing facilities for communication with the interior, led to the 
foundation of a settlement at the mouth of the river in prehis- 
toric times, as when the Europeans first landed there they found 
a native town, enclosed by a stockade for defense, called by the 
natives Maynila. , 

Although the name Manila is generally applied to the city on 
both sides of the river Pasig, which forms the metropolis of the 
islands, it is only the old walled city or fortress situated on the 
left, or south, bank of the river to which the designation was 
originally applied. It was founded in 1581, and King Philip III 
of Spain gave it armorial bearings and conferred on it the title 
of ‘‘La muy noble ciudad,” the very noble city of Manila. It 
is a typical old-fashioned Spanish town, surrounded by ram- 
parts, and has seen very little alteration or improvement during 


ae ent 


NATIVE VILLAGE OF ALBAY 


Bylepnisey sole liesiel es Ween 


. 


THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 2a, 


SPANISH FORTIFICATIONS NEAR MANILA 


By courtesy of Leslie's Weekly 


the past two hundred years. It contains seventeen streets, laid 
out at right angles. The governor’s palace, the cathedral, and 
archiepiscopal residence face on the plaza, or public square, 
which is adorned with magnificent tropical shrubbery and 
flowers, surrounding a statue of Charles IV, which stands in the 
center. The barracks for the military forces, the government 
offices, and custom-house are all located in this old town; but 
as there is very little business or commercial activity there, it is 
intensely dull and life there is monotonous. Just outside the fort- 
ifications is a broad road called the Calzada, which is to Manila 
what the Paseo de la Reforma is to the City of Mexico, Hyde 
park to London, or the Champs Elysées to Paris. Every fine 
evening from 5 o’clock to dusk it is crowded with carriages and 
equestrians, seeking relief in the cooler evening air after the heat 
of the day, and society enjoys the luxury of seeing and being 
seen. 

Near the river stands a stone column erected to the memory 
of Fernando de Magalhees, the Portuguese navigator and discov- 
erer of the islands. It stands on a marble pedestal, and is sur- 
mounted by a bronze sphere, and decorated midway with dol- 
phins, anchors, and laurel wreaths. 

On the opposite side of the river, and connected with the old 
city by several bridges, is the newer town, which is the commer- 


278 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


cial metropolis, called by the Spaniards Binondo, but is now uni- 
versally included in the designation Manila. Itis full of anima- 
tion and activity and forms a startling contrast to its sleepy old 
neighbor across the river; in passing a bridge from the old city 
the passenger seems to step at once from the sixteenth to the 
nineteenth century. Here all is life and bustle; the principal 
street, called the Escolta, is lined with stores and business places 
of all classes, and from morning to night is thronged with a 
motley crowd of many races and every shade of color, while 
electric lights and street cars attest that the spirit of progress is 
gradually encroaching on the conservative ideas of the past. 

In the old city and the older parts of the newer town most of 
the buildings were of brick and stone, with tiled roofs, but re- 
peated shocks of earthquake have taught the lesson to build in 
anticipation of them. It is now very rare that stone or brick is 
used in the construction of buildings above the level of the 
ground. Modern houses are seldom more than two stories in 
height, with galvanized iron roofs supported by wooden pillars, 
so arranged as to allow of a certain amount of oscillation inde- 
pendent of the walls. The native houses are built of wood or 
bamboo and thatched with palm leaves; they are of course very 
combustible, but practically earthquake proof. 

The population of the metropolis and its suburbs is about 
250,000 to 300,000. Many of the suburban villages are very 
populous. Tondo, a short distance on the Binondo side. has 
upward of 30,000 inhabitants, Santa Cruz has 12,000, and Santa 
Ana, a pretty village where many of the wealthy citizens of 
Manila have country residences, contains about 7,000 people. 


POPULATION 


Spanish statistics are notoriously unreliable and no accurate 
census has ever been taken, but the number of inhabitants is 
about 8,000,000. The bulk of the population is of Malay origin. 
On their first arrival the Spaniards found part of the natives in 
possession of some amount of civilization. They had a written 
language, of which some specimens have been preserved, though 
of no value in throwing light on their former history, and their 
traditions are very few. ‘The Spanish priests here, as in Mexico 
and Central America, did all in their power to extirpate all 
mythological and other lore that existed, and unfortunately with 
almost complete success; but fortunately for the inhabitants they 
were treated more mercifully than in most of the other newly 


THE ESCOLTA — MAIN BUSINESS STREET OF MANILA 


By courtesy of Leslie’s Weekly 


CERVANTES SQUARE, MANILA 


By courtesy of Leslie's Weekly 


280 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


discovered countrres acquired by Spain, so that they have in- 
creased in numbers instead of being exterminated, as in many 
places in the Western hemisphere. This was not due, however, 
to any magnanimity on the part of the Spaniards, but to the fact 
that the great distance of the islands from Spain prevented their 
being overrun by greedy and cruel adventurers, as was the case 
in the West Indian islands and adjacent mainland. 

In Mindanao and some of the other southern islands there are 
some pure Malays, who are Mohammedans. They are called 
“Moros ”—Moors by the Spaniards—and at times give them as 
much trouble as the African Moors gave their ancestors in Spain. 

There are also in the interior of Luzon and other islands many 
semi-savage tribes, who have never submitted to Spanish rule or 
to Spanish taxation, and when they escape the latter it is pretty 
certain that they are not under control. They are as untamed 
and are living as primitive a life as they were when the Span- 
iards landed on the islands, more than three centuries ago. 

The Philippine Malays are a superior race to many other Asi- 
atic people; they are orderly, amiable, courteous, honest, and 
hospitable, exceedingly superstitious, and when they profess 
Christianity are easily influenced by the priests. Like most trop- 
ical people, they are intermittent rather than steady workers. 
Their wants are easily provided for, and they take life easy. 
They are lacking in energy when at peace, but their hot tropical 
blood makes them fierce and revengeful in war. They are fond 
of music, dancing, and amusement of all kinds, but are born 
gamblers, and cock fighting is their great passion. Every na- 
tive, however poor, owns a game cock, and is always ready to 
bet his last coin on its prowess. Every town and village has its 
cock-pit, and in the larger communities the spectators may be 
numbered by thousands. Of course, this amusement, like every- 
thing else in the Spanish colonies, is heavily taxed, and a con- 
siderable revenue is derived from this source. Advantage is also 
taken of the taste for gambling by running a lottery for the ben- 
efit of the government. 

The mestizos or mixed races form a numerous and influential 
portion of the population. The descendants of Spanish fathers 
and native mothers are numerous. A large proportion of the 
merchants and landed proprietors are of this class, and most of 
the subordinate and clerical offices of the government are filled 
by them. Another element is the Chinese and half-breeds of 
mixed Chinese and native blood. Few Chinese women come to 


~ 
a 
su 


THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 281 


the islands and the men intermarry with the native women; in 
their offspring the paternal type seems to absorb the maternal 
and to be persistent for 
generations. Through- 
out the islands, or at 
least in all the larger 
towns, the bulk of the re- 
tail trade, banking, and 
money-lending is in 
Chinese hands. They 
are industrious, perse- 
vering, economical, and 
many of them possess 
considerable wealth. 
There are probably not 
more than fifteen or 
twenty thousand Span- 
iards or people of pure 
Spanish blood who are 
permanent or temporary 
residents, and the num- 
ber of other foreigners is’ ° : yeaa 

not large. The majority Bilcounteslopiiesties Weekiy 

of them are in Manila. 

The English have established a club at Sampalog, in the sub- 
urbs, which has become the center of foreign social intercourse. 


- HISTORY 


The Philippine islands were discovered by the Portuguese 
navigator Fernando de Magelhees on the voyage from which only 
one of his ships returned after cirecumnavigating the globe. He 
first sighted them on St. Lazarus’ day, 1521, from which circum- 
stance he named them Archipelago de San Lazaro. His first 
landing was on the eastern coast of the island of Mindanao. He 
afterwards went to Cebu, where he became friendly with the na- 
tive ruler and accompanied him on a warlike expedition in 
which he was killed. 

From this time until 1542 several expeditions were dispatched 
from Spain to take possession of the islands, but from a variety 
of causes all failed. In 1565 another expedition, commanded 
by Miguel de Legaspi, was dispatched by Philip IT to secure 
the islands, which had been named the Philippines in his honor 


289 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


before his accessipn-to the throne. Legaspi made good his 
footing in Cebu, but afterwards transferred his headquarters 
to Luzon, and the city of Manila was founded in 1581. From 
this time the islands were gradually brought under the domin- 
ion of Spain—that is, so far as their subjection was successful, 
which really extended to little more than the seacoasts and such 
towns and villages as have been created by the Spaniards or held 
by their military forces or by the power of the priests. That 
this dominion has continued is solely from lack of organiza- 
tion among the natives, and risings have taken place from time 
to time, but have always been suppressed. The islands have 
also been frequently threatened from without, but have never 
been wholly lost to Spain since Legaspi first planted the Span- 
ish standard on them. For a long time the attacks were made 
principally by the Portuguese, who were jealous of the increas- 
ing power of Spain in the Orient ; later the Dutch, incited by a 
similar feeling, endeavored to obtain possession of the islands. 
These attacks, however, were never very serious affairs, and the 
only really dangerous invasion was in 1754, when Li-Ma-Hong, 
a Chinese pirate, attacked the Spanish possessions with a pow- 
erful fleet of 95 war junks, but was defeated and compelled to 
retreat; and again, in 1762, when the English captured the city 
of Manila and held it and the neighboring country until 1764, 
when, peace having been restored, the captured territory was re- 
turned to Spain. 

The more civilized natives and particularly the half-breeds, 
who are sufficiently educated to crave for greater freedom, have 
long been in a chronic condition of discontent, induced by op- 
pressive taxation and tyrannical rule, in which the ecclesiastics 
have always used their authority to support the government. 
This produced a crisis in 1896 and led to the serious insurrec- 
tion which has been in progress, with various ebbs and flows of 
fortune, until the present time. 


ADMINISTRATION 


In Madrid there is a council of state for the Philippines, which 
has in charge the interests of the colony and acts as an advisory 
board to the Minister of the Colonies. At Manile the adminis- 
tration of the government has for its head and chief a governor- 
general. Next to the captain-generalship of Cuba, this is the 
most important and lucrative post at the disposal of the home 


THE PHILI PPL NE ISLANDS 283 


government. This jurisdiction-also extends over the Mariana 
or Ladrone islands, the Carolines, and the Pelew islands. 

There is also a lieutenant-governor, who takes the place of the 
captain-general in case of his death, and a council in Manila, 
which has a voice in all questions concerning the internal affairs 
of the islands. The archbishop also exerts considerable power, 
and the ecclesiastical authority-is interwoven in all the machin- 
ery of government. . 

The islands are divided into provinces subject to politico- 
military governors or alealdes mayores, who are generally civil- 
ians. ‘lhe provinces are subdivided into districts, and these 
again into pueblos or parishes, over which is an officer called a 
gobernadorcillo, a diminutive of governor, who is elected annu- 
ally by the people; but the real power in these communities is 
generally the priest, who not only looks after the spiritual wel- 
fare of the people, but directs their material affairs. For the 
imposition and collection of taxes Spanish ingenuity has been 
exercised to the utmost; but the basis of the financial system 
in the Philippines is the poll tax, which every adult, both male 
and female, under sixty years of age has to pay, and unhappy 
is the lot of the native who fails to meet the demands of the tax- 
gatherer. He is arrested and imprisoned or deported to a penal 
settlement, and his family, if he has one, is left to shift for itself. 


RELIGION AND EDUCATION 


The Roman Catholic is the established church in the Philip- 
pine islands, which contain, one archiepiscopal see and three 
bishoprics. Most of the ecclesiastical authority is in the hands 
of the various religious orders—Dominicans, Augustines, Fran- 
ciscans, etc.—who arethe real rulers of the country, as their power 
among the natives far exceeds that of the civil or military au- 
thorities, and of this power they are very jealous, as is evidenced 
by the long record in the history of the islands of bitter contro- 
versies between the church and the civil authority and the quar- 
rels of the religious bodies among themselves in their efforts to 
maintain ascendency. There is no doubt that among the priest- 
hood there are many devout, sincere men, who do their duty 
faithfully and devotedly and exert an immense and beneficial 
influence on the natives under their charge; but, on the whole, 
religious affairs on the islands are behind the age and would be 
more useful to the people, who are naturally devout, if they were 


284 NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 


infused with the more modern ideas and methods of the Church 
in Europe and America. 

Education is much neglected. Both the institutions for higher 
education and primary schools are antiquated in their methods 
and altogether behind the times, and although in nearly every 
town and village that is under the control of the government a 
school may be found, neither the quantity nor quality of the 
instruction it imparts is satisfactory. 


NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 


By Dean C. WoRcESTER 
University of Michigan 


Should the Philippine islands become a permanent possession 
of the United States or of any other civilized nation, the prob- 
lem of giving them good government and of developing their 
enormous latent resources will be by no means a simple one, al- 
though it will, in my judgment, be one that will richly repay 
successful solution. Spain has never seriously attempted to 
solve it. From the time of its discovery until now the archi- 
pelago has been one vast plundering ground for her hungry 
officials. She has conquered so far as greed of gain made con- 
quest desirable or safety demanded it, but there she has stopped. 

Although it is 577 years since Magellan discovered the Philip- 
pines and 334 years since Legaspi began his active campaign 
against the islanders, there still remain in the great islands Lu- 
zon and Mindanao, as well as in Palawan, Mindoro, and the 
highlands of Negros and Panay, tribes which are as independent 
of Spain as they were when the eyes of the famous discoverer 
of the passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific first rested on the 
mountain peaks of Mindanao. 

It was primarily in search of rare or new birds and mammals 
that I visited the Philippines, and as that necessarily took me 
into the wildest and least explored islands, I was repeatedly 
thrown in contact with representatives of these slightly civilized 
or wholly savage tribes. While it would be idle to attempt to 
give within the limits of the present article any comprehensive 
account of even those savage peoples among whom I and my 
companions actually lived, brief notes concerning the more im- 


NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 285 


portant of the tribes in question may not be entirely without 
interest at the present time. 

Without doubt the most primitive of Philippine peoples are 
the Aétas or Negritos, a race of blacks of almost dwarfish stature, 
with flattened noses, thick lips, and closely curling black hair. 
They are beheved, and with reason, to be the true aborigines of 
the islands, who even at the time of the Spanish conquest had 
begun to go to the wall in the fierce struggle for existence which 
was then being waged between them and the encroaching Malay 


CHURCH, CONVENTO, AND WATCH TOWER — DUMAGUETE, NEGROS ISLAND 


tribes on the one hand and between the mohammedan and pagan 
Malays on the other.. At present they are well nigh extinct and 
in a fair way to become entirely so. They seem to be confined 
to the higher mountain ranges in Luzon and Negros, although 
it is said that a few of them still exist in the mountains of north- 
west Panay,and they may yet be discovered in Mindanao. We 
encountered them but once. They wander through the forest, 
living for the most part on what they can pick from the trees or 
dig out of the ground, although the men sometimes make use 
of bows and arrows or rude lancesin hunting. They sleep wher- 


286 NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 


ever night overtakes them, often without troubling to build so 
much as a leaf shelter. They are a sickly, wretched set; their 
birth-rate is said to be steadily falling off, and they must be re- 
garded as a rapidly disappearing race. 

The remaining Philippine tribes, whether pagan, mohamme- 
dan, or christian, are of Malay extraction, although in some cases 
there has doubtless been an admixture of Japanese, Chinese, Ne- 
grito, or even Papuan blood. 


THE MANGYANS OF MINDORO 


The most interesting of the Malayan tribes encountered by 
us were the Mangyans, who people the interior of Mindoro. 
Although its capital is distant but 120 miles from Manila, Min- 
doro is one of the least known islands in the archipelago, its 
_pestiferous climate and the unsavory reputation of the renegade 
Tagalogs who inhabit its coasts having combined to discourage 
exploration, while there has been little to encourage exploration 
on the part of the Spanish, for the Mangyans have nothing to 
steal and could not well be taxed. 

Mindoro was formerly known as “the granary of the Philip- 


TAGALOG HOUSE — MINDORO 


NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 287 


MANGYAN GROUP, WITH HOUSE— MT HALCON, MINDORO 


pines,” on account of the enormous rice crops raised in the fer- 
tile lowlands to the east and west of its central mountain chain, 
but the mohammedan pirates from the south preyed upon its 
civilized inhabitants, decimating the population; an epidemic 
nearly exterminated the buffaloes depended on for tilling the 
soil, and today the once fertile fields have for the most part 
erown up into forest land, while the coasts are peopled chiefly 
by escaped criminals from the neighboring islands, who find in 
the miasma of the forests a most effective ally against the troops 
which are from time to time sent against them. They band 
together and organize forays against the peaceable Spanish and 
native planters, and are a constant terror to the region around. 

HKven in the days of its greatest prosperity the cultivated dis- 
trict in Mindoro was restricted to a belt along the coast. The 
interior of the island stands today as it was in the beginning. 
Under the perpetual shadows of the mighty lowland forests, and 
in little clearings on the mountain sides, dwell a tribe of natives 
who show little kinship in speech or customs and none whatever 
in dress with the remaining Philippine peoples. They are called 
by the Spanish “ Mangyanes” or ‘‘ Manguianes,” but I adopt 
their own pronunciation of their name, and call them Mangyans. 


288 NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 


At the time of my first visit I was unable to learn anything 
as to conditions in the interior from the half dozen officials who 
with a few friars and a couple of Spanish merchants constituted 
the Spanish population of the island. I was informed, however, 
that the Mangyans were head-hunters and cannibals. 

We began our explorations at a most unfortunate time. The 
rainfall is enormous in this island, and the rains were just, be- 
ginning at the time of ourarrival. The daily showers increased 
in duration and violence until they became almost continuous, 
and finally, after thirteen days and nights of uninterrupted 
downpour, we beat a retreat. ; 

We returned to the island a second and yet a third time, how- 
ever, and profiting by our first experience, began operations at 
the commencement of the dry season. By utilizing canoes 
where streams were sufficiently deep, and by tramping along 

‘their dry beds when water failed, we were able to quickly pene- 
trate to the very center of the island. We found that most of 
the surface details given on our charts were incorrect, and ex- 
plored two large rivers where, according to the charts, no rivers 
should have been. 

The Mangyans fled at our approach, but we eventually suc- 
ceeded in gaining their confidence, and found that the alarming 
accounts which we had heard of them had very little founda- 
tion in fact. They proved perfectly harmless when decently 
treated. The men were clad in the usual clout, and in that 
alone. The dress of the women is different from that of any 
other Philippine tribe. It consists of numerous coils of a cord 
braided of spht rattan, or other similar vegetable substance, 
wound around the body at the hips and supporting a clout of 
bark. This bark is made soft by careful pounding between 
stones, and at a short distance it looks exactly like cloth. The 
cord is usually stained black, although a kind woven in black 
and yellow check is especially prized. 

Girl babies are provided with two or three anise ¢ as soon as they 
can toddle, and the quantity is constantly added to as time goes 
by, so that the appearance presented by some of the old women 
is ludicrous in the extreme. ‘This cord usually constitutes the 
only earthly treasure of the wearer, although the women some- 
times ornament themselves with armlets or anklets of twisted 
rattan and beads made from the seeds of plants. Coins, copper 
wire, and bits of bright metal are highly prized as ornaments, 
but feathers are never used. 


NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 289 


Married women are distinguished by the fact that they expose 
the breasts, while unmarried girls cover them with a peel from 
one of the plantains, ornamented with finely braided rattan cord. 

During the dry season the lowland Mangyans often wander 
through the forest with no fixed place of abode. Where night 
overtakes them, there they sleep, each person making a shelter 


MARRIED MANGYAN WOMAN, SHOWING TYPICAL COSTUME— MT HALCON, MINDORO 


for himself by cutting off a couple of rattan leaves, fastening 
their buts together, and sticking them into the earth at such an 
angle as to give the leaves a suitable inclination. Under this 
quickly extemporized roof he sleeps, usually squatting on his 


heels... 
When a company are planning to remain for several days in 


one place, they sometimes construct low thatched roofs, under 
20 


290 NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 


which they build sleeping platforms ofsmall poles. Such struct- 
ures are usually planned so that each accommodates but a single 
person, but they may be large enough for an entire family. 
During the rainy season more elaborate, or at least larger, 
structures are erected, in which several families not infrequently 
find shelter; but even these more pretentious dwellings are, in 
the case of the lowland Mangyans, usually left without sides. 
The more thrifty mountaineers, however, build tiny huts which 
are both roofed and sided with palm or rattan leaves, and are 


UNMARRIED MANGYAN GIRLS, SHOWING TYPICAL COSTUME— MT HALCON, MINDORO 


provided with a single opening which serves the triple purpose 
of door, window, and chimney. 

The cooking, which is of the most primitive sort, is done over 
an open fire built on a pile of earth in one corner of the hut. 
Fire is obtained by striking flint with a bit of steel or iron and 
catching the sparks on a bunch of dry plant hairs. When the 
necessary materials cannot be had for obtaining fire in this way, 
the rubbing together of two ingeniously shaped pieces of dry 
bamboo speedily accomplishes the desired end. 

As a rule, Mangyans live on the forest products which they 


GNOOUDMOVA NI dNVYMS GTAOUONVW — OUOGNIW — LVOd TIVS AAILVN 


292 NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 


find at hand. The lowland people do not practice agriculture, 
but subsist for the most part on sago, which they get by felling 
the trees, cutting them into two-foot lengths, splitting these, 
pounding out the inner fiber with rude wooden mallets, running 
water through it to wash out the starch, catching the water in 
large leaves or rude troughs, allowing the starch to settle, and 
finally drawing off the water. 

The starch may be eaten raw or toasted in an earthenware 
dish. Sometimes it is rammed, while’still damp, into a joint 
of green bamboo, which is then put in the fire and allowed to 
remain there until nearly burned through, by which time the 
mass of sago has been converted into a solid roll, which would 
make an effective substitute for a policeman’s billy. 

The more vigorous and enterprising mountaineers have begun 
to practice, after a fashion, the art of tilling the soil. They have 
no other tools than the rude iron knives which they purchase 
from the coast natives and such wooden implements as they 
fashion for themselves; but with infinite pains they clear away 
small patches of forest, cutting through the trees at some dis- 
tance from the ground, where the trunks are smallest. 

After burning the felled timber, so far as practicable, they 
plant sweet potatoes or mountain rice in the ground thus laid 
bare. Sweet potato vines grow with such luxuriance as to 
practically exclude weeds, so that a patch once started lasts for 
several years. 

It should not be supposed, however, that the Mangyan is a 
vegetarian. He fashions lance, bow, and arrows for himself, 
and makes the wooden tips of his weapons tremendously effect- 
ive by dipping them in a virulent poison. No bird or beast is 
too filthy for him to eat. Fish eagles, herons, carrion crows, 
and buzzards are acceptable luxuries, while crocodiles and cer- 
tain species of snakes are delicacies to be highly prized. The 
huge white grubs which bore in the trunks of the sago palms 
are regarded in the light of confectionery. I fancy that the 
starch with which they are filled turns to sugar as it is digested, 
giving them a sweet taste, but must admit that I have never 
demonstrated this point experimentally. The Mangyans eat 
them alive, with many evidences of great satisfaction, and evi- 
dently find the flavor delightful. 

I have seen them devour with satisfaction the flesh of buffa- 
loes which we had killed two or three days before. It was 
swarming with maggots and smelled to heaven, but they gorged 


. 


NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 293 


themselves with it until they could hold no more, getting up 
and running round from time to time in order to stimulate 
appetite and increase capacity. The grewsome meal ended, 
they lay down to sleep it off. Why it did not kill them I could 
never make out. 

The lowland Mangyans signal to each other by pounding upon 
the roots of certain trees with large clubs, thereby producing a 
booming sound which can be heard for several miles under favor- 
able circumstances. Their standard for measuring distance is 
based on the carrying power of the human voice, a given thing 
being so many “calls” away: 

Their numerals usually stop at three, but their professors of 
mathematics are able to count up to twenty by making use of 
fingers and toes. As they always count in a definite direction, 


MANGYAN STOREHOUSE FOR GRAIN — MT HALCON, MINDORO 


294 NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 


each digit comes to have a permanent numerical value. In act- 
ual practice, if we desired to tell a man to return in five days, 
we used to tie five knots in a bit of rattan and direct him to untie 
one of them every morning until they were gone, and then re- 
turn. 

When shown their own photographs they failed to recognize 
themselves, although they at once pointed out the likenesses of 
their friends. They made the most ludicrous attempts to catch 
or find the persons who stared back at them from our pocket 
mirrors. 

Adult women would entertain themselves for hours with rattles 
which we extemporized by putting a few shot into a small metal 
box. At Naujan lake the people came from miles around to 
watch the spinning of a top which we happened to have among 
our belongings. 

They are fatalists. The most dire misfortune serves only to 
call forth the remark, “‘So it is appointed.” 

We never saw the slightest indication of worship of any kind, 
nor could we learn by the most diligent inquiry that they ever 
practiced anything of the sort. They deny belief in a life after 
death. Persons who fall seriously ill are deserted. A hut in 
which a death has occurred is abandoned, the corpse and every- 
thing in the hut remaining untouched. Relatives of a deceased 
person change their names in order to insure better luck. The — 
morals of this simple people are astonishingly good. Although 
the women seem utterly destitute of any sense of modesty, un- 
chastity is very unusual and adultery so rare as not to be pro- 
vided for in their criminal code. Although they had every 
opportunity to steal from us, they never took anything but a 
little tobacco, and even this they explained was not exactly 
thieving, since they put it directly into their mouths and took 
only enough for their immediate needs! Guilt or innocence is 
determined by the old fire test. A person against whom there 
is serious suspicion is compelled to snatch from the fire a piece 
of hot iron. They profess to believe that if he is innocent he 
will not be burned. The death penalty is not inflicted. A mur- 
derer forfeits his property to the relatives of his victim. Polyg- 
amy is lawful for those who can afford it. All we could learn 
of the marriage ceremony was that “the old folks get together 
and talk.” 

The few half-hearted attempts which have thus far been made 
to civilize the Mangyans have proved abortive. The priest at 


NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 295 


Naujan told me with deep disgust of the reply of a Mangyan to 
whom he had attempted to demonstrate the benefits of civiliza- 
tion and christianity. The unregenerate savage had replied that 
if he adopted civilization and became a christian it would cost 
money to be born, money to be allowed to live, money to marry, 
money to die, and money to be buried, and he considered him- 
self better off as he was. Inasmuch as his statement of the case 
was strictly correct and as it was my observation that morality 
increased among the Philippine natives as the square of the dis- 
tance from Spanish centers of “ civilization,” I could not but 
feel that this mountain philosopher had decided wisely. 


THE TAGBANUAS OF PALAWAN 


Palawan or, as the Spaniards call it, Ja Paragua, is the west- 
ernmost of the Philippine islands. Although some 500 miles 
long, it is very narrow, and there are a score of points where it 
could be crossed in a day; so that the only difficulties attending 
its exploration would be the obtaining of porters and food. The 
fact remains, however, that little is known about the island. The 
only Spanish settlement is a penal colony at Puerto Princesa, the 
capital of the island, although there are a few little military out- 
posts in the southern and western districts. 

The island is covered with magnificent forest, in which are to 
be found many woods of great value. There are also numerous 
“mines ” of damar, which are worked a little by the natives. 
Like most of the large islands in the Philippines, Palawan has 
a central mountain chain extending in the direction of its great- 
est length. Toward thesouth the mountains are covered to their 
summits with vegetation, but at the north they are as jagged and 
bare as our own Rockies. 

Three tribes inhabit Palawan. These are the Moros, or pirat- 
ical mohammedans of the south, the mountain-dwelling Battaks 
of the north, who are said to resemble the Papuans, and the 
Tagbanuas, who occupy the central portion of the island and 
the northern coast region. Three distinct dialects are spoken 
by the Tagbanuas alone, and I was informed that in one in- 
stance the inhabitants of two towns 15 miles apart did not un- 
derstand each other. 

Mr John Foreman, in his excellent book on the Philippines, 
has rightly said that the Tagbanuas are little known. He fur- 
ther informs us that they never bathe intentionally, and that 
they eat their fish and flesh raw. Apropos of their not bathing, 


296 NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 


TAGBANUA MEN — PALAWAN 


I may say that the river in front of our house at Iwahig was 
full of children half the time, in spite of the crocodiles, while 
an afternoon stroll along the bank of a small stream near the 
village was quite sufficient to have convinced the most skeptical 
observer that men, and women also, bathe upon occasion. While 
I am not prepared to say that Foreman did not see them eat 
their fish and flesh raw, it is certainly true that during my so- - 
journ among them I never knew them to touch uncooked ani- 
mal food. 

The men are of medium height and are often fairly weli de- 
veloped physically, although skin diseases, digestive troubles, 
fevers, and starvation keep many of them in wretched condition. 
Young girls are frequently possessed of considerable comeliness, 
but they often marry in childhood, and they mature and age 
rapidly. 

The Tagbanuas are a dark-skinned people. With many of 
them the hair shows a decided tendency to curl. It seems 
probable that they are a hybrid Aéta-Malay race. 

Their dress is a rather unsafe subject for generalization. Many 
of the men wear clout alone. In the south, where they have 


HILDREN — PALAWAN 


AND C€ 


A WOMAN 


BANU 


TAG 


298 NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 


come more or less in contact with the Moros, they have in some 
instances adopted the trousers, tight jacket, and turban of the 
latter tribe, while near Puerto Princesa a few of the men are the 
proud possessors of cast-off articles of European dress. In ap- 
proaching the Spanish town they carry their fine clothing under 
their arms until at its outskirts, and then dress beside the road. 
Women, when at work, wear a strip of cloth wound around the 
body and reaching from waist to knee. Most of them possess 
in addition a longer skirt and a semi-transparent shirt for state 
occasions. 

Agriculture is more commonly practiced than among the 
Mangyans, but many of the men live for the most part in the 
forest, where they hunt, trap, and search for damar, wild honey, 
and wax. The structures in which they make their abode at 
such times hardly deserve the name of houses. They consist of 
leaf roofs, with a platform of poles underneath, and are usually 
large enough to accommodate an entire family. Under the sleep- 
ing platform a smudge is maintained to drive away insect pests, 
and it is common to see a whole family squatting contentedly in 
smoke that would asphyxiatea white man. A few empty cocoa- 
nut shells, some baskets for burden-bearing, and two or three 
earthen pots complete the list of household effects. Unlike the 
Mangyans, they work iron to some extent, constructing rude 
forges, with piston bellows made from large bamboo stems. 

Although much of the Tagbanua’s time is necessarily spent 
in the forest, he is naturally social, and especially during the 
long rainy season he seeks the society of his fellows, returning 
to his hut in some one of the numerous large villages. 

The village houses are built of bamboo, nipa palm, and rat- 
tan, and differ from those of the civilized natives only in their 
smaller size, and in being perched at a much greater elevation 
above the ground. One often sees a young couple working 
away contentedly at their future home with no other tools than 
their fingers and a rude knife. 

In the villages near Puerto Princesa there exists a travesty of 
the form of local government found among the civilized tribes, 
each village being presided over by a gobernadorcillo or petty 
governor, assisted by a “justice of the peace,” and other more 
or less useless officials. No taxes are collected, however, and 
few burdens are imposed on these partially civilized Tagbanuas 
by the Spanish, who are trying to gradually accustom them to 
the yoke, in the hope of eventually bringing them to the full 


NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 299 


dignity of citizenship, which to the Philippine native means 
merely the paying of crushing taxes without receiving any ade- 
quate return. 

A little distance from the Spanish town I found the people 
friendly and unsuspicious. They informed me that “in the 
early days” they were governed by a great chief, chosen by the 
will of the people, who held office for life. If he proved a good 
ruler, his eldest son was allowed to succeed him; otherwise a 
new chief was chosen. 


BISAYAN NATIVE AND HOUSE— SALAG DAKO, GUIMARAS ISLAND 


At present, however, there is no ruler for the whole tribe. The 
affairs of each community are directed by a council of elders, 
who administer justice according to their own ideas, with little 
regard for Spanish customs and requirements. 

The method employed to determine the guilt or innocence of 
a person accused of crime is both novel and effective. The old 
men conduct accused and accuser to the bank of some deep 
pool, and there, in the presence of relatives and friends, the 
two dive into the water at the same instant. The one who re- 
mains longest beneath the surface is adjudged to have spoken 


300 NOTES ON SOME PRIMITIVE PHILIPPINE TRIBES 


the truth. Theft is punished by the infliction of a fine equiva- 
lent to twice the value of the stolen article. If the culprit be 
too poor to pay the fine, he is whipped. A murderer is killed 
by the relatives-and friends of his victim. Ina case of adultery 
an injured husband may kill both his wife and her paramour, 
but may not kill the one and not the other. If not murderously 
inclined, he can collect a heavy fine. 

A father with marriageable daughters sets a price upon each. 
Whoever wishes to marry one of them must pay the price de- 
manded. Should a father object on personal grounds to a suitor 
willing to pay the prescribed price, he must himself pay a fine 
to the suitor by way of balm to his injured feelings. 

Child marriage seems to be the rule. Women are apparently 
less numerous than men, and their hands are much in demand. 

A curious reversal of this state of affairs exists in the island of 
 Cuyo, where it is said that more than ninety per cent of the pop- 
ulation are women. This remarkable result is not due to any 
abnormality in the birth rate, but rather to the fact that the men 
all run away as soon as they get large enough. The Tagbanua 
women are well treated and are allowed a considerable amount 
of personal liberty, but are expected to do their full share of 
hard work. Itis not unusual fora woman to bathe and go about 
her customary duties the day after bearing a child. The Tag- 
banuas have a secret medicine for use at the time of childbirth, 
the nature of which they guard with the most jealous care. 

When a death occurs the relatives set a time for the funeral, 
At the appointed hour the house of the deceased is torn down 
and his body is carried to the woods and buried in the earth. 
Dishes and earthen pots belonging to him are broken over the 
grave to mark it. 

The Tagbanuas have a simple syllabic alphabet, which is in 
common use. The characters are scratched on smooth joints 
of bamboo in vertical columns. 

Much might be added in regard to each of the people dis- 
cussed, but enough has been said to give some idea of the 
methods of life and of the general characteristics of two fairly 
typical savage Philippine tribes. What holds true of them will 
hold in a general way, mutatis mutandis, of the other wild peoples. 
They are as a rule extremely ignorant, but harmless and inof- 
fensive so long as they are well treated. 

They will afford an interesting problem in civilization to the 
nation whose flag is in future to float over their islands. They 


COMMERCE OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 301 


will also afford a most interesting study to the anthropologist, 
and it ought to be made before the record of the daily life, the 
thoughts, and the ideals of these harmless and simple children 
of nature has been forever blotted out by the encroachment of 
that new order of things which is sure to follow when the blight 
of Spanish domination is finally removed from the islands. 


OLD FORT, WITH CHURCH INSIDE—CULION ISLAND 
' 5 , 


COMMERCE OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


During the year 1896 the total foreign commerce of the Philip- 
pine islands amounted to $30,806,250, the exports amounting to 
$20,175,000 and the imports to $10,631,250. Of the total foreign 
trade, that with the United Kingdom amounted to $9,934,590, 
that with the United States to $5,145,303, that with France to 
$3,782,800, with Japan to $1,486,691, with Germany to $968,628, 
and with other countries, including Spain, to $9,488,238. 

The ratio of imports to exports, among these different coun- 
tries, varied in a very striking and highly significant way. While 
the United States purchased 4,982,857 dollars’ worth, or 24.6 per 
cent, of the exported products of the islands, she sold to them 


302 COMMERCE OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


in return only 162,341 dollars’ worth of the products of her own 
mills and mines and forges. From the United Kingdom, how- 
ever, the islands purchased commodities to the value of $2,467,- 
O90, or about ene-third of the value of their exports to that 
country. France sold to them almost as much as she bought 
from them, while Germany sold eneu more than three times as 
much as she took from them. 

The principal articles of export are manila hemp, sugar, copra, 
and tobacco. During the ten years ending June 30, 1897, the 
average annual exports of sugar were 301,814,668 norm. of 
which the United States took annually an average of 167,414,906 
pounds and the United Kingdom an average of 128,145,274 
pounds, the United States taking a larger amount than the 
United Kingdom six years out of ten. The exports of sugar 
attained their maximum in 1889, when they amounted to 
~ 408,722,161 pounds, of which the United States took 284,654,552 
pounds, or 69.6 per cent, and the United Kingdom 113,143,941 
pounds, or 27.7 per cent. In 1897 the total amount exported 
was only 155,576,125 pounds, of which the United Kingdom 
took 106,578,638 pounds, or 69.4 per cent, and vine United States 
43,261, 182 pounds, or 28.2 per cent. 

During the same period of ten years, 1888 to 1897, the total 
exports of manila hemp averaged 651,897 bales per annum, of 
which the United Kingdom took an average of 380,767 bales 
and the United States an average of 265,344 bales, the United 
Kingdom taking a larger amount than the United States seven 
years out of ten. The exports of this product reached their 
maximum in 1897, when they amounted to 825,028 bales, of 
which the United States took 417,473 bales, or 50.6 per cent, and 
the United Kingdom 385,182 bales, or 46.7 per cent. 

Copra is exported mainly to the continent of Europe, the 
shipments in 1897 reaching a total of 801,437 pounds. The 
same year the exports of leaf tobacco amounted to 69,803,325 
pounds, of which exactly 80 per cent went to the continent of 
Kurope. ‘The cigars exported aggregated 156,916,000, of which 
81,670,000 went to China and Japan. There were no shipments 
of leaf tobacco to the United States, and the cigars exported to 
this country amounted only to 2,285,000. 

The chief imports of the Philippines are rice, flour, dress goods, 
wines, coal, and petroleum. Of the exports from Spain to the 
islands in 1896, the cotton fabrics alone were valued at $4,915,851, 
and of the British exports for the same year cotton manufactures 
and yarn had a value of $1,494,108. Inthe exports of the United 


COMMERCE OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 303 


States to these islands, however, the various manufactures of 
cotton figure only to the extent of $9,714! Manufactures of flax, 
hemp, wool, and silk appear in the Spanish exports to the value 
of $286,841, or 76.7 per cent more than the entire export trade of 
the United States to the islands in the year in question. The 
exports of paper, leather, and wood from Spain in 1896 had an ag- 
gregate value of $585,120, or nearly four times that of the total 
exports from the United States. All these products, as well as 
others that might be mentioned, could just as well be supplied 
from this country. 

Of what the exports and imports to and from the United States 
principally consist is shown in the following tables. The insig- 
nificance of almost every item in the table of exports suggests, 
in conjunction with the foregoing statements, the enormous pos- 
sibilities of an extended commerce that now he within our reach 
as a nation: 


Values of domestic merchandise exported from the United States to the Philip- 
pine Islands during the years ending June 30, 1893-1897. 


Articles. 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. 1897. 
Wiheat tour: jor e ee. ES SOOM eae $11,250 | $18,290 | $10,068 
Chemicals, ete............. . 1,667 | $1,453 320 3,390 3,316 
Cotton, manufactures of .. 8,444 | 45,761 3,300 9,714 2,164 
Iron and steel, manufactures 
ORS i A re Ne ‘| 9,006 | 16,388 | 13,3483 | 10,204 9,655 
Oils, mineral, refined...... 105,936 | 35,325 | 67,837 | 89,958 45,908 
All other articles........... 21,525 | 46,539 | 23,150 | 30,785 23,486 
Total domestic exports. .| 1 54,378 145,466 | 119,255 | 162,341 94,597 


Values of merchandise imported, into the United States from the Philippine 
Islands during the years ending June 30, 1893-1897. 


Articles. 1895. 1894. 1895. 1896. 1897. 


Sugar, cane and other../$2,865,966)$3,655,627/$1,111,006}$2,270,902)$ 1,199,202 
Textile grasses : 


Manila..........| 6,217,192) 3,324,228) 3,572,236) 2,499,494) 2,701,651 
JL CHOSE Sogo fie.cllsoe mantel lOrene a ae 11,851 68,838} 384,155 
COM Gie.c Che ean ae chee ao 11,221 AOA ates, 6,237 1,820 
Straw, manufactures of. 29,039 12,393 26,148 81,352 72,137 
All other articles... .. 36,439 13,098 10,125 56,034 24,779 
Total imports.... | 9,159,857| 7,008,342) 4,731,366) 4,982,857) 4,383,740 

Jj ilsl. 


Walls IDNSIOSMOOIN, Ole Jabs, lPiSMEWE SUNS) 


The following forcible article by Mr Charles E. Howe is taken 
from The Finaneal Review of May 27: 


What commercial benefits can accrue to any European nation in pur- 
chasing these islands which will not accrue to us? Since we are well 
able to retain them, would it not be a short-sighted policy to dispose of 
them? With Hawaii and the Philippines, we shall control the trade of 
the Pacific. With Japan as our ally and England as our friend, we have 
nothing to fear from other foreign nations. What claim can any power 
advance, or by what right can they demand that our government evacu- 
ate these islands? None! 

Our government can no longer pursue a policy of isolation. The times 
demand that we take our rightful position among the nations of the 
world, and especially in the unfolding commercial possibilities of the 
East. There await untold advantages to the nation which encourages 

_the awakening of the Orient from its long sleep and assists it in taking 
a prominent part in its trade relations with other nations. Are we to re- 
fuse to seize this golden opportunity and allow some European power to 
outwit us? We cannot afford to barter away our newly acquired terri- 
tory for a few pieces of silver. 

What other form of government will do more to civilize these natives 
than our own? It may be said, ‘‘ What shall we do with the natives of 
these islands?’’ I may ask, ‘‘ What will any other nation do with 
them ?’’ What are we to do with the natives of Hawaii? What of our 
responsibilities with the inhabitants of Cuba and Porto Rico? Our re- 
sponsibilities will be practically the same in all these cases. The truth 
is, we are face to face with a new foreign policy for America. We must 
meet it and not shirk it! 

The welfare of our nation lies largely in the development of our trade 
with the nations south of us and the countries of the far East. We can- 
not hope for any wonderful expansion of our manufacturing trade with 
Europe. From the West Indies, South America, China, and Japan we 
can rightfully expect a mar raloue growth of trade, and emcee) © a de- 
mand for our various manufactured goods. 

We shall find that this war will result in untold advantages to the 
United States. Our aim was to banish Spain from the Western conti- 
nent and free an oppressed people. Our reward is the unexpected ac- 
quirement of territory and control of the trade of the Antilles, and a 
foothold in the development of the Orient. If Spain never pays our 
government a farthing for the cost of this war, still we shall be well re- 
paid in a very few years from the revenues to be derived from these 
several countries. 

Our policy in the future must be an aggressive one. Our markets 
must be the world and our base of supplies the United States. All 
Europe recognizes this newer policy as the only true one for the healthy 
growth of nations. From a political, naval, and industrial standpoint, 
we must retain our new territory. 

304 


In connection with the annual meeting of the National Educational Association, to be 
held next month in Washington, a geographic exhibit, illustrating the physiography, 
geology, ethnology, climate, and industries of the United States, will be on view at one 


of the city school buildings July 7 to 12, inclusive. 


The publishers of Leslie’s Weekly will send that weil-known illustrated newspaper 
from now until October 1 for only $1.00, which is little more than half-price. Leslie’s 
Weekly has staff artists at all points of possible conflict in the war with Spain, and it 
offers to its readers for a merely nominal sum an admirable pictorial and literary history 


of the war. 


The Burlington’s Number One, which leaves Chicago daily at 10 o’clock in the morn- 
ing, arriving at Omaha at 11.50 p. m. the same day, and at Denver at 1.30 p. m. the next 
day, has just been equipped with new Pullman Sleeping Cars, and also with a Pullman 
Composite Car fitted with luxurious smoking-room, sideboard, cardtables, ete. The 
Burlington is the shortest line between Chicago and Denver, and these added luxuries 
seem to make it even shorter. 


A recent number of the Medical Record contained a notable article on the Asheville 
Plateau in the Mountains of Western North Carolina, by 8. Westray Battle, M.D., U.S.N., 
in which the attractions of that famous region are admirably set forth. The Asheville 
Plateau or “The Land of the Sky,” to give it the name by which it is popularly known, 
is from 2,000 to 2,500 feet above sea-level, and contains a large number of peaks from 
4,000 to 6,000 feet and upward in height. Its scenery is highly diversified, and its cli- 
mate as healthful as it is deightful. The Southern Railway, which has done so much 
to popularize this region by its admirable train service, will furnish any information that 


may be required by intending visitors on application to any of its agents. 


SEX WORSHIP 
AN EXPOSITION OF THE PHALLIC ORIGIN OF RELIGION 
By Curtrrorp Howarp 


This work has for its object a general presentation of Phallicism and Nature Worship, 
for the purpose of demonstrating that all religions have had a common origin and are 
founded upon a natural, material basis—the adoration of life in its phenomena of crea- 
tion and reproduction. 


“A remarkable book.’’—Alleqheny Record. 

“Intensely interesting.’’—Medical Standard. 

“Mr Howard’s book represents a step in the right direction. The problems which he outlines are of 
great interest.’—American Anthropologist. 

* Many strange beliefs and stranger customs are touched upon in this volume, and the bearing of these 
early religions upon our own rites and creeds gives to the work an added value.’’-—Brooklyn Eagle. 


Second edition (revised and enlarged), with bibliography of phallicism. S8vo, cloth. 


$1.50 net. 
CLIFFORD HOWARD, PusuisHer, 


P. O, Bow 633, Washington, D, C, 


" NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


CHESAPEAKE & OHIO RY. 


HE F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled_over any railway track in America. It runs 
solid between Cincinnati and New York, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
system. It has every modern convenience and appliance, and the dining-car service has no superior if 
it has an equal. The road-bed is literally hewed out of the eternal rocks; it is ballasted with stone 
from one end to the other ; the greater portion is laid with one-hundred-pound steel rails, and although 
curves are numerous in the mountain section, the ride is as smooth as over a Western prairie. 

One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
mountains are just low enough to be clad with verdure to the very top, and in the early spring every 
variety of green known to the mixer of colors can be seen, while the tones in autumn take on all the 
range from brown to scarlet. 


These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between fi Kast and the West. 


H. W. FULLER, Gen/. Pass. Agent, Washington, D. C. 


CALIFORNIA. | 


OF course you expect to go there this summer. Let : 
y 


me whisper something in your ear. Be sure that 
the return portion of your ticket reads via the 


AB BuBd 


Northern Pactfic-Shasta Route. 


Then you will see the grandest mountain scenery in 
the United States, including lt. Hood and It. Rainier, 
each more than 14,000 feet high, It. St. Helens, 
rit. Adams, and others. You will also be privileged [ 
to make side trips into the Kootenai Country, where 5 


such wonderful new gold discoveries have been made, 
and to Yellowstone Park, the wonderland not only of 
the United States, but of the World. Park season 
begins June Ist each year. Close railroad connections 4 
made in Union Station, Portland, for Puget Sound 
cities and the east, via Northern Pacific. 


CHAS. S. FEE, y| 
General Passenger Agent, St. Paul, Minn. | 


2 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


=SR> SOUTHERN RAILWAY 


GREATEST SOUTHERN SYSTEM. 


Penetrates with its main line or branches eight States 
south of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, and in con- 
junction with its friendly allied connections reaches all 
the commercial centers of the South and Southwest... 


-DOUBLE DAILY VESTIBULED LIMITED TRAINS 


... BETWEEN... 


Washington and Nashville via Salisbury, Asheville, Knoxville and 
Chattanooga. 

Washington and Tampa via Columbia, Savannah and Jacksonville. 

Washington and Memphis via Atlanta, Birmingham and K.C. M. & B. 

Washington and New Orleans via Atlanta, Montgomery and Mobile. 

Norfolk and Chattanooga via Salisbury, Asheville and Knoxville. 


Pullman Sleeping Cars—Dining Cars—Day Coaches. 
Additional Trains for local travelers... ... . 
The direct line to the FLORIDA, GULF COAST and TEXAS, 
Winter Resorts on - « »« »« MEXICO and CALIFORNIA, 
—AND THE BEST— 
Through Car Line to and from Asheville and Hot Springs—‘‘ The Land of the Sky.’’ 


Write for Map Folders. 


A. S. THWEKATT, Eastern Passenger Agent, 271 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
J. C. HORTON, Passenger Agent, 201 K. Baltimore Street, Baltimore, Md. 

L. S. BROWN, General Agent, 705 Fifteenth St. N. W., Washington, D.C. 
J. H. WINGFIELD, Passenger Agent, Norfolk, Va. 


S. H. HARDWICK, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Atlanta, Ga. 
Cc. A. BENSCOTER, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
W. H. TAYLOH, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Louisville, Ky. 


J. M. CULP, Traffic Manager. W. A. TURK, General Passenger Agent. 


The Mutual Life Insurance Co. 


OF NEW YORK, 
RICHARD A. McCURDY, President, 


Is the Largest Insurance Company in the World. 


The Records of the Insurance Department of the State of New 
York SHOW THAT The Mutual Life 

Has a Larger Premium Income - - - ($39,000,000) 

More Insurance in Force - - - - - ($918,000,000) 


A Greater Amount of Assets - - - -  ($235,000,000) 
A Larger Annual Interest Income - -~ - ($9,000,000) 
Writes More New Business - - - -  ($136,000,000) 


And Pays More to Policy-holders - - ($25,000,000 in 1896) 
THAN ANY OTHER COMPANY. 


It has paid to Policy-holders since 
its organization, in 1843, | - + $437,005,195.29 


ROBERT A. GRANNISS, Vice-President. 


WALTER R. GILLETTE, General Manager. FREDERIC CROMWELL, Treasurer. 
ISAAC F. LLOYD, Second Vice-President. EMORY McCLINTOCK, Actuary. 
WILLIAM J. EASTON, Secretary. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


THE CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE AND ST. PAUL RAILWAY 


- RUONS.. 


Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago, Mil- 
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Through Trains with Palace Sleeping Cars, Free Reclining Chair Cars and Coaches 
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The finest Dining Cars in the World. 
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The best and latest type of private Compartment Cars, Free Reclining Chair 
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Everything First-class. First-class People patronize First-class Lines. 
Ticket Agents everywhere sell tickets over the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Ry. 


GEO. H. HEAFFORD, 
General Passenger Agent, Chicago, III. 


WHENEVER YOU VISIT! WASHINGTON. . 


See 
YOU ARE INVITED TO INSPECT THE ae 


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+ MAMMOTH DRY GOODS ESTABLISHMENT 


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Where the LATEST PARIS NOVELTIES are eee on Eee 
The attention of those who anticipate purchasing ; 


BRIDAL TROUSSEAUX 


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of pieces desired. 


HAND-MADE BRIDAL TROUSSEAUX, personally 
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| St. Paul and Minneapolis | 


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GHICAGO 
_ GREAT 
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Send for Descriptive Pamphlet “ 49-96,’’ E. L. LOMAX, 
Folders and other Advertising Matter. General Passenger and Ticket Agent, 
(Mention this publication.) OMAHA, NEB, 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST. 


The only American magazine devoted to the science of Anthropology in 
all its branches is THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, published at the 
National Capital. This journal is now in its eleventh year of increasing 
usefulness. 

No magazine ever published on ‘the Western continent is such a 
storehouse of authentic information concerning ARCHEOLOGY, ETHNOL- 
OGY, FOLK-LORE, TECHNOLOGY, SocioLoGy, HIsToRY, SOMATOLOGY, 
PSYCHOLOGY, PHILOSOPHY, and PHILOLOGY. Its contributions to our 
knowledge of these subjects, especially in so far as they relate to the 
American Indians, past and present, are of world-wide authority. Its 
contributors are America’s foremost scholars. 

Is your name on the subscription list of the ANTHROPOLOGIST? If 
not, it should be. No one interested in anthropology in any of its branches 
can afford to be without it. Subscribe today. A new volume begins with 
the January number. : 


A bibliography of ihe anthropologic literature of the world is one of its features. 


Handsomely Printed—Abundantly Illustrated. 
Published Monthly—Two Dollars a Year. 
Volume XI Begins with January, 1898. 
ADDRESS: THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 
1804 Columbia Road, Washington, D. C. 


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NALLY AA ALAR ARAL ALARA VAAL ARVANA AV ANZ 
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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MONOGRAPHS 


On the PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE, designed especially to supply to teachers and 
students of geography fresh and interesting material with which to supplement the regular text-book. 


LIST OF MONOGRAPHS COMPRISING VOLUME I: 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROCESSES - - - - - - 
GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES - - - - - - ty. W. Powell 
PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES - - - 

BEACHES AND TIDAL MARSHES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST Prot. N. S. Shaler 
PRESENT AND EXTINCT LAKES OF NEVADA - - - - Prof. I. C. Russell 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—NORTHERN SECTION - - - Bailey Willis 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—SOUTHERN SECTION - - - C. Willard Hayes 
MT. SHASTA—A TYPICAL EXTINCT VOLCANO - - - - J. S. Diller 

THE NEW ENGLAND PLATEAU - - - - - - - Prof. W. M. Davis 
NIAGARA FALLS AND ITS HISTORY - - - - - - G. K. Gilbert 


Price for one set of ten monographs, $1.50. Five sets toone address, $6.00. Single monographs, 20c. 


Remit with order to AMERICAN: BOOK COMPANY, 


New York - Cincinnati - Chicago 


Ripans Tabules assist digestion. 


TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 


An International Quarterly Journal 


Edited by L. A. BAUER 
With the Co-operation of Eminent Magneticians 


ITH the March, 1808, issue, this Journal, devoted exclusively to Terrestrial Magnetism and ‘allied 
subjects, such as Karth Currents, Auroras, Atmospheric Electricity, etc., entered on its third 
volume. ‘The hearty co-operation extended by the workers in this promising field of investigation, as 
abundantly shown by the numbers thus far issued, has made this Journal the international organ for 
making known the latest achievements. The magnetic needle has become such a promising instrument 
of research, not only in terrestrial, but in cosmical physics, that this Journal appeals to a large class of 
investigators. The geographer, the geologist, the astronomer, the meteorologist—all are interested in 
the development of the subject of terrestrial magnetism. It should therefore receive their support. 


Among the contributors of the main articles in the past have been Messrs. Barus, Borgen, Chree, Com- 
mander Davis, Eschenhagen, Hellmann, Littlehales, McAdie, Rticker, Schmidt, Schuster, and de Tillo. 


Future numbers will contain : 
‘¢The Height of the Aurora,’’ 
By Pror. CLEVELAND ABBE. 
‘¢The Investigation of Hidden Periodicities in Terrestrial Magnetism 
and Meteorology,’’ 
By Pror. ARTHUR SCHUSTER, F.R.S. 


‘‘The Relation of Terrestrial Magnetism to Geology,”’ 
(As exhibited by recent investigations of various Authors.) 


‘* Descriptions of Magnetic Observatories,’’ 
(Illustrated) 
By THE DIRECTORS OF THE OBSERVATORIES. 


_ The size of the Journal is royal octavo, a volume embracing about 200 pages. Domestic subscription 
price: Two dollars; single numbers, fifty cents. Foreign subscription price: Nine shillings, nine 


marks, or eleven francs. Address: 
TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM, 
The University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohie. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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_ By mail for 25 cents. 


Editor: JOHN HYDE 


Rotige x SN 
Byratieag Balto ; 
AT WY ; wis McGHE -HENR E 
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uses ‘ / ve | 
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OGRAPHIC EDUCATION. levs dé y McG RR/ 305° 207 


+ THE B UNITED STATES / 


fi | °@, 5 GILBERT. sap 
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SH ae Cute: ‘AGO; 37 AVENUE DE Jie Paris 


ee 5° a i Year — a 


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1896-1899 
CHARLES J. BELL 
WILLIAM H. DALL 
DAVID T. DAY” 

G. K..-GILBERT 
ITERBERT G. OGDEN 
ELIZA R. SCIDMORE 


RECORDING SECRETARY 


Fr. H. NEWELL 


PRESIDENT 


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W J McGEE 


Boarp oF MANAGERS 


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F. V. COVILLE 
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We Br ROWIEIIE 


TREASURER 


HENRY GANNETT 


1898-1901 
A. GRAHAM BELL 
HENRY ‘GANNETT 


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CorRESPONDING SECRETARY 


ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE 


SECRETARY’S OFFICE 


Room 55, Ohio Bank Building, Twelfth and G Sts. N.W., Washington 


TREASURER’S OFFICE 


U. S. Geological Survey, 1330 F St. N. W., Washington 


The National Geographic Society, the object of which is the increase and diffusion 
of geographic knowledge, has a total membership of 1,600. ‘Its membership is not re- 
stricted to practical geographers, but is open to any person in good standing who may 


be sufficiently interested in its work to seek admission. 


Donations for the founding of Prize Medals and Scholarships are 
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The annual subscription is: for 
active members, $5.00 per annum ; for corresponding members, $2.00 per annum. Tue 
NarionaL GreoGrapHic MAGAZINE» is sent regularly to all members. 


’ 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


CHESAPEAKE & OHIO RY. 


HE F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 
solid between Cincinnati and New York, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
system. It has every modern convenience and appliance, and the dining-car service has no superior if 
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from one end to the other; the greater portion is laid with one-hundred-pound steel rails, and although 
curves are numerous in the mountain section, the ride is as smooth as over a Western prairie. 

.One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
mountains are just low enough to be clad with verdure to the very top, and in the early spring every 
variety of green known to the mixer of colors can be seen, while the tones in autumn take on all the 
tange from brown to scarlet. 

These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the East and the West. 


H. W. FU LLER, Gen/. Pass. Agent, Washington, D. C. 


OF course you expect to go there this summer. Let 

me whisper something in your ear. Be sure that 

the return portion of your ticket reads via the 
» 


Northern Pacific-Shasta Route. 


Then you will see the grandest mountain scenery in 
the United States, including lt. Hood and [t. Rainier, 
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such wonderful new gold discoveries have been made, 
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the United States, but of the World. Park season 
begins June Ist each year. Close railroad connections 
made in Union Station, Portland, for Puget panes 
cities and the east, via Northern Pacific. 


CHAS. S. FEE, 


General Passenger Agent, St. Paul, Minn. 


ZOCPRPPPOPOEOOCOPP OP PPPY Bly y yisis 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


=SR> SOUTHERN RAILWAY 


“GREATEST SOUTHERN SYSTEM, 


Penetrates with its main line or branches eight States 
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Winter Resorts of ~ » »« »« MEXICO and CALIFORNIA, 
——AND THE BEST— 
Through Car Line to and from Asheville and Hot Springs—‘: The Land of the Sky.’’ 


Write for Map Folders. 


A. S. THWEATT, Eastern Passenger Agent, 271 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
J. C. HORTON, Passenger Agent, 201 KE. Baltimore Street, Baltimore, Md. 

L. S. BROWN, General Agent, 705 Fifteenth St. N. W., Washington, D.C. 
J. H. WINGFIELD, Passenger Agent, Norfolk, Va. 


S. H. HARDWICK, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Atlanta, Ga. 
Cc. A. BENSCOTER, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
W. H. TAYLOE, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Louisville, Ky. 


J. M. CULP, Traffic Manager. W. A. TURK, General Passenger Agent. 


The Mutual Life Insurance Co. 


OF NEW YORK, 
RICHARD A. McCURDY, President, 


Is the Largest Insurance Company in the World. 


The Records of the Insurance Department of the State of New 
York SHOW THAT The Mutual Life 


Has a Larger Premium Income - - - ($39,000,000) 
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A Greater Amount of Assets - - - -  ($235,000,000) 
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Writes More New Business” - - - =  ($136,000,000) 
And Pays More to Policy-holders ($25,000,000 in 1896) 


THAN ANY OTHER COMPANY. 


It has paid to Policy-holders since 
its organization, in 1848, } a $437,005,195.29 


ROBERT A. GRANNISS, Vice-President. 


WALTER R. GILLETTE, General Manager. FREDERIC CROMWELL, Treasurer. 
ISAAC F. LLOYD, Second Vice-President. EMORY McCLINTOCK, Actuary. 
WILLIAM J. EASTON, Secretary. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


cwSTPAUL 


Ripans einabules cure headache. 


The Fastest and Finest Train in the West . 


FROM 16 TO 20 HOURS 
SAVED BY USING 


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Double Drawing-Room Pullman Sleepers: 
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Buffet Smoking and Library Cars, 


' Send for Descriptive Pamphlet ‘‘ 49-96,’’ E. L. LOMAX, 
Folders and other Advertising Matter. General Passenger and Ticket Agent, 
(Mention this publication.) OMAHA, NEB. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


THE GHIGAGO, MILWAUKEE AND ST. PAUL RAILWAY 


-RONS.. 
Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago, Mil- 
waukee, St. Paul and Minneapolis daily. 
Through Parlor Cars on day trains between Chicago, St. Paul and Minneapolis. 


Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago and 
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Through Sleeping Cars, Free Reclining Chair Cars and Coaches between Chicago 
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Only two hours from Chicago to Milwaukee. Seven fast trains each way, daily, 
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Solid trains between Chicago and principal points in Northern Wisconsin and 
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Through Trains with Palace Sleeping Cars, Free Reclining Chair Cars and Coaches 
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The best Sleeping Cars. Electric Reading Lamps in Berths. 


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Everything First-class. First-class People patronize First-class Lines. 
Ticket Agents everywhere sell tickets over the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Ry. 


GEO. H. HEAFFORD, 
General Passenger Agent, Chicago, III. 


Fe OOO OOO COO OOOO OSC COOOL 


4 MAMMOTH ORY GOODS ESTABLISHMENT * 


ewe 


@ XE: OF 72 @ 
WOODWARD & LOTHROP 


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The attention of those who anticipate purchasing 


\ BRIDAL TROUSSEAUX 
Is invited especially to extreme PARIS NOVELTIES in matched sets 


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Drawers, Corset Covers, &c. These can be furnished in any, number 
of pieces desired. 


HAND-MADE BRIDAL TROUSSEAUX, personally 
selected in Paris and exclusive in oe and 10 Pes 250. 
design: Three or more pieces 5 


CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. MAIL ORDERS RECEIVE PROMPT AND CAREFUL ATTENTION. 


TENTH, ELEVENTH, AND F STREETS N. W. . . . . WASHINGTON, D. C, 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


EI i a I, I a mg ym ge 
oF N SEES EE Dl i EES iL — VY Y 
— “gee SBN me = SL ene Sy ts re 
\ 
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and the Northwest 


GHICAGO 
GREAT 
“WESTERN 


RAILWAY 


For tickets, rates or any detailed information apply 
to your home agent or write to 
F. H. LORD, 
Gen’! Pass’r and Ticket Agent, 
CHICAGO. 


—— 
RSS ESS = SESyq—zrxsys 


ee a a 
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RY UAAVAVAVAAVAVAVAVAVAV AVA AV AVA VV VV VA 


A VITAL POINT ———=aam 


A TYPEWRITER’S 
PRINTING MECHANISM 


oe 
IMPROVEMENT THE Q2DER OF THE AG .."’ 


MUST BE SCIENTIFICALLY CON- 
STRUCTED. THIS POINT IS OF 
UTMOST IMPORT FOR 


EASY OPERATION AND 
PERFECT EXECUTION. 


Che Smith.. 
Premier’ 
Cyupewriters 


Superior on This Point as Well as on All Others. 


i i ewriter Co. 
Bey teh The Smith Premier Typew ; 
PRINCIPLES EMPLOYED. SYRACUSE, N. Y., U.S. A. 


DRDDRDRADRADADRARARADRRADRAA 


DDRERERDRRRDAREDAREDARARAADANARAAS 
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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST. 


The only American magazine devoted to the science of Anthropology in 
all its branches is THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, published at the 
National Capital. This journal is now in its eleventh year of increasing 
usefulness. 

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The AMERICAN GEOLOGIST is issued monthly from the office of publication at Minne- 
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welcome and a generous support from leading geologists everywhere and it is now 
recognized as the exponent of the rapid geological progress that is taking place on 
the continent of North America, including Canada, the United States and Mexico. No- 
where else in the world are geologic phenomena exhibited on a more extensive scale 
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The AMERICAN GEOLOGIST \ays before its readers from month to month the latest 
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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MONOGRAPHS 


On the PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE EKARTH’S SURFACE, designed especially to supply to teachers and 
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LIST OF MONOGRAPHS COMPRISING VOLUME I: 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROCESSES ‘- - - - - = 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES .- - - - - - at W. Powell 
PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES - - - 

BEACHES AND TIDAL MARSHES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST Prot. N. S. Shaler 
PRESENT AND EXTINCT LAKES OF NEVADA - - - - Prof. I. C. Russell 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—NORTHERN SECTION - - - Bailey Willis 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—SOUTHERN SECTION - - - C. Willard Hayes 
MT. SHASTA—A TYPICAL EXTINCT VOLCANO - - - J \f- Sh, Jopoblese 

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TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 


An International Quarterly Journal 


Edited by L. A. BAUER 
With the Co-operation of Eminent Magneticians 


ITH the March, 1898, issue, this Journal, devoted exclusively to Terrestrial Magnetism and allied 
subjects, such as Earth Currents, Auroras, Atmospheric Electricity, etc., entered on its third 
volume. ‘The hearty co-operation extended by the workers in this promising field of investigation, as 
abundantly shown by the numbers thus far issued, has made this Journal the international organ for 
making known the latest achievements. The magnetic needle has become such a promising instrument 
of research, not only in-terrestrial, but in cosmical physics, that this Journal appeals to a large class of 
investigators. The geographer, the geologist, the astronomer, the meteorologist—all are interested in 
the development of the subject of terrestrial magnetism. It should therefore receive their support. 
Among the contributors of the main articles in the past have been Messrs. Barus, Borgen, Chree, Com- 
mander Davis, Eschenhagen, Hellmann, Littlehales, McAdie, Rticker, Schmidt, Schuster, and de Tillo. 


Future numbers will contain : 
‘¢The Height of the Aurora,’’ 
By Pror. CLEVELAND ABBE. 
‘¢ The Investigation of Hidden Periodicities in Terrestrial Magnetism 
and Meteorology,’’ 
By Pror. ARTHUR SCHUSTER, F.R.S. 


‘‘The Relation of Terrestrial Magnetism to Geology,’’ 
(As exhibited by recent investigations of various Authors.) 


‘¢ Descriptions of Magnetic Observatories,’’ 
(Illustrated ) 
By THE DIRECTORS OF THE OBSERVATORIES. 


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marks, or eleven francs. Address : 
TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM, 
The University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohie. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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National Geographic Magazine 


Vou. IX JULY, 1898 No. 7 


AMERICAN GEOGRAPHIC EDUCATION 
; By W J McGez, 


Vice-President of the National Geographic Society 


The Capital of the Nation gives greeting to the National Ed- 
ucational Association. The American Republic, more than any 
other nation, owes character to knowledge diffused among its 
people; and in no other nation is the diffusion of knowledge so 
broad and general. This diffusion of knowledge involves edu- 
eation, and the development and maintenance of educational 
institutions. In accordance with the plan of government by the 
people, of the people, and for the people, our educational facil- 
ities are brought within reach of every citizen, our educational 
methods adapted to the needs of the masses. Some govern- 
ments strive to build intelléctual structures from the top down- 
ward, only to find their lower bricks on a foundation of sand ; 
our system is founded on the rock of popular education, and 
the upper portions of the structure are left free. Therein lies 
a fundamental distinction, the diametrically opposed nature of 
monarchic policy and republican policy in educational matters. 
Under the republican system the twig is bent—the youthful 
mind is started aright; thenceforth it grows and strengthens 
spontaneously, and in good time gives strength to the Republic. 
Other nations cramp thought and enslave minds by Procrustean 
systems based on the knowledge of previous generations, while 
our nation plants the seeds of knowledge to be supported by its 
fruits, and so rises constantly to higher and higher planes with 
a rapidity unprecedented in history; our state does not so much 
shape education as our education shapes the state. Yet the in- 


2] 


306 AMERICAN GEOGRAPHIC EDUCATION 


terest of the state in the progress of education is not diminished 
but only increased by this national policy ; and so the National 
Capital welcomes the educators of the nation more warmly than 
the wise men of any other nation would be welcomed in their 
capital; and the welcome is only the warmer still because the 
organization of educators is voluntary and spontaneous. 

The National Capital is not without educational facilities and 
agencies. As the nation grew, inquiries concerning resources 
and the conditions of material development became necessary, 
and offices of inquiry were created. Several of these offices 
have grown into bureaus and departments, constantly at work 
not only in increasing but also in diffusing knowledge—i. e., 
they have become educational institutions of the highest order. 
As the offices grew, experts and makers of knowledge were as- 
sembled until the National Capital became a center of practical 
learning. In time the experts voluntarily met for mutual ben- 
efit and grouped themselves in unofficial organizations, which 
now stand in the front rank of learned societies of the world; 
and official bureaus and unofficial societies are one in purpose, 
and that the highest within human reach—the increase and dif- 
fusion of knowledge for human weal. 

The unprecedented growth of our national institutions of prac- 
tical learning has been due to several causes, but especially to 
two—the freedom and spontaneity of knowledge under repub- 
lican conditions, and the vast extent and varied resources of 
the national domain. Particularly influential has been our na- 
tional bigness. In the first place geographic ideas are daily de- 
veloped through that current news which is one of the features 
of American life; in the second place engineers and surveyors 
have found full scope for their talents, and have come to lead 
the world in railway-laying, bridge-building, and the inven- 
tion of innumerable attendant devices. Then the resources of 
our rocks have stimulated geologists, and the science has ad- 
vanced with such giant strides that today the geology of the 
world is shaped in America. At the same time our broad terri- 
tory is so conditioned with respect to continental features and 
sources of aqueous vapor that our meteorologists have been in- 
spired to lead the world in weather science. So, too, our eth- 
nologists and anthropologists have profited by the unequalled 
opportunities found in the assemblage of peoples and in the 
range of culture-grades from savagery to enlightenment, which 
it is theirs alone to survey, and have reconstructed the science 


ap 


AMERICAN GEHOGRA PHIC EDUCATION 307 


of man ona higher plane than is known abroad. Thus America 
has outstripped the rest of the world in scientific development, 
especially during the last quarter-century, and while the pro- 
eress has gone forward at equal rate in every part of the land 
its center is the National Capital, where the federal offices and 
several of the scientific societies are located ; and the assembling 
of our educators in our Capital City is a fitting conjunction which 
must benefit both. 

The largest learned body domiciled in the Capital City is the 
National Geographic Society. Although the major portion of 
its members are residents of the District of Columbia, it has a 
membership distributed over all of the states and territories, 
especially in the leading educational institutions. The express 
function of the Society is “the increase and diffusion of geo- 
eraphic knowledge.” These ends are attained by means of 
public meetings for the presentation and discussion of commu- 
nications, by the publication of a magazine, and in other appro- 
priate ways. It is,in the best sense of the term, an educational 
institution ; and the success of its work is attested by its unpre- 
cedentedly rapid growth in membership and influence. 

The National Geographic Society is among the institutions of 
the National Capital striving to render the meeting of the Na- 
tional Educational Association agreeable and profitable. It has 
secured the cooperation of the scientific bureaus in the prepara- 
tion of an exhibit illustrating the work of the federal government 
in knowledge-making, and indicating the educational facilities of 
the Capital; this exhibit is installed in the Central High School 
building, and will be in immediate charge of custodians able to 
explain the maps, apparatus, and other objects exhibited, and 
to describe the work of the bureaus. It has arranged a field- 
meeting in the interest of the Association, at which the methods 
and purposes of the Society will be illustrated by addresses on 
phases of geography by the leading living specialists. It has 
devoted a special number of THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MacG- 
AZINE to the Association, and provided for its sale to members 
at a fraction of the customary price. Finally it was one of the 
institutions of the National Capital to cordially invite the edu- 
cators of the country to Washington ; its officers and members 
are serving on local committees and contributing in other ways 
to the convention ; and it stands second to no institution in wel- 
coming the educators of America to the fair city by the Potomac 
which has become the world’s center of enlightenment. 


ORIGING OF LE PREYS! GAL re Aun Uiie Si © ieueslacts 
UNIREDSSTATES: 


By G. K. GILBErRt, 
United States Geological Survey 


Fifteen years ago, on a September morning, I stood on a house- 
top in Zui, waiting for the rising of the sun. On other house- 
tops here and there were other watchers, sitting or standing with 
their faces toward the east, and close at my side stood a vener- 
_ able priest of the Sun, oblivious of all else and gazing intently 
on the spot where the sun should appear. From his neck hung 
a small bag containing sacred meal. When the first streak of 
light appeared above the eastern mesa his lips began to move, 
and he repeated slowly and with low voice an invocation to the 
Sun. Then, taking from the bag a small offering of the conse- 
crated flour, he breathed upon it and cast it toward the east. 
Cushing, who became a Zufi Indian that he might learn their 
lore, tells us that this sun-rise ritual contains archaic words of 
which few modern Zufis know the meaning—words related to the 
modern Zufi tongue as Norman French to modern English, and 
showing that the Zufi sun-worship began in remote times, far 
beyond the possibility of historical determination. 

The Zufii’s reverence for the sun-god is shared by many savage 
tribes, and belongs to the early history of many civilized peoples. 
In later stages of culture it is succeeded by the worship of ani- 
mals, of the personified powers of nature, and of personified 
mental power, so that with civilized man the old sun-worship 
has disappeared; but there is a new sun-worship, introduced and 
fostered by science, for science has discovered in the sun a creator 
of wonderful versatility and power. 

Geographers worship also another nature-god, the inner earth 
or the underground, a creator also and co-worker with the sun. 
These two gods of physical geography were known to the Greeks 
as Helios and Hades, to the Romans as Apolloand Pluto. In 

*The course of afternoon lectures arranged for the winter and spring of 1898 was 
planned by the late President Hubbard to present the effect of geographic environment 
on the civilization and progress of the United States. The present essay was prepared at. 


his request as the introductory lecture of the course, dealing with general principles 
and the most comprehensive groups of natural features. 


308 


PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE UNITED STATES 309 


later centuries Apollo, as the stimulator of life, developt into the 
god of culture; but to early tradition he is the sun, a nature-god 
coordinate with Pluto, the underground. Geology has long 
recognized Pluto, but has made him codrdinate with the sea- 
god, Neptune, naming her rocks in two great groups, the plutonic 
and neptunian. Neptune has place also in the pantheon of 
geography, but only as a vassal of the mightier Apollo. 

Apollo gives to the earth light, heat, frost, storm, and rivers, 
_and is daily the creator of motion and life. Pluto is an unknown 
god, hidden and mysterious. The Greeks named him Hades, 
the unseen. His only attribute of which we are altogether sure 
isheat. Imagination pictures him in various ways, but imagina- 
tions differ, and their conflicting sketches need not claim our 
attention today. He made the continent and is never tired of 
remaking it. Butfor him the globular earth would be envelopt 
in an endless ocean, and life would be far different from the life 
we know. By ridging the outer rind of the earth he created the 
land and set a limit to the sea, and from age to age he swells 
broad land tracts upward or draws them downward, so that the 
outlines of sea and land are ever changing. Crushing the rock 
together here and there, he forces up mountain ridges; fusing it, 
he pours out lavas that congeal and build up other mountains. 

Apollo dips up water from the sea and sprinkles it on the rock 
to moisten and soften it. By alternate heating and chilling 
he cracks it into bits; and by a complex chemistry which, de- 
spite our studies, still seems magical, he changes it to fine soil, 
in which plants may grow.and in which the husbandman may 
delve. Lifting more water from the sea, he pours it broadly on 
the land to make rills and rivers, which wash the soil away, 
spreading it in the hollows and building plains. This scouring 
cuts the uplands into hills, but eventually they, too, are worn 
down, so that the plain is the end and aim of the water work. 
Preparing for the plow the yielding soil and level surface which 
make its labors light, and showering the fields with fertilizing 
moisture, he is the beneficent patron of agriculture. 

The mountains of Pluto, lifted to the region of clouds, intercept 
and engender storms and are the perennial sources of streams. 
Rugged with gorges and crags and scantily clothed with soil, they 
extend no welcome to the farmer, but instead they harbor a forest 
erowth, storing timber and fuel; and in some lands their huge 
banks of winter snow are reservoirs for the water of irrigation. 

Pluto and Apollo separate the earth stuff into kinds. If all 


310 PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE UNITED STATES 


the minerals of the land were mingled in one complex but homo- 
eeneous substance, the problem of civilization would bea problem 
of separation and would be chemical; but the gods have classi- 
fied and arranged, sorting the more abundant materials into 
broad layers, and gathering the rarer into crevices and pockets ; 
and so the problem of civilization is a problem of exploration 
and discovery, or a problem of geographic distribution. 

Pluto sorts by creating a slow circulation of water. As far as 
mines and borings have penetrated the earth the pores of the 
rocks are full of water, and the downward limit of this satura- 
tion isunknown. The upper rocks are comparatively cool; the 
lower rocks are hot; and the contrast sets the water in motion. 
The upper water, denser because cold, tends downward; the 
under water, expanded and made lighter by heat, is forced up- 
ward, and though motion is exceedingly slow, there is a contin- 
uous circulation. The chemistry of the upper water is different 
from the chemistry of the lower. Each can dissolve certain sub- 
stances, but the substances are not the same. The properties of 
water change as heat and pressure increase, and again as heat 
and pressure decrease. So the slow-moving water picks up cer- 
tain substances in one region, and in another deposits them so 
as to receive other substances, and in this way it sorts out many 
of the rarer things, gathering together or concentrating ores of 
gold, silver, platinum, mercury, lead, zinc, copper, and iron. 

Apollo sorts by the free circulation of water at the surface. 
The soil that is washt away from mountains and uplands and 
spread by the streams in lowlands and submerged plains is not 
deposited in one promiscuous mass, but is classified according 
to kinds—marl in one place, clay in another, and sand in an- 
other—and in time these become limestone, shale, and sandstone. 
The tissues of plants are gathered in swamps and changed to 
peat, then buried under shale and sandstone, and finally trans- 
formed to coal. The tissues of plants and animals, intimately 
mingled with mud that changes underground to shales, are 
slowly distilled in after ages to fill rock reservoirs with oil and 
gas. In other places and by other special processes iron, salt, 
gypsum, and phosphates are separated; and where Plutonic 
stores of the metals are ravaged by storm and stream, the gold is 
separated by its weight and gathered in the river gravels. 


The origin of the features of all lands having been thus briefly 
sketcht, we may now consider in a broad way the physical 


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PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE UNITED STATES 311 


characters of the United States, and for this purpose it is conven- 
ient to divide the country into a few broad provinces. 

Parallel to the Atlantic coast is the Appalachian Mountain 
belt, running northeastward from Alabama to New England. 
East of it lies the Atlantic plain. West of it the Central plain, 
consisting largely of the valley of the Mississippi, stretches to 
the base of the Rocky mountains. Thence to the Pacific coast 
is a mountainous province known to geographers as the Cordil- 
leras. A fifth province, the:province of the Lakes, overlaps the 
northern portions of the other four and reaches from ocean to 
ocean along our Canadian border. 

The Cordilleran province, comprising the western third of our 
country, is characterized by mountain ranges. The dominant 
trend is with the meridian, swerving in some districts toward 
the southeast, and in others toward the southwest; and in each 
district there is a general parallelism. The ranges are definitely 
Plutonic, each one having been caused by a distinct local uplift ; 
but they are not altogether independent, for there is niuch evi- 
dence of system in their arrangement. Not only are neighbor- 
ing ranges approximately parallel, but they are evenly spaced, 
so that in crossing the system one finds a regular alternation of 
ridge and valley. Through extensive districts the alluvial waste 
from the erosion and sculpture of the ranges is gathered in the 
intervening valleys, making of each one a shallow basin or gently 
concave plain, where roads may run at will. Here and there 
some of the lower ranges are almost buried by the alluvial fill- 
ing, so that their summits project as craggy islands above a 
sea of rock waste. Elsewhere, and especially where the moun- 
tains are highest, the intervening valleys are drained by vigorous 
rivers, which carry off the waste and prevent the building of ex- 
tensive plains. In one important district uplift has not com- 
pleted its work of mountain-making, and the land forms a system 
of plateaus of various heights, through which the Colorado and 
its tributaries have carved their wonderful system of canyons. 
Volcanoes, also, have made extensive contributions to the topog- 
raphy, building many great cones and a multitude of cratered 
hills, and adding voluminous beds of lava to the alluvial strata 
of the valleys. 

In the extreme northwest the rainfallis exceptionally abundant, 
causing a forest growth so luxuriant and dense that the farmer 
cannot afford the labor of its subjugation as the purchase price 
to Nature for his land. Much of this district, also, is too rugged 


312 PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE UNITED STATES 


for the plow, so that it constitutes a great natural forest reserve, 
needing only protection from fire to insure a perpetual supply 
of timber. In the remainder of the province the rain tribute is 
scant, falling far short of the farmer’s needs, so that crops must be 
irrigated. The downfall is greater on mountains than on valleys, 
and about their cool summits the winter’s snow lingers through 
spring and summer, doling out water to mountain streams, which 
may be utilized for the irrigation of valley lands. But the acres 
which can thus be nourisht are only asmall share of those whose 
smooth surface invites the plow, and the valleys as a whole 
belong to the herdsman rather than the husbandman. ‘Their 
grasses are scant, but this fault is half compensated by their im- 
mense extent,and they must be counted as a valuable resource, 
an important reserve of grazing land that can never be monopo- 
lized by agriculture. On the higher plateaus and in the recesses 
of the mountains are tracts and patches of forests, many of which 
are protected against hasty consumption by inaccessibility, and 
these supplement the great reserve of the extreme northwest. In 
the mountains, also, are Plutonic stores of the precious and other 
metals, and a score of valleys hold Apollonic magazines of coal. 
The mountain streams, in addition to their tribute to agriculture, 
afford power to the manufacturer. Untamed and fickle, subject 
to enormous floods and irregular droughts, their control is not 
easy; but if they shall ever be subdued and harnest, there is 
hardly a limit to the tasks they may perform. 

The Central Plain, comprising half of all the land, has been 
shaped by Apollonic forces. The geologist tells us of many up- 
lifts, dislocations, and flexures of the crust; but all these have 
been reduced to approximate evenness by the codperative work 
of rain, frost, and rivers. Where hollows were made they have 
been filled; where hills and mountains had grown they have 
been pared away, so that only their roots, with a few low stumps, 
remain. In types of detail there is much variety, and there are 
many rugged tracts; but the characterizing feature is evenness, 
and agriculture is the great industry for which the province is 
naturally destined. 

On this broad fact, however, climate imposes an important 
qualification. Over most of the province the spring and summer 
rains suffice for the farmer’s need, disappointing him only by 
an occasional drought, but in a western belt following the base 
of the Rocky mountains, and including much of the sub-province 
known as the Great Plains, the rainfall is so scant that agricul- 


7 


PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE UNITED STATES 313 


ture must depend on irrigation, just asin the Cordilleras. Here, 
again, grazing may flourish without need to compete with agri- 
culture for possession of the land, and the domain of the herds- 
man is thus naturally set apart.’ 

Of the rarer mineral resources the Central Plain has greatest 
wealth in coal, which underlies broad tracts and is easily mined. 
It is rich also in iron, both Plutonic and Apollonic, and has 
abundant salt and gypsum. Throughout its broad extent wagon 
roads and railroads are easily constructed, and its grain for ex- 
port finds cheap water transportation from interior districts to 
the sea by way of the Mississippi and the St Lawrence. 

The mountains of the Appalachian Province were formed by 
the codperation or Plutoand Apollo. Long ago the crustal rocks 
were crowded together in a great system of wrinkles, the crests 
of which were then wholly pared away so that the Central and 
Atlantic plains were joined in one. ‘Then came other disturb- 
ances along the folded belt, but without new folding. The plain 
was locally lifted into a long plateau, with gentle slopes on either 
side, and from this plateau the mountains have been carved. 
Through the remnants of the old truncated folds ran long out- 
crops of various and diverse rocks, trending northeast and south- 
west, and these rocks have been wasted unequally by the eroding 
waters. Where there were soluble limestones or weak shales, the 
streams opened valleys; where there were resistant sandstones 
or quartzites, mountain ridges were left ; and so the Appalachian 
ranges are a complex cameo of Nature’s carving. The broader 
valleys were smoothed in the carving and prepared for agricul- 
ture, the mountains left rough and reserved for forest. The region 
is rich in iron, both Apollonic and Plutonic, and peculiarly rich 
in what may be called Plutonic coal—coal made, indeed, by 
Apollonic processes, but converted to rich anthracite by Plutonic 
heat. Water power is abundant, and though less magnificent in 
its possibilities than the power associated with the loftier Cor- 
dilleras, of greater present value because more tractable, and 
because associated with tillable plains that are qualified by cli- 
mate for the primary industry of agriculture. 

The Atlantic plain resembles the Central in that both cutting 
and filling have contributed to its formation, but the constructive 
factor is here more important. While the Appalachian folds were 
being reduced, part of the waste went eastward, burying the At- 
lantic margin of the continent and extending it seaward. Later, 
when the Appalachian cameo was carved, the accumulation of 


ol4 PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE UNITED STATES 


waste was continued, and so the eastern part of the Atlantic belt 
is what geographers call a constructional plain. But there is 
another part, lying close to the mountains, which shared in the 
Appalachian uphft and also in the Appalachian carving, and was 
finally reduced so nearly to sea level that it constitutes an in- 
separable part of the Atlantic Province. It consists of ancient 
rocks, graded down nearly to a uniform level, and is clast by 
geographers as a destructional or eroded plain. As Pluto raises 
and lowers the land the ocean is caused to alternately recede and 
advance, and this low-lying plain is peculiarly susceptible to its 
encroachment. In our day the fourth part of it is submerged, 
so that its actual limit as a physical feature Les many miles be- 
yond the coast, where there is an abrupt change from shallow 
soundings to abyssal depths. The land of the Atlantic Plain is 
shaped for agriculture, and much of it is cultivated; but there 
are broad tracts of soil too poor to compete with the fertile land 
of the Central Plain and utilized only for timber and other forest 
products. Water powers, afforded by the moderate fall of large 
streams, have great value by reason of their proximity to tide- 
water and consequent facilities for cheap transportation of the 
raw materials and the products of manufacture. 

The Lake Province, overlapping all other provinces from the 
north, is a marginal overflow of Canadian topography, and re- 
sulted from the great prehistoric invasion of our land by Cana- 
dian ice. The colossal ice-sheets of the eastern and central 
British provinces and the contemporary glaciers of the northern 
Cordilleran mountains remodeled the topography of all the proy- 
inces, carving the valleys into new shapes and heaping the débris 
in irregular mounds and ridges of peculiar type. When the ice 
was melted and rains fell again upon the land, the streams could 
neither find nor follow their old courses, and the waters were 
compelled to fill many a hollow before they could flow away at 
all; so while the old types of mountains and plains remained as. 
broad features characterizing the several provinces, there was 
added the feature of obstructed drainage, markt by a multi- 
plicity of lakes. Of these are the lakes and ponds of New Eng- 
land and New York, the great Laurentian lakes and their host of 
associated lakelets, the mountain lakes of Idaho and Montana, 
and the curious linear lakes of northern Washington. The dis- 
tribution of ores was not affected, though facility of discovery 
and exploitation was locally modified, being partly impaired 
and partly improved. The surface conditions bearing on agri- 


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PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE UNITED STATES old 


culture were greatly changed. Large tracts denuded of soil were 
relegated to the growth of timber; others were made hilly by 
the heaping of drift, and yet others were smoothed by sedimen- 
tation in the beds of temporary lakes. The new soils have a 
special quality as compared to those resulting from the decay of 
rocks, for rock decay involves leaching and the loss of soluble 
minerals. The ice-mill ground together unleacht samples of 
many rocks and deposited them with little sorting, so that the 
glacial soils are often rich in materials which elsewhere need to 
be artificially supplied. 

The confusion of drainage has yielded results as important in 
their way as those from the traditionary confusion of tongues at 
Babel, for the disconcerted streams, having their descent arrested 
by basins and lakes, are compelled elsewhere to tumble down 
rapidly, making convenient water powers; and these water 
powers have special value because the associated lakes are nat- 
ural reservoirs, protecting them from flood and drought. As the 
greater lakes are also natural avenues for commerce, the prov- 
ince of the Lakes, associating water power with commercial facil- 
ity, is the natural home of manufacture. 

The physical characters which, after mineral resources and 
climate, have greatest influence on industrial activities are in- 
ternal routes for commerce and maritime harbors in their rela- 
tion to external routes. The lines followed hy pioneer settle- 
ment as well as those to which internal transportation ultimately 
adjusts itself are greatly influenced by topographic configuration, 
continuous mountain ranges acting as barriers and low passes 
through ranges serving as avenues. Long lines of navigable 
water also have their influence, and for districts whose most 
practical product is so abundant as to yield a surplus for expor- 
tation facility of transportation means progress in population 
and wealth. The consideration of these conditions is attractive, 
but as they affect various localities unequally their discussion 
may properly be left for the lecturers who are to speak of more 
limited districts. 

Harbors, however, though their local quality has local value, 
are of primary importance to the country as a whole and may 
be considered today. They are naturally formed in many ways, 
but only the principal types need be mentioned. Wherever a 
river reaches the sea the continuous contour of the coast is broken, 
and there would be a natural harbor but for the opposition of 
the waves. The outflowing river endeavors to scour a channel 


316 PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE UNITED STATES 


through which ships may enter. The waves, buffeting the coast 
and drifting sand and gravel to and fro, endeavor to clog the 
riverway with submerged bars, making the water too shoal for 
shipping. Over small rivers the waves are victorious, and 
unless engineers cooperated with the rivers the entrance-ways 
are sealed. Large rivers overpower the waves and clear their 
channels faster than the waves can clog them. Only one of our 
rivers, the Mississippi, has proved competent to maintain its 
channel to the sea, but.that affords a harbor of peculiar value, in 
that itis connected with a system of inland navigation hundreds 
of miles in extent. 

The fiord harbors associated with prehistoric ice-fields are an 
important group. The ice descended to the shores of both oceans, 
and by its remodeling of the surface left steep slopes with a tor- 
tuous contour, creating a great abundance of deep harbors. New 
England at the east and Washington at the west are thus en- 
dowed, and their maritime commerce requires neither piers nor 
dredges to maintain its natural channels. 

Natural harbors of a third class are connected with vertical 
movements of the land. When the margin of the continent is 
lifted the coast line, following a slope new-risen from the sea, is 
a simple contour on an even plain, and there are no harbors; 
but when the land is deprest the sea-water enters each valley of 
the coastal plain, making a bay. Then the waves, driving sand 
and other land waste along the coast, build a spit across the 
mouth of each bay,converting it into a sheltered harbor, whose 
entrance is scoured four times a day by the incoming and out- 
going tide. Into the estuaries thus formed the streams build 
deltas, gradually filling and obliterating them; but so long as 
subsidence continues they remain open and available for com- 
merce. It is our good fortune that nearly the whole of our coast, 
both Atlantic and Pacific, is now subsiding,* so that estuaries 
are numerous and the maintenance of serviceable harbors re- 
quires only moderate aid from the engineer. The bays and 
sounds of San Francisco, Galveston, Mobile, Tampa, Savannah, 
Charleston, Wilmington, Pamlico, Chesapeake, and Delaware are 
of this type; and the Hudson estuary, which is also a fiord, 
carries tidewater one hundred and fifty miles from the coast. 

Climatically the United States lies within the zone of variable 
winds. Instead of being swept by continuous trade winds or 


* Strictly speaking, the determined fact is that the relation of land to sea is chang- 
ing, and we do not know which one actually moves. 


‘ 


THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 317 


periodic monsoons, it is traverst at short but irregular intervals 
by the broad air whirls called cyclones, which bring with them 
rapid alternations of warmth and coolness, sunshine and rain, 
breeze and calm; and the direction of the wind is continually 
shifting. In other words, we are endowed with weather instead 
of mere climatic monotony. 

In all parts of our land there is so much of winter that man 
must provide himself with clothing, shelter, and fuel. Natural 
fruits, to be had for the plucking, will not sustain him, and he is 
compelled to earn his food. ‘Thus Nature forces him to labor 
and to contrive, and his physical and intellectual faculties are 
developt, like the athlete’s muscle, by exercise. From variety 
of configuration, of mineral resources, and of climate, flow varied 
and complementary industries. Agriculture flourishes in the 
Atlantic and Central provinces, on the morainic hills and lacus- 
trine plains of the Lake district, and, with irrigation, in intervales 
of the Cordilleras. Its products range from the hardy apple to 
the frost-shunning banana. Along the western borders of the 
Central plain and in Cordilleran valleys the herdsman tends his 
bands of horses, kine, and sheep. In the humid northwest, in 
the recesses of the mountains, and on tracts of inferior or scanty 
soil are forests for the lumberman. In mountains and roots of 
mountains are ores for the miner, and from the hills he draws 
fossil fuels. Manufacture finds natural power in waterfall, coal, 
and gas, and the way of commerce is made easy by the harbors 
of the coast. Thus Pluto and Apollo have prepared the land 
for that diversity of product and industry which gives national 
independence and have provided a commercial facility which | 
joins us to the brotherhood of nations. 


GEOGRAPHIC DEVELORMENT OF fie DISTRICT OF 
COLUMBIA 


By W J McGEE 


The District of Columbia hes on the boundary between two 
great natural districts or provinces, the Piedmont plateau and 
the Coastal plain. 

The Piedmont province is a low plateau composed of ancient 
crystalline rocks, extending westward to the Blue Ridge and 
stretching far northeastward and southeastward. This plateau 
is trenched by Potomac and other rivers and their tributaries, 


GEOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF 


D 


318 


and its surface has been carved into hill and vale, broad divide 
and narrow valley, by the action of running water. During the 
ages past it was a high plateau or mountain range, which was 
first canyoned and afterward carried away by the Potomac and 
neighboring rivers of eastern United States. 

The Coastal province is a broad lowland made up of sedi- 
mentary formations. It extends from the capital to the coast, 
and thence as shallow sea-bottom for over-a hundred miles into 
the Atlantic, ending ina steep slope toward the ocean-depths ; 
and it stretches northward to New York and southward to the 
limits of the continent. ‘Thus the Coastal plain is about half 
land and half sea-bottom. ‘Through the land portion broad 
estuaries pass, bearing the waters of Potomac and other rivers to 
the sea; and in the bottoms of the estuaries and in the sea-bot- 
toms beyond, certain channels have been revealed by soundings. 

The history of the development of the region may be read from 
the land-forms of the two provinces, and from the sedimentary 
formations or deposits of the Coastal plain. 


DEFINITIONS 


The student of geographic development takes note of (1) pro- 
cesses or agencies, and (2) products. ‘The chief agency concerned 
in making this region is water, and the chief processes are (a) 
erosion, and (/) transportation by running water, together with 
(c) deposition of the transported material in slack water; or, in 
more general terms, degradation and subsequent aggradation. 

When a considerable area of earth-crust rises in such manner 
as to transform smooth sea-bottom to dry land, certain changes 
are wrought on the surface: When the rains fall, a part of the 
water lies long on the level surface and forms marshes, but here 
and there rivulets form and flow down the gentle slopes toward 
the sea; the rivulets cut rills and, as the waters gather strength 
with increased volume, dig gullies; eventually the rills unite in 
streamlets and brooks, and the gullies expand into ravines and 
valleys; and in time streams and rivers are formed, each flowing 
in a gorge or valley of its own making. In this way the surface 
of the uplifted sea-bottom is carved into valley-systems, and the 
forms of the valleys determine the forms of the hills and divides 
by which they are bounded. It is in this way that the lands of 
the earth are sculptured; and the sculpture of running water 
produces a characteristic topography. 


\ 


THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA O19 


The earth-matter cut out of the rills, gullies, ravines, and val- 
leys is transported by the running water into the adjacent lake 
or sea, where it is dropped, swept here and there by the waves, 
and eventually built into sheets of sediment, or formations. So 
long as land and sea maintain their relative position, the sedi- 
ments are accumulated continuously and constitute a single 
formation; but if the earth-crust rises or sinks, the formation 
changes: If the earth-crust rises, the ocean withdraws and sea- 
bottom is converted into land to be sculptured into land-forms ; 
if it sinks, the ocean advances and sediments are laid down over 
the land-forms sculptured by the running waters, and an uncon- 
formity is produced. 

Thus in regions like the Coastal province there are two im- 
portant classes of products, (a) land-forms, and (b) formations ; 
and the unconformities separating the formations are old land- 
surfaces. 

The development of the region is recorded in land-forms, forma- 
tions, and unconformities produced in this way. 


THE LAND-FORMS 


Above the mouth of Rock creek, Potomac river flows in a 
steep-bluffed gorge cut sharply in the Piedmont plateau; Rock 
creek, too, occupies a narrow and rugged valley cut in a plain— 
a plain so definite that the eye catches its continuity and fails 
to note the valley save when near its brink. The lesser tribu- 
taries of the Potomac and of Rock creek flow in narrower val- 
leys, gorges, and ravines, each proportionate to the length and 
strength of its stream. Thus the western part of the district is 
a land of sharp-cut gorgeS and ravines, with rugged hills be- 
tween ; while toward the main divides the waterways diminish 
in depth and the surface becomes a gently undulating plateau. 
And it is evident that each channel, great and small, was carved 
by the great or small stream now occupying it; 1t is evident, 
too, that the channels are deep because this part of the land 
stands high above the level of tide; and after a little study of 
the steepness of the valley-sides, it is evident also that the period 
of valley-cutting was not very long—for the steep slope is a sign 
of rapid stream-work. 

Below Rock creek, Potomac river expands in a tidal estuary 
flanked by moderately steep bluffs and lined with alluvium or 
river-mud. Anacostia river occupies a similar but smaller 
trough, relatively broad and shallow as that of the Potomac; 


320 GEOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF 


and its bluffs rise to a moderately uniform plain in which the 
trough is excavated. The lesser tributaries are estuaries toward 
their mouths, but flow in steep-sided gorges and ravines much 
like those of the Piedmont toward their sources ; while the di- 
vides are broad, flat plains in which the drainage systems are 
imperfectly developed. Thus the eastern portion of the district 
is a land of steep-bluffed tidal estuaries, narrowing above into 
gorges and ravines, with ill-drained expanses between. The 
history recorded in these land-forms is a little more complex 
than that recorded in the Piedmont: Since the valleys are pro- 
portionate in size to their streams, it is evident that all were cut 
by the streams now occupying them; since the head-water 
ravines do not unite in the broad divide-plains. and since the 
slopes are steep, it is evident that the land has not stood above 
the ocean long enough to permit the drainage-systems to extend 
themselves over the entire surface; and since the larger valleys 
are occupied by tide-water and lined with alluvium, it is evident 
that the land formerly stood higher than now, and has since 
subsided so far as to permit ocean-water to drown the larger 
river-cut valleys. So the land forms of the district tell of certain 
agencies and movements concerned in the development of the 
district. 
THE FORMATIONS 


Washington is located in a triangular amphitheater opening 
southward through its southern angle. This amphitheater is 
lined with a peculiar deposit not found over the higher bound- 
ing hills; it is composed of brown loam or clay mixed with 
sand, gravel, and bowlders. This is the Columbia formation. 
It is generally coarser below and finer above, the upper portion 
being used as brick-clay ; and in general it 1s coarser toward 
the gateway in the wall of the amphitheater through which the 
Potomac enters in the western part of the city, and finer in the 
eastern and southern portions of the amphitheater. On com- 
paring this deposit with the alluvium dredged out of the river- 
bottom there is found so close similarity as to warrant the con- 
clusion that both were produced by the same agency—that just 
as the river is depositing the alluvium at the present time, espe- 
cially during the spring freshets, so the Columbia formation 
was deposited by the river during the freshets of past ages. This 
conclusion involves the supposition that during the Columbia 
period the land stood lower than now, so that the Potomac estu- 
ary occupied the entire amphitheater. Comparison of the allu- 


» Lai 
“1s 


\ 


THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 321 


vium with the Columbia deposits reveals certain minor differences 
in the deposits, notably a larger proportion of brown loam and 
a larger number and size of bowlders in the ancient one; and 
these differences suggest that during the Columbia period the 
climate was colder than now, the bowlder-bearing ice-floes larger, 
and the thaw freshets more destructive to soil than at present. 
These features suffice to correlate the Columbia formation with 
the glacial deposits of northern United States. Thus the Colum- 
bia formation records definitely a period during which the land 
stood lower than now and the sea encroached further, and when 
the climate was colder thannow. Detailed study of the forma- 
tion indicates that there were two epochs of depression of the 
land, separated by a stage of elevation, the submergence during 
the earlier period being much the greater. The earlier Columbia 
deposits are found over the lower hills and uplands flanking the 
Washington amphitheater up to 200 feet above tide; the later 
Columbia mantles Capitol hill and other portions of the amphi- 
theater up to about 100 feet above tide. 

The distribution of the Columbia deposits is such as to indi- 
cate that the great estuaries of Potomac and Anacostia rivers 
and the narrower rock-bound gorge of the Potomac-from Great 
Falls to its source were carved out in nearly their present form 
before the Columbia period ; thus these great geographic feat- 
ures record a pre-Columbia period during which the land stood 
far above its present level so that the ocean retreated far beyond 
the present shore-line, probably to the great submarine scarp 
100 miles off shore. This period was one of great importance 
in the development of the’ district, though it has only recently 
been defined through recognition of principles discovered during 
researches in the district. At that time the entire Coastal plain 
was land, so far elevated that rivers and brooks flowed swiftly 
across it and down its slopes, producing characteristic land- 
sculpture—a surface now represented in one of the strongest 
unconformities in the Coastal plain. 


On some of the highest hills bounding the Washington am- 
phitheater there is found a deposit of red clay and well-rounded 
pebbles of quartz and quartzite somewhat resembling the Co- 
lumbia, but differing in that the pebbles are harder and more 
worn, and in that the deposit is more uniform and homogeneous ; 
this is the Lafayette formation. Outcrops of the Lafayette are 
found on Good Hope hill, in the uplands about Soldiers’ Home, 


22 


322 GEOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF 


and on the hills toward Tenly ; and most of the broad divides 
between the head-water ravines in the eastern part of the dis- 
trict and still further eastward are floored with the deposit. 
The structure of the deposit indicates that it was arranged by 
waves and currents along the shore of a shallow ocean, stretch- 
ing far northward and southward; and its uniformity indicates 
that the deep valleys of the modern estuaries did not exist, and 
that it was laid down on smooth sea-bottom, a former smooth 
land-surface, before the post-Lafayette period of high level. It 
is composed of materials which are either decomposed and thus 
degraded chemically (the brown loam), or of great chemic ob- 
duracy (the quartz and quartzite); and the simplest explana- 
tion of its composition is that its materials were gathered by 
swiftly flowing streams over a land which had long been sub- 
jected to the action of chemical rather than mechanical agen- 
cies—i. e., land lying low for a long period so that running water 
was sluggish and impotent, while decomposition of the rocks 
and soils went on apace. 

So the Lafayette formation tells of a time when the land was 
low, so low that the Atlantic encroached beyond the longitude 
of Washington; it tells, too, of a seaward tilting of the Piedmont 
whereby the streams were made swifter than before, so as to 
tear up residuary soils and ancient quartz ledges. The dis- 
tribution of the Lafayette indicates that it was originally a con- 
tinuous mantle stretching from the Piedmont far seaward and 
northward and southward throughout the Coastal plain; but 
that during the subsequent period of high level it was entirely — 
cut away along the larger and many of the smaller streams so- 
that it is now represented only by a series of remnants on the 
higher divides. 

Thus, the Lafayette formation is a definite record of a great 
subsidence and seaward tilting of the land; and at the same 
time it records a previous geographic condition during which 
its materials were prepared by chemic processes, and a subse- 
quent geographic condition during which most of its volume 
was carried away by running waters. 


THE COMBINED RECORD OF LAND-FORMS AND FORMATIONS 


The margin of the Piedmont plateau reaching the district is 
a land of fairly smooth contour, albeit trenched by gorges and 
ravines, and its rocks yield red clays and quartz fragments on 
decomposition; and these conditions are in accord with the 


THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 323 


evidence of the Lafayette formation. Thus. the period of the 
shaping of the plateau may be correlated with the period closed 
by the deposition of the formation. 

The great gorges of the Potomac and Anacostia and of Rock 
ereek and other tributaries tell of a period when the land stood 
high above its present level; and this is in accord with the 
degradation of the greater part of the Lafayette, and permits 
correlation of the land-forms in the two provinces. 

The lining of the Washington amphitheater with Columbia 
deposits records a period when the land stood low and when the 
climate was cold, and this gives a date for the correlation of 
local geologic history with general geologic history. 

Thus the land- forms and the formations, when carefully studied 
and interpreted, yield a record of the development of the District 
during the ages: The streams flowed down to the sea, the waves 
rolled along the shores, sediment was gathered here and de- 
posited there, the earth-crust alternately heaved and sank ; as 
time passed valleys were born and hills were fashioned, and the 
face of the land was transformed again and again; each new 
geography was wrought from the old, and each can be restored 
in mind or in picture from the study of hilland rock; and each 
stage in evolution was an..important episode in the geographic 
development of the District of Columbia. 


THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL 
CAPITAL 


By Marcus BaKkrr* 


Among all the great capitals of the world the capital of the 
United States stands out unique. In its origin, development, 
and government, Washington has no counterpart. There is but 
one Washington. That the National Capital is unlike other 
cities in the United States is matter of common observation and 
remark. Its wide, asphalt-covered avenues, its shaded streets. 
its parks, and public statues—these outward shows usually first 
arrest attention and excite comment. The roominess of the 
streets and the leisurely air of those who use them are also often 

* Mr Marcus Baker, of the U. S. Geological Survey, was one of the founders and the 


first Secretary of the Columbia Historical Society and is now Chairman of its Publica- 
tion Committee.—Ep. 


324 THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF 


remarked on by visiting strangers. The smoothness and spa- 
ciousness of the highways seem to be a perpetual source of de- 
light, while the want of commercial bustle and rush and turmoil 
_ in the streets is to many a visitor visible evidence of the laziness 
and indifference engendered by the public service. Whether 
this judgment be wise or otherwise, it is not for those judged 
to determine; yet we know that though first impressions are 
prone to last, it is not because of their accuracy ; and from judg- 
ments we often learn more of the quality of the judge than of 
that concerning which he pronounces judgment. 

Most of our large cities are given over to manufactures and 
ecommerce. The energy of the citizens is given to making things, 
to transporting them, to buying and to selling. Business activ- 
ity and prosperity, to the resident of such cities, means crowded 
and noisy streets, filled with endless streams of men, women, and 
traffic. horses, trolley cars, cobblestones, policemen, street fakirs, 
big wagons, little wagons, automobiles, with fake extras of yel- 
low journals shouted above all the din. To those whose lives 
are spent in such surroundings, Washington seems dull and 
stupid. 

Washington is now nearly a century old, it having been first 
occupied as the seat of government in 1800. It was on June 15 
of that year that the public offices were first opened, and on No- 
vember 22 following that Congress for the first time met in Wash- 
ington. 

At the close of the Revolution, when Congress was in session 
in Philadelphia, it will be remembered some of the unpaid sol- 
diers grew impatient at the delay in settling their accounts. To 
hasten a settlement and stimulate what they deemed a dawd- 
ling and lazily deliberative Congress to prompt action, these 
soldiers made a threatening demonstration about the old State- 
house where Congress was then in session. 

Just as the present war with Spain has suddenly and pro- 
foundly affected the thinking, the outlook, and the points of 
view of all who think, so this little demonstration to hasten the 
payment of money due taught Congress, the apt pupil, a lesson 
which the teacher,a mutinous soldiery,neither knew nor dreamed 
of. Our forefathers had chafed under the presence and support 
of an army maintained against the citizens at the cost of the cit- 
izens and in the interest of the sovereign. When their own cit- 
izen soldiery grew mutinous, a new view suddenly appeared and 
with it a new danger. Out of this new view and from this real 


THE NATIONAL CAPITAL 325 


or supposed menace came the decision, thoughtfully and reso- 
lutely taken, that the seat of government of the United States 
must be where only those United States have exclusive jurisdic- 
tion and control. This new created State, this then small star 
in the galaxy of nations, was designed to be and its founders 
believed it was to become a great nation. So believing, they 
deliberated and determined that it should have a permanent 
home of its own, where its laws could be made, interpreted, and 
executed without improper interferences or influence of any kind 
or from any source. The conclusion was to select a tract and 
build a permanent home as the seat of government. Most cap- 
itals have been established or have grown up in towns or cities 
already existing. Not so the city of Washington. When, in 
April, 1789, President Washington first entered upon his high 
office, there was no city of Washington. Yet there was to bea 
* Federal City.” The Constitution, framed and signed in 1787, 
provided that Congress might “exercise exclusive legislation 
_ over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as 
may, by Cession of particular States and Acceptance of Congress, 
become the Seat of the Government of the United States.” 

Under this authority Congress, by a law enacted on January 
16, 1790, and amended July 16 following, selected the present 
locality on the banks of the Potomae. 

Down to 25 years ago there was talk from time to time of 
moving the capital to a more central location. The discussers 
rarely or never, however, gave evidence of any acquaintance 
with the labor involved or’ the traditions of the compromise 
which resulted in the selection of the present site. Whoever 
will take the trouble to learn what it cost to do this will be 
either a very bold or a very foolish man to hope or expect that 
a removal of the capital is possible. 

The original grant by Virginia and Maryland, accepted by 
Congress in 1790 as the permanent seat of Government, con- 
sisted of a tract of 100 square miles, lying on both sides of the 
Potomac river. Under the direction of three Commissioners, 
appointed by Washington, this tract was surveyed by Major 
Andrew Ellicott in 1791. The boundary was traversed, chained. 
and cleared of timber and a topographic map prepared of the 
100 square miles comprised within these boundary lines. As 
the survey approached completion in the autumn of 1751, Elli- 
cott asked the Commissioners for the title or name to go on the 
map; whereupon the Commissioners formally passed on the 


326 THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF 


matter. They answered, ‘The City of Washington, in the Ter- 
ritory of Columbia.” Thus the “ City of Washington,” as yet an 
airy nothing, but with a local habitation in the ‘‘ Territory of 
Columbia,” now received a name. This was in 1791. Yet it 
took time to get the names into use. The imaginary city con- 
tinued to be referred to chiefly as a jest under the old descrip- 
tive phrase, Federal City. When in 1792 the boundary monu- 
ments were set along the Maryland part of the District boundary 
line the word Maryland was cut upon that side of each stone 
which faced Maryland, but upon the side which faced what we 
now call the District of Columbia the word Columbia does not 
appear. Instead of it there appears in clear, large, and deep-cut 
letters the words “ Jurisdiction of the United States.” Obviously 
this fact, rather than a name, was uppermost in the minds of the 
Commissioners in 1791. And this fact is still unique in the his- 
tory of all capitals. Congress legislates for the District of Co- 
lumbia absolutely, and thus we have for the national capital this 
curious anomaly. It is legislated for, taxed, managed, controlled, 
and governed by the united voices of all the voters of the United 
States except its own. The citizens of Washington itself are the 
only ones in the United States who are by law deprived of all 
voice as to the management or control of Washington affairs. 
And what seems stranger still, these strange Washingtonians are 
well content with this hard fate,and would, it is believed, refuse 
to change it even if they had the power. 

Washington, it must be remembered, differs from other cities 
because it was intended to be different. Its site, when choice 
was made, is described as a wilderness, and for more than half 
a century did not cease to be ridiculed as such; and the plan 
of the city was completely drawn out on paper and marked out 
on the ground before any buildings appeared—just as happens 
with modern boom towns, but with this difference: In the boom 
town the real estate speculation is the main motive ; in the found- 
ing of the nation’s capital it was only an incident, and an inci- 
dent which Jefferson strove to minimize by letting out either 
none or misleading information as to plans for public buildings 
and “appropriations,” as tracts reserved for the general govern- 
ment were called. 

The plan for the city was drawn up by a French engineer, 
Major Pierre Charles L’ Enfant, and his plans were doubtless ex- 
amined, criticised, and approved by Washington. His original 
manuscript map, now faded and worn, isin the War Department 


THE NATIONAL CAPITAL O27 


in the custody of the Chief of Engineers. Some ten years ago this 
now precious manuscript was taken to the Coast Survey office, 
where it was carefully traced, photolithographed, and published. 
Copies of it are (or were) obtainable at the Coast Survey office. 
This map may be said to represent Washington in embryo. 
Great praise is due to the proud L’Enfant for the part he took in 
designing the city; but his zeal, his pride, and his impetuosity 
soon brought a rupture; his services were dispensed with; the 
pay tendered him was spurned as unworthy of him. His remains 
rest in an unmarked grave in private grounds in the northeastern 
suburbs of the city. The relative credit due to L’Enfant and to 
Ellicott for the part taken by each in designing and laying out 
the city is still a mooted question, and the disagreement as to 
this is doubtless the reason why to this day no suitable public 
recognition of their services has ever been made. 

The interval between 1791 and 1800 was spent in erecting pub- 
lic buildings—“ the President’s House,” “‘ the Congress House,” 
and others. In 1800 the government records were all brought 
over from Philadelphia. On June 15 the public offices were ~ 
first opened. Thus June 15, 1900, will be a suitable day for < 
public holiday in Washington for commemoration and retro- 
spect. Men still live in-Washington whose fathers served the 
United States in Philadelphia and who followed that little bunch 
of records—the entire archives of the Republic—to the imagin- 
ary city in the real wilderness on the Potomac, nearly a century 
ago. 

According to the census of 1800, the “inhabitants of the city 
of Washington numbered 3,210 souls.” Down to 1850 or later 
Washington continued to bea great straggling village. It grew, 
but it grew slowly. The foreign ambassador whose assignment 
brought him to Washington was prone to feel that he was ban- 
ished. No pavements, no water supply save from pumps in 
wells scattered here and there, no sewerage system, no street 
cars, few schools and poor, and distances ‘‘ magnificently great.” 
Indeed, Washington’s greatness still existed chiefly in the imag- 
ination of its projectors. No manufactures brought workmen 
here; it was not a commercial center. Indeed, it might be 
likened to a great straggling college town, where all life is de- 
rived either at first or second hand from the college. So here 
there grew up about the government offices boarding-houses for 
the transients and shopkeepers to supply the boarding-houses. 

The war of 1812 had made little impress on the capital. The 


328 THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF 


British troops occupied the city for a few hours in August, 1814, 
burned the White House, set fire to the Capitol, and retired. 
But the civil war, 1861-1865, had a very different effect and 
made a lasting impress. Washington for four years was one: 
ereat military camp and hospital. A cordon of earthworks 
many miles in extent surrounded the city. Bluecoats were 
everywhere, and the passing of endless trains of bronzed veter- 
ans, of sick and wounded, of artillery, of supplies, was too com- 
mona sight to attract either notice or comment. Into this camp 
there came by railroad one evening Mrs Julia Ward Howe. 
Long abominating slavery, she saw in all this stern turmoil the 
fruition of the abolitionists’ hope, and that out of this war was 
to emerge freedom for black and white alike. From the car 
windows could be seen the camp-fires stretching miles away. 
After making a round of visits to various camps, the following 
day she returned to her hotel, her heart all on fire, and there 
wrote that immortal Battle Hymn of the Republic, beginning— 


Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord, 
He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored. 


Recalling the circumstances under which the lines were penned, 
we can the better understand such a line as this: 


I have seen Him in the watch-fires of a hundred circling camps. 


But the war ended at last. During it even Pennsylvania 
avenue, a street now as widely and as favorably known as any 
_ in the world, was at times a veritable mud-hole, wherein artil- 
lery and wagon trains sometimes stalled. The ‘ White lot” 
and the “Monument grounds ” ceased to be used for slaughtering 
cattle for the army; the great mule-drawn wagons no longer 
went daily to the Capitol for the tons of bread baked in the little 
rooms under its west steps; the churches no longer housed the 
war-mangled and disease-stricken, and the war scars about the 
city began quickly to heal. The unsightliness of the half-fin- 
ished dome of the Capitol faded with its completion. The tract 
of neglected undergrowth and wild woods, with its surrounding 
dilapidated picket fence, was transformed into the park which 
now faces the east front of the Capitol. The Washington mon- 
ument, which all during and for years after the war stood as an 
unsightly stump surmounted by wooden scaffolding, grew to a 
stately shaft, a thing of beauty, and the débris and litter which 
for twenty years or more had cumbered the ground at its base 


THE NATIONAL CAPITAL 329 


at last vanished. The old system of schools gave way to the new 
and in 1876 Washington for the first time had a high school. Its 
Baptist college, now Columbian University with 1,000 students, 
dates from 1821, while the Jesuit college in Georgetown is yet 
older. 

The unique character of Washington and of its attractions 
steadily grows. Little by little with passing years men and 
women so circumstanced that they may live where they will 
select Washington fora home. ‘The opportunities it affords for 
much of all that makes life attractive have been well expressed 
by one who has come to abide here: “ Four years in Washing- 
ton to one who will take what may be had for the taking, 
much less the asking, is equivalent to a college education.” 


GEOGRAPHIC WORK OF THE GENERAL GOVERNMENT 


By Henry GANNETT, 


United States Geological Survey G 


The United States is engaged, through the agency of a num- 
ber of bureaus and departments, in extensive geographic work, 
both within its own borders and in various parts of the world. 
The results of this work are embodied in maps, charts, and re- 
ports, which furnish a vast amount of information; indeed, 
these form the principal original source of information regard- 
ing the geography of the United States in all its aspects—topo- 
graphic, climatic, geologic, biologic, and industrial. Many of 
these reports and maps are furnished free, while others are, 
under the law, to be obtained only by purchase. 

The following are the principal bureaus and departments 
which are engaged in geographic work: 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Hydrographic Office, U. S. Navy. 

Engineer Corps, U. 8. Army. 

Geological Survey. 

General Land Office. 

Weather Bureau, Biological Survey, and other divisions of the De- 
partment of Agriculture. 

Smithsonian Institution and its dependencies. 

Fish Commission. 

Light-house Board. 

Bureau of American Republics. 

Intercontinental Railway Commission. 


330 GHOGRAPHIC WORK OF GENERAL GOVERNMENT 


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


The Geological Survey is charged by law with the examina- 
tion of the geological structure, the mineral resources, and with 
the classification of the public lands of the United States. It 
was organized in 1879, upon the discontinuance of the Hayden, 
Wheeler, and Powell surveys of the Rocky Mountain region. 

As the successful prosecution of the work confided to it re- 
quired the possession of accurate topographic maps, the prepa- 
ration of such maps was commenced in 1882, and a large pro- 
portion of the appropriations for the Survey have been devoted 
to this work. 

The work of the Survey, as at present organized, is as follows: 

The preparation of topographic maps. 

The preparation of geologic maps. 

The technical and statistical study of mineral resources. 

The study of the water resources of the arid region. 

The examination of the forests of the west. 

Chemistry and paleontology as accessories to the geologic work. 


The Geological Survey began, in 1882, the construction of a 
topographic map of the country. The work has now been in 
progress 16 years, and about 650,000 square miles have been 
mapped. The areas shown on these maps are scattered widely 
over the country, and represent a great variety of topographic 
features, and the map sheets can be used to illustrate topographic 
forms. These maps differ in scale. Some of them are on the scale 
1 : 62.500, which is very nearly one mile to one inch. Another 
scale is 1: 125,000, which is very nearly two miles to one inch, 
and a third scale is 1 : 250,000, or nearly four miles to one inch. 

Sheets.—For convenience this map is published in sheets of 
nearly uniform size, the portion of the sheet covered by the map- 
ping being usually 172 inches in height, with a breadth ranging, 
according to latitude, from 12% to 15 inches. Each sheet on the 
scale 1: 250,000 includes what is commonly called a “square 
degree,” an area one degree in extent in each dimension (for in- 
stance, latitude 40° to 41° and longitude 90° to 91°). <A sheet 
on the scale 1 : 125,000, which is of approximately the same size, 
includes a tract of country 30’ in latitude by 30’ in longitude, or 
one-fourth of a square degree, and a sheet on the largest scale, 
1 : 62,500, includes an area 15’ in latitude by 15’ in longitude, or 
one-sixteenth of a square degree. 

Contents—This map shows features which, for convenience, 


GHOGRAPHIC WORK OF GENERAL GOVERNMENT 3: 


Qo 
— 


may be classed in three groups, viz: water features, including 
the sea, lakes, ponds, rivers and other natural streams, and canals 
and irrigation ditches ; land features, including mountains, hills, 
and valleys; and cultural features, or the works of man, such as 
towns and cities, roads, railroads, boundaries, and names. 

Water featwres.—All water features are shown in blue, the 
smaller streams and canals'in full blue lines, and the larger 
streams, lakes, and the sea by wavy blue lining. Certain streams, 
however, flow only a part of the year, being dry at other times, 
and such streams are shown not by full lines, but by dotted blue 
lines. Fresh-water marshes and swamps are shown by broken 
horizontal lining, interspersed with tufts of blue. Salt-water 
marshes are shown simply by horizontal blue lining. 

Cultuwre-—The works of man are shown on the map in black, 
in which color also is printed the lettering. They are enumer- 
ated,and the characters used to represent them are given in what 
is called the legend at the side of the map. 

Land features.—The land features, commonly called the relief, 
include all the variations of the surface, the alternation of moun- 
tain and valley, plateau and canyon, hill and plain. ‘These 
features are represented by means of contour lines, or lines of 
equal elevation above the,level of the sea. The line of sea-coast 
itself is a contour line—the line at zero elevation. The contour 
line at, say, 20 feet above sea-level is the line which would be the 
sea-coast, if the sea were to rise or the land to sink 20 feet. Such 
a line would run back up the valleys and forward around the 
points of hills and spurs. On a gentle slope this 20-foot contour 
line would be far from the present sea-level, while on a steep 
slope it would be very close to it. So a succession of these con- 
tour lines, one above another, with equal vertical spaces between 
them, would, if they were far apart on the map, indicate a gentle 
slope; if they were close together, a steep slope; and if they 
were run into a single line, as if they were on top of one an- 
other, they would indicate a cliff. The contour lines of any 
region, when represented on a map, show the elevation of any 
part of the map above the sea. They also show the slopes of 
the ground and the forms of the mountains, hills, and valleys; 
in short, of all the relief features. These contour lines are 
printed in brown. 

The geological work proper of the Survey consists in a study 
of the rock formations and in the mapping of their extent and 
form. The results are published in annual reports, in mono- 
graphs, and in geological folios. 


3382 GEOGRAPHIC WORK OF GENERAL GOVERNMENT 


The Division of Hydrography in the Geological Survey has in 
charge the examination of the water resources of the United 
States, both above and under ground. Measurements are made 
of the amount of water discharged by various rivers in different 
parts of the United States, and from the facts thus obtained 
computations are had of the daily flow, thus giving the fluctu- 
ations through periods of seasons and years. At the same time, 
a careful study is carried on in certain localities of the geologic 
structure with especial reference to the ability of the rocks to 
receive and transmit water, and, where practicable, maps are 
prepared showing the depth of the principal water-bearing strata, 
so that it is possible for any person to form a fairly definite idea 
as to the probability of obtaining supphes for various purposes. 
The economic bearing of information of this character is readily 
recognized when consideration is had of questions of develop- 
ment of water-power, the supplying of cities or country homes 
with water, or the extension of agriculture through irrigation. 
In the west, where the farmer must apply water artificially be- 
fore a crop can be raised, it is obvious that the supply must be 
ascertained before a great extension of tilled land can be possi- 
ble. We know that the amount of water available in the arid 
region is far less than the demands made upon it; so much so 
that it may be said that all land value depends upon the water 
supply. The United States, being the great landowner, has 
before it the problem of the reclamation of this vast extent of 
fertile country, and each citizen, as part owner, is concerned in 
seeing that the largest use is made of the water. 

The Forest Division is engaged in making an examination of 
the forest reserves in the west, with a view to learning the amount 
of timber contained therein, the distribution of species, the con- 
ditions of growth,and a large group of facts essential for the proper 
management of these reserves. It is engaged further in the col- 
lection of statistics for standing timber throughout the west. 

The first report of this division will appear as a part of the 
Annual Report of the Survey for the past year, and will be ac- 
companied by a portfolio of maps. 

The Division of Statistics collects the statistics of production 
of metals and minerals and publishes the results in an annual 
report. 

The publications of the Survey consist of atlas sheets and other 
maps, geological folios, annual reports, bulletins, and mono- 
graphs. The atlas sheets are sold individually at five cents, or 


GEOGRAPHIC WORK OF GENERAL GOVERNMENT — 333 


two dollars per hundred. Other maps are sold at different prices, 
depending upon their size. The annual reports are free to apph- 
eants. The monographs and bulletins are, under the law, sold 
at certain stated prices. 


SMITIHISONIAN INSTITUTION AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 


The Smithsonian Institution was created in 1846, under the 
provisions of a bequest by James Smithson, and has since been 
maintained by use of the interest on the sum originally be- 
queathed and the various additions made subsequently. Ac- 
cordingly the work of the Institution is not conducted under the 
auspices of the government, though the fund is administered 
by a regency appointed by the government, and different lines 
of scientific work undertaken by the government have been from 
time to time conducted under the direction of the Institution. 

During its earlier years the Smithsonian Institution gave 
much attention to the encouragement of geographic work and 
began a series of meteorologic observations now continued in 
the Weather Bureau. It also promoted geologic work and 
aided in the establishment of the Federal Geological Surveys. 
Throughout it has been the policy of the Institution to initiate 
lines of scientific work of public importance, to maintain them 
until their importance came to be recognized, and then to trans- 
fer them to the general government. In carrying out this policy 
the Institution has contributed in large measure to the develop- 
ment of the scientific institutions of the National Capital. 

There are now three federal bureaus connected with the 
Smithsonian Institution, but maintained by federal appropri- 
ations, viz., the United States National Museum, the National 
Zoological Park, and the Bureau of American Ethnology. The 
National Museum issues an annual report and other publica- 
tions relating to its work and the collections made and displayed, 
while the superintendent of the Zoological Park issues an annual 
report in connection with that of the Institution. No surveys 
or extensive field researches are made by these bureaus. 

The Bureau of American Ethnology is engaged in researches 
relating to the American Indians, its operations extending over 
the United States and other American territory, and the distri- 
bution of the aborigines being mapped from time to time. It 
issues annual reports, which are well illustrated and commonly 
accompanied by maps; these are distributed chiefly by Congress. 


334 GEOGRAPHIC WORK OF GENERAL GOVERNMENT 


THE CENSUS 


The Census Office is a temporary organization created for the 
purpose of taking the decennial census. The census obtains sta- 
tistics regarding population, including age, sex, race, nativity, 
and, in the case of native-born, the state of birth and the occu- 
pations of the people; it obtains statistics of illiteracy and edu- 
cation, of mortality, of the insane, deaf, dumb, and blind, and 
other social statistics ; 1t obtains statistics of industries, includ- 
ing under the head of agriculture the number, size, and value 
of farms, the amount of cultivated land, the magnitude of all 
principal crops, amount of live stock, etc.; under the head of 
manufactures the number of each kind of establishments, with 
their capital, material used, product, and employés ; under the 
head of mining it obtains statistics of the number of mines and — 
their character and product ; under the head of transportation 
it obtains statistics concerning the operations of railroads (includ- 
ing street railroads), canals and navigation, coastwise and on our 
lakes and rivers. The results are published in a series of quarto 
volumes, and are summarized in a compendium and in an ab- 
stract. They are further summarized, mainly in pictorial form, 
in a statistical atlas. All these publications can be obtained 
on application to the Secretary of the Interior. 


HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE 


This is a branch of the Navy Department and is in charge of 
a naval officer, known as the hydrographer. The function of 
this office is to prepare from the best available sources and to 
publish charts of foreign coasts for the use of our navy and the 
merchant marine. 

Besides this work, the office is engaged in a study of terres- 
trial magnetism and its distribution over the earth, as an aid to 
the navigator, and in the study of marine meteorology and 
ocean currents. 

The navy has charted great extents of coast of barbarous na- 
tions, and the results have been published by this office. It has 
also made valuable contributions to our knowledge of the sea 
bottom, particularly in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean sea, 
by deep-sea soundings. 

The charts published by this office are sold at prices differing 
with the size of the chart. 


GHOGRAPHIC WORK OF GENERAL GOVERNMENT ~ 335 


GENERAL LAND OFFICE 


This office is charged with all matters relating to the disposal 
of the public lands. In pursuance of this duty its first function 
is to subdivide these lands into parcels suitable for sale or other 
mode of disposition. The method of subdivision of the public 
lands has been, in its main features, a consistent one from the 
beginning. The land is divided by survey into townships six 
miles square, and each of these into sections of one square mile. 
These sections may be in turn ‘subdivided. This work is done 
in the main by contract, at certain rates per linear mile. The 
surveyors are required to prepare and file maps or plats of the 
townships subdivided, and thus there has accumulated in the 
Land Office a vast body of maps, representing an area of overa 
million square miles. These maps are upon the uniform scale 
of two inches to one mile, but they are of varying degrees of ex- 
cellence. From these plats the Land Office compiles and pub- 
lishes state maps, at present upon a uniform scale of twelve miles 
to an inch, and these maps form the basis of most of the atlas 
mapsinuse. Besides this series the Land Office compiles a map 
of the entire United States, upon a scale of about forty miles to 
one inch. The state maps can be obtained upon application to 
the Commissioner of the General Land Office. The United States 
maps are sold at a price of $1.00. 

Besides this work of subdivision, with the resulting maps, 
this office superintends the survey of the state and territorial 
boundaries. 


THE LIGHT-HOUSE ESTABLISHMENT 


The Light-house establishment is in charge of the Light-house 
Board, under the Secretary of the Treasury. Its duties are to 
maintain upon the coast, lake shores, and navigable rivers a 
system of lights and buoys for the guidance of mariners. 


COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY 


This organization was created by Congress in 1807, but little 
work was done under this act until 1832. Since that time the 
Coast Survey has been in continuous operation. It is charged 
with the survey of the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts of the 
United States, including rivers to the head of tide-water or ship 
navigation. It has carried on extensive deep-sea soundings, to- 
gether with temperature and current observations, especially in 


336 GEOGRAPHIC WORK OF GENERAL GOVERNMENT 


that part of the Atlantic traversed by the Gulf stream. It con- 
ducts also magnetic observations for the determination of the 
direction, dip, and force of the earth’s magnetism, and measures 
the force of gravity by means of the pendulum. It is carrying 
on accurate triangulation in the interior of the country, having 
already completed a belt across the continent from east to west, 
together with a large amount of similar work done in aid of 
state surveys. In addition to this triangulation in the interior, 
lines of accurate levels have been run over many thousands of 
miles. 

The results of this work are published in the form of charts of 
the coast upon various scales, upon some of which the relief is 
represented by hachures, upon others by contours. ‘These 
charts are sold at prices differing with the size of the chart. 
There are also published annual reports, in which are contained 
papers upon geographic subjects pertaining to the work of the 
Survey. 

CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U. S. A. 


The War Department carries on a great variety of geographic 
work, mainly through its Corps of Engineers. By this office 
has been executed a complete survey of the shores of the Great 
Lakes and of the St Lawrence. The charts resulting from this 
survey are upon various scales, dependent upon the needs of 
navigators, and are sold at prices differing with the size of the 
chart. The Mississippi and Missouri River Commissions are in 
the nature of advisory boards to the Chief of Engineers. By the 
Mississippi River Commission that river has been mapped from 
its mouth far up into Illinois and the results published upon 
various scales, the largest being 1 : 20,000, in contours; another 
on a scale of one mile to an inch, while the whole alluvial region 
of the Mississippi, from Cairo to the Gulf, has been issued in 
one large map, on a scale of four miles to an inch, in eight 
sheets. 

The Missouri River Commission has mapped that river from 
its mouth to the Three Forks, in Montana, publishing the maps 
upon various scales, ranging from one mile to an inch upward. 

The Engineer Corps has mapped also the Ohio river from 
Pittsburg to its mouth, the Arkansas, Red, White, and Yellow- 
stone rivers. Copies of these maps can be obtained by applica- 
tion to the Chief of Engineers. 

To this organization has been entrusted also the survey of 
parts of our international boundary. 


GEOGRAPHIC WORK OF GENERAL GOVERNMENT 337 


Between 1867 and 1878 extensive surveys and explorations of 
the west were made under Maj. George M. Wheeler. Of many 
parts of the west the maps prepared by this organization are the 
only ones to be obtained. They were published upon a scale 
of fourand eight miles to an inch, in hachures. ‘These maps are 
now extremely scarce and difficult to obtain. 

The Corps of Engineers is charged with the improvement of 
harbors and rivers, in aid of navigation, and in pursuance of this 
work it has carried on extensive surveys, but mainly of small 
areas. The resulting maps are published in the annual reports 
of that office, which can be obtained from the Chief of Engineers. 


WEATHER BUREAU AND OTHER OFFICES AND DIVISIONS OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 


The primary function of the Weather Bureau is to predict the 
weather. This work requires the constant maintenance of hun- 
dreds of meteorological stations, scattered over the country, at 
which continuous observations of pressure, temperature, rain- 
fall, humidity, and winds are made, thus furnishing the material 
for an exhaustive description of the climatology of the country. 
It involves also an exhaustive study of the science of meteor- 
ology. It includes also a’close watch of the great rivers for the 
purpose of predicting floods. 

The publications of this office are voluminous. ‘They consist 
of a weather map, published daily, showing the climatic condi- 
tions prevailing in all parts of the country on that morning; 
weekly weather maps, showing summaries of the conditions; a 
monthly weather review -and annual reports. In addition to 
these, bulletins are published containing treatises on meteor- 
ologic and chmatologic subjects, summaries of statistics, etc. 
All these may be obtained on application to the Chief of the 
Weather Bureau. 

Besides the Weather Bureau, the Department of Agriculture 
contains a number of divisions and offices, much of whose work 
is geographic. The Biological Survey, the Divisions of Forestry, 
Botany, Agrostology, Entomology, and Pomology are concerned, 
in great part, with the distribution of life in the country, and in 
so far their work is geographic. 

The Biological Survey studies the geographic distribution of 
animals and plants, and maps the natural life zones of the coun- 
try, besides investigating the economic relations of birds and 
mammals. 


op 
23 


338 GHOGRAPHIC WORK OF GENERAL GOVERNMENT 


The Division of Forestry is engaged in the study of sylvicul- 
ture, and in the management, protection, and utilization of our 
forests. 

The Division of Agrostology investigates the natural history, 
geographic distribution, and uses of grasses and other forage 
plants. 

The Division of Botany investigates the purity and value of 
seeds, methods of controlling the spread of weeds or preventing 
their introduction. It studies the native plant resources of the 
country. 

The Division of Entomology studies insects injurious to vege- 
tation, their distribution and spread, and the methods for reduc- 
ing their ravages. 

The Division of Pomology has to do with the culture of fruits. 

The publications of this department are of three classes: 
first, serial publications; second, scientific and technical reports. 
These two classes are issued in limited editions and are not in- 
tended for general distribution, being particularly designed for 
libraries, institutions of learning, and scientific students. Third, 
popular bulletins, which are issued in large editions and are sent 
free to applicants. Lists of the publications are sent on appli- 
cation. 

FISH COMMISSION 


This office was created for the purpose of maintaining and in- 
creasing the supply of food fishes, both upon our shores and in 
our rivers. As a necessary adjunct to this work, exhaustive 
studies are being made of the life history of fishes and of their 
distribution. The publications of the Fish Commission consist 
of an annual report. 


BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS 


The function of this Bureau is to obtain and publish com- 
mercial information concerning the American republics. Its 
publications consist of handbooks of these countries, a monthly 
bulletin containing the latest information regarding their re- 
sources and commerce, and a commercial directory. 


INTERCONTINENTAL RAILWAY COMMISSION 


This Commission was formed for the purpose of examining 
the best routes for an intercontinental railway to connect the 
United States with the republics of Central and South America. 
Its work is completed and reports and maps will shortly be 
issued. 


iP GeOvroeGiG AtTwAsS OF TE UNITED: SVAGES 


In the course of his study of the elements of greatness of na- 
tions, Buckle concluded that there are three normal stages in 
national development—the stage of agriculture, followed first by 
the stage of manufacture and eventually by the stage of foreign 
commerce. Buckle’s conclusions were based on the study of 
nations confined by territorial limits, and so situated as to derive 
support through commerce with other nations of different re- 
sources and (generally) inferior intelligence and industry. Since 
Buckle’s time the population of the world has increased and 
spread far beyond his realization, and new factors have been in- 
troduced in the problems of statecraft. This is particularly true 
of the First Republic of America, which controls a vast territory 
and possesses within itself nearly every necessary resource. By 
reason of the new conditions, the actual history of this republic 
has become a great object lesson in statecraft ; and the experience 
of the nation, built as it were on a new foundation, has wrought 
out conclusions of even weightier significance than those of Buckle. 
One of these conclusions is that the nation desiring to progress 
well in the race for success must have within itself the territory 
requisite for agriculture, the resources for manufacture, and the 
facilities for extended commerce, all growing up together and all 
fostered by a single people united in interest and purpose. An_ 
other conclusion wrought out by national history is related to 
those formulated by Buckle; it is that national progress is as- 
sured by increase in intelligent activity on the part of masses 
and leaders alike. With the normal increase of population and 
of national intelligence, the economic problems and the means of 
meeting them gradually change; intensive agriculture makes 
‘““two blades of grass grow where one grew before ” and converts 
coarse vegetal tissue into richer animal food, wholesale manu- 
facture diversifies industries, and abundant commerce at once 
differentiates the individuals and welds their interests into per- 
fect solidarity. Asagriculture grows intensive through more in- 
telligent cultivation, so all industries are made intensive by pres- 
sure of need and reaction of intelligence; and current thought 
adjusts itself to constantly changing conditions. 

A significant expression of the national growth of the United 


339 


340 THE GEOLOGIC ATLAS OF THE UNITED STATES 


States is found in the development of geographic problems and 
results. In earlier decades the geographic work was exploratory, 
and bent toward the discovery and conquest of unknown or little- 
known territory. As time passed, more and more attention was 
given to the resources of the newly discovered valleys and plains, 
mountains and forests; and, now that the exploration of our ter- 
ritory is complete, the efforts of the pioneers are deyoted to dis- 
covery of new resources. This change in purpose, albeit gradual, 
cannot be toa strongly impressed. The earlier work was areal 
and largely limited to the surveys of the land, the present work 
has a vertical element reaching toward the resources of the rocks 
below and the powers of the air and vapor above; the earlier 
studies related to materials, the present investigations relate to 
natural powers and potentialities—in brief, the one sought to 
subjugate matter, the other seeks to make conquest of force. 
Various instrumentalities of national character have contributed 
toward this transformation in beneficent activity, but none have 
contributed more, especially during the last dozen years, than 
the U. 8. Geological Survey. 

During the earlier years of its existence the Geological Survey 
devoted chief attention to topographic surveying and mapping, 
the maps being designed for subsequent use by the geologist; 
and the bureau came to be known favorably throughout the 
country and the world by reason of the extent and excellence of 
the topographic maps. During this period a corps of geologists 
were employed in researches designed partly for the develop- 
ment of a system of classification adapted to the subsequent 
geologic mapping. The two branches of the work were judi- 
ciously codrdinated by Director Powell, so that when the topo- 
graphic surveys were sufficiently advanced in different districts 
the geologists were provided with adequate classific systems, and 
were able to proceed at once to effective geologic work; and 
this coordination has been continued by Director Walcott with 
the normal increase in production of geologic maps. 

The plan of publication adopted by the Survey marks an 
epoch in the history of practical scientific work ; for it is de- 
signed to bring the results of the most advanced scientific re- 
search within the reach of every citizen of the nation, and within 
the mental grasp of every graduate from the public schools of 
America; the plan represents more fully than any hitherto de- 
vised in any country the idea of distributing broadcast among 
the people the rich boon of scientific knowledge. Only a gene- 


VHE GEOLOGIC ATLAS OF THE UNITED STATES o41 


ration ago several of the worl